March 2000 LM3647 Universal Battery Charger for Li-Ion, Ni-MH and Ni-Cd Batteries 1.0 General Description The LM3647 is a charge controller for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion), Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The device can use either a pulsed-current charging or a constant-current charging technique. The device can also be configured to discharge before charging. Throughout the charging sequence the LM3647 monitors voltage and/or temperature and time in order to terminate charging. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Negative delta voltage (-∆V) Maximum voltage Optional: Delta temperature/delta time (∆T/∆t) Optional: Maximum temperature Backup: Maximum time If both voltage and temperature fail to trigger the termination requirements, then the maximum time (configured by external hardware) steps in which terminates the charging. In Ni-Cd/Ni-MH mode, four different charging stages are used: ■ ■ ■ ■ Soft-start charge Fast charge Topping charge Maintenance charge In Li-Ion mode, four different charging stages are used: ■ ■ ■ ■ Qualification Fast Charge Phase 1, Constant Current Fast Charge phase 2, Constant Voltage Maintenance charge The charge current of the LM3647 is configured via external resistors, which in turn controls the duty cycle of the PWM switching control output. For cost-sensitive applications, the LM3647 charge controller can be configured without a temperature sensor and to use an external current source. ©2000 National Semiconductor Corporation When using an external current source, the current is controlled by the LM3647 which turns the current source on and off. The LM3647 automatically detects the presence of a battery and starts the charging procedure when the battery is installed. Whenever an error occurs (e.g., short circuit, temperature too high, temperature too low, bad battery, charge time over, etc.) the LM3647 will stay in error mode until the battery is removed or it gets within the allowed charging temperature range. The LM3647 is available in a standard 20-lead SOIC surface mount package. Key Features ■ Auto-adaptive fast charge ■ High-resolution, accurate voltage monitoring prevents Li-Ion undercharge or overcharge ■ Fast charge, pre-charge and maintenance currents are provided. Different currents are selectable via external resistors. ■ Fast-charge termination by ∆ temperature/∆ time, maximum voltage, maximum temperature, negative ∆ voltage and maximum time ■ Dynamically detects battery insertion, removal, short circuit and bad battery without additional hardware ■ Supports charging of battery packs with 2-8 cells of NiCd/Ni-MH or 1-4 cells of Li-Ion ■ Three LED indicators and Buzzer output indicate operational modes ■ Ni-MH/Ni-Cd charge mode, Li-Ion charge mode or discharge mode can be selected manually ■ PWM switching controller Applications ■ Battery charging systems for: — Portable consumer electronics — Audio/video equipment — Communications equipment — Point of sale devices — Power tools — Personal convenience products www.national.com LM3647 Universal Battery Charger for Li-Ion, Ni-MH and Ni-Cd Batteries PRELIMINARY Typical Application Vcc UNREGULATED DC VOLTAGE (MAX 20V) Vcc PMW LM3647 CS CEL CONTROL POWER Vcc CURRENT Current Source Resistor VOLTAGE NTC LED1 LED2 LED3 BUZZER TEMP TEMPERATURE DISCHG CONFIGURATIONS SEL1 ... SEL4 RCIN 2 BATTERY www.national.com 2. Connection Diagram SEL3 1 20 SEL2 SEL4 2 19 SEL1 RCIN 3 18 PWM GND VCC 4 17 BUZZER 16 RESET 6 15 SYSOK DISCHG LED1 LED2 7 8 14 13 TEMP LED3 9 12 CEL VREF 10 11 CEXT 20-PIN SOIC 5 CS Top View Order Number LM3647IM NS Package Number M20B 2.1 Pin Descriptions Pin No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Name SEL3 SEL4 RCIN GND Vcc RESET LED1 LED2 LED3 VREF CEXT CEL CS TEMP DISCHG SYSOK BUZZER PWM SEL1 SEL2 I/O I I I O O O I I I I O O O O I I Description Input to select charge mode: high = pulse, low = constant Input to select maintenance time out, connected to an RC-network RC-timing pin Ground 5V, power supply Reset pin, active low LED output LED output LED output Voltage reference analog input External Capacitor Battery voltage input (through resistor divider) Current sense input NTC-temperature sensor input High when discharging, else low System Monitor Output Buzzer output PWM-output filtered to a DC-level (controls the current) Tri-level input, used to select charge type Tri-level input, used to select NiCd, NiMH, Li-Ion 2.2 Ordering Information Device Package Temperature LM3647IM 20 SOIC -40˚C to +85˚C 3 www.national.com 3.0 Electrical Characteristics Note: If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/Distributors for availability and specifications. Absolute Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage (VCC) Voltage at Any Pin Total Current into VCC Pin (Source) Total Current out of GND Pin (Sink) Storage Temperature Range 7V –0.3V to VCC + 0.3V 100 mA 110 mA –65˚C to +140˚C Note: Absolute maximum ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. DC and AC electrical specifications are not ensured when operating the device at absolute maximum ratings. DC Electrical Characteristics: -40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C unless otherwise specified Parameter Conditions Operating Voltage Supply Current LED-pin Sink Current Temperature Input Levels Ni-Cd / Ni-MH Upper limit Li-Ion Upper limit Lower Limit Start limit Li-Ion (for both 4.1 and 4.2V Cells) Maintenance Charge Minimum Voltage Maintenance Charge Restart Voltage Good Battery Threshold Maintenance Current Maintenance Current Lower Threshold Minimum Current Fast Charge Termination Qualification Current Maximum Charging Current Ni-Cd/Ni-MH Maximum Battery Voltage Maximum Battery Current Battery Presence Limit Discharged Battery Limit Good Battery Threshold Soft Start Current Topping Charge Current Maintenance Charge Current Min Typ 4.5 Max Units 5.5 V mA mA 2.5 7.5 15 (Voltage at TEMP-pin) (Voltage at TEMP-pin) (Voltage at TEMP-pin) (Voltage at TEMP-pin) 3.15 3.0 0.5 2.2 V V V V (CEL pin) (CEL pin) (CEL pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) 2.6 2.153 1.2 2.3 2.42 2.3 2.3 1.5 V V V V V V V V (CEL pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) (CEL pin) (CEL pin) (CEL pin) 3.017 1.5 1.0 1.7 1.2 V V V V V (Voltage at CS-pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) (Voltage at CS-pin) 2.3 2.3 2.45 V V V V 2.425 2.5 VREF AC Electrical Characteristics Parameter RCIN frequency Fast-PWM frequency Slow-PWM frequency Conditions R = 3.3kΩ, C = 68pF 4 Min Typ 2.5 250 0.1 Max Units MHz Hz Hz www.national.com 4.0 Functional Description 4.1 General The LM3647 can be configured to charge three different types of batteries: Ni-Cd, Ni-MH and Li-Ion. The charger behavior for Ni-Cd and Ni-MH is similar but the charge curves will appear slightly different due to the differences in chemistry. The Ni-Cd/Ni-MH charging algorithm is divided into four phases: Soft Start: The LM3647 detects that a battery is connected and verifies that the temperature is within limit. Charging starts with a current of 0.2C and switches into next phase on timeout. Error termination will be triggered by Maximum Battery Voltage (CEL-pin > 3.017V) or if the battery voltage never reaches the Defective Battery Level (CEL-pin < 1.2V). Fast Charge: Constant current is applied to the battery and the LM3647 monitors voltage and temperature (optional). Switch into next phase will appear as a voltage drop in the charging curve: (Ni-Cd ~ 50mV/cell) and (Ni-MH ~ 17mV/cell). Error termination will be triggered by over-temperature. Topping Charge: A current of 0.2C is applied to the battery for a user defined time (RC network at SEL4) Maintenance Charge: Is user selectable and is a fixed percentage of the Fast Charge rate. Discharge before charge is user selectable. Ni-Cd Charging Curve: Voltage Soft Start Fast Charge Topping Charge Voltage Current Time Qualification Fast Charge Constant Current Fast Charge Constant Voltage Maintenance Charge 4.2 Advanced Pin Descriptions SEL1 is a selection pin to set the LM3647 in different charge behavior. The pin has three states: tied to Vcc, GND, or unconnected (Hi-Z). When the charger is configured to charge Ni-Cd or Ni-MH batteries, this pin determines if the charger discharges the battery before charging or if the charger shall only maintenance charge the battery. When the charger is configured for Li-Ion batteries, this pin determines how the charger behaves during maintenance charge. SEL2 is a selection pin to determine the battery type to be charged. The pin has three states: tied to Vcc (Ni-MH), GND (Ni-Cd), or unconnected (Li-lon). Time Discharge next phase on timeout (~ 1 minute). Error termination will be triggered if the battery voltage does not reach the LiIon Battery Qualification Level (CEL-pin < 1.2V) within one minute. ■ Fast Charge Constant Current: Battery voltage will rise until Maximum Battery Voltage (CEL-pin = 2.675V or 2.74V depending on SEL3) is reached. ■ Fast Charge Constant Voltage: Keeps the voltage constant until the current has decreased below the threshold (CS at 2.3V). ■ Maintenance Charge: Is user selectable and is a fixed percentage of the Fast Charge rate. Maintenance Charge SEL3 is a selection pin used to set charger hardware modes. The pin has two states: tied to Vcc or GND. When configured for Ni-Cd/Ni-MH batteries, this pin determines whether the PWM is fast and has current feedback, or slow and has external current control. When configured for Li-Ion batteries, this pin changes the regulation point for maximum voltage, 2.675V (4.1V Cell) or 2.74V (4.2V Cell). Ni-MH Charging Curve: Voltage Note: SEL3 must be hard wired to Vcc if a charger that supports both Li-Ion and Ni-Cd Ni-MH is implemented. SEL4 is connected to a RC-network that determines the charge time-outs. This RC-network is also connected to the output LED1. Time Discharge Soft Start Fast Charge Topping Charge RCIN is a high-speed timing pin, used to drive the charger at the right frequency connected to a RC-network. Maintenance Charge GND is the ground pin. The Li-Ion charging algorithm is also divided into four phases: ■ Qualification: The LM3647 detects that a battery is connected and verifies that the temperature (optional but highly recommended for safety reasons) is within limit. Charging starts with a current of 0.2C and switches into 5 Vcc is the power-supply pin. This pin should have a 100nF capacitor tied to GND. RESET is a reset pin. LED1 is an active-low output used to indicate charge phase. It is also used when measuring the charge timeout value. www.national.com LED2 is an active-low output used to indicate charge or discharge. It also sends out digitally what the LM3647 has read at the mode selection pins and charge timeout. LED3 is an active-low output used to indicate charge start/ stop and error. VREF is the voltage reference analog input. The LM3647 uses this pin as a reference when measuring the other analog inputs. CEXT is a timing pin used by the LM3647, it must be connected to a low loss capacitor. CEL is an analog input that measures the battery voltage via a resistor divider network. CS is an analog input that is connected to a differential amplifier that measures the voltage over a small current sensing resistor. TEMP is an analog input that is connected to the temperature sensing NTC-resistor (if used). If no temperature sensor is used, the input must be biased to approximate 1.5-2V. DISCHG is a digital output that controls a power-FET that discharges the batteries before charging them. If this function is not used then leave this pin unconnected. SYSOK is an open drain output that resets the LM3647 in the rare case of an internal illegal operating condition. This pin is connected to the RESET pin to increase reliable operation of the device in hostile operating environments (e.g., noisy environments). BUZZER is a digital output that controls a small FET and turns the buzzer on and off. The buzzer must have it’s own oscillator drive circuitry. Resistor network selection Quick Guide: Ni-Cd/Ni-MH No. of Cells 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Normal Max 2.4V 3.6V 4.8V 6V 7.2V 8.4V 9.6V 10.8V 12V 3.7V 5.55V 7.4V 9.25V 11.1V 12.95V 14.8V 16.65V 18.5V R6 R7 16k 62k 15k 11k 30k 5.6k 39k 10k 22k 3.9k PWM is a digital output that controls the charge voltage or turns the external current source on and off (depending on mode-selection). Example: A standard 9V Ni-Cd block battery is composed of 6 small Ni-Cd cells and therefore have a nominal voltage of 7.2V. See table above for resistor values. 4.3 Configurations Li-Ion: 4.3.1 Maximum Battery Voltage The voltage divider network for Li-Ion must be selected with great care for maximum utilization of the batteries. Li-Ion battery cells have a nominal voltage of 3.6V or 3.7V and the maximum voltage per cell is specified at 4.1V or 4.2V respectively. By multiplying the number of battery cells with the maximum cell voltage, it is possible to determine the Maximum Voltage of the Battery Pack. When the maximum battery voltage has been determined, the voltage divider network has to be dimensioned using the following formula: The maximum battery voltage corresponds to the number of battery cells. The resistor network in the figure below scales the battery voltage to a level suitable for the LM3647. For NiCd/Ni-MH batteries the tolerance of the network is not critical, and only defines the maximum battery voltage (which is used as a backup termination method). For Li-Ion batteries the network must be more accurate, and resistors with low tolerances must be used (1% or better). Ni-Cd/Ni-MH: Each battery cell is at nominal voltage 1.2V, but the critical voltage is rather the maximum voltage per cell specified at 1.85V. By multiplying the number of cells with the maximum cell voltage, the Maximum Battery Voltage is achieved. When the maximum battery voltage has been determined, the voltage divider network can be dimensioned using the following formula: R7 MaximumBatteryVoltage × ------------------------- = CEL = 3.017V ( R6 + R7 ) 6 R7 MaximumBatteryVoltage × ------------------------- = CEL = 2.675V ( R6 + R7 ) (2.740V if SEL3 is set to Vcc) The LM3647 supports two different user selectable battery input voltages on the cell pins. These are 2.675V (SEL3 tied to GND) and 2.740V (SEL3 tied to Vcc). This selection pin can be used to configure the charger to handle both 3.6V and 3.7V Li-Ion-cells, without changing resistor values. SEL3 can also be used if there is problem in finding the right values in the resistor network. www.national.com 4.3.3 Charge Current The charge-current is selected by setting the current sensing resistor and the gain of the differential amplification stage. The current sensing resistor (R5) should be dimensioned such that a voltage drop over it is not too small, because the signal will be more susceptible to noise and offsets in the amplification-stage. The resistance should not be too large either (especially in high-current applications), because this will only generate more heat from the component. A suitable value is one that develops about 50mV across the resistor when maximum current flows through it. R1 Resistor network selection Quick Guide: Li-Ion (3.6V cell) No. of Cells 1 2 3 4 R2 Normal Max R6 R7 3.6V 7.2V 10.8V 14.4V 3.675V 7.35V 11.025V 14.7V 16k 62k 27k 22k 30k 30k 7.5k 3.9k Normal Max R6 R7 The current-sensing signal is amplified, inverted and centered on the 2.5V reference by the operational amplifier and fed into the CS pin on the LM3647. The amplification stage must be dimensioned by setting the appropriate ratio between R1 (R3) and R2 (R4). The figure below is dimensioned for a maximum current of about 1.1A. This was dimensioned using the following formula: 3.7V 7.4V 11.1V 14.8V 3.74V 7.48V 11.22V 14.96V 16k 62k 27k 22k 30k 30k 7.5k 3.9k ( R2 ) ⁄ ( R1 ) MaxCurrent = --------------------------R5 R1 = R3 R2 = R4 R2 = 5.1kΩ R1 = 100kΩ R5 = 0.047Ω Li-Ion (3.7V cell) No. of Cells 1 2 3 4 4.3.2 Charge Timeout The LM3647 uses the charge timeout value as a backup termination method if the normal termination methods fail. The charge timeout also controls the length of some of the phases, (e.g., the Topping Charge phase). The timeout is selectable between a charge rate of 3.2C down to 0.4C. The table below shows R-C values and their resulting timeout. R Value C Value Appropriate Charge Rates 100 kΩ 100 kΩ 100 kΩ 100 kΩ 100 kΩ 100 kΩ 100 kΩ 100 kΩ internal 10 nF 15 nF 22 nF 33 nF 47 nF 68 nF 100 nF 3.2C 2.4C 1.4C 1.2C 0.9C 0.7C 0.5C 0.4C MaxCurrent ≈ 1.09 Ampere 4.3.4 Dimensioning the reset circuitry The reset-circuitry is designed to hold the RESET-pin until the power supply to the LM3647 has stabilized. The RC-network (R21 and C4) should be dimensioned in the following way: ( R21 × C4 ) > 5xPowerSupplyRiseTime The diode D2 discharges the capacitance C4 when power loss occurs. The resistor R20 is used to protect the SYSOKpin, and its value is not critical (typical value is 2kΩ). The con- 7 www.national.com nection between RESET and SYSOK is optional but highly recommended for safe operation of the LM3647. The resistor R7 keeps the transistor Q2 off until the LM3647 has been powered up and is in control of the circuitry. 4.3.7 BUZZER output circuitry 4.3.5 Dimensioning the RCIN circuitry The RC-circuitry is designed to time the charger so it charges and regulates at the correct frequency. The values of the R and C are important, because a change in the RC-value gives a higher or lower operating frequency which affects charge quality. The capacitance should be a ceramic type and preferably an NP0 type, which gives the least frequency deviation with temperature change. The buzzer-circuitry turns the transistor Q3 on when the buzzer should sound. If the current consumption for the buzzer is lower than 0.3mA then the buzzer may be directly connected to the BUZZER-pin. Please note that the BUZZERpin does not generate a PWM-signal, such buzzers must have their own drive-circuitry. If an electromagnetic buzzer is used, then the transistor may need a reverse-biased diode to protect it from harmful voltage spikes. Q3 4.3.6 Dimensioning the DISCHARGE circuitry The discharge-circuitry controls the discharge rate during the discharge phase (if used). The discharge output turns on the transistor Q2, and a current flows from the battery through the discharge resistor R8. The current through R8 depends on battery voltage and the value of R8. This value depends on the maximum discharge rate for the battery-pack. The approximate value can be calculated using the formula below: 4.3.8 PWM filter circuitry The PWM-pin can either output a fast PWM-signal, or a slow on/off output (for controlling external constant current source, Ni-Cd/Ni-MH mode only). Fast PWM-mode: The RC-network R6, C9 and R5, C1||C2 lowpass-filters the PWM-signal from the LM3647 to a DC-level that is fed into the operational amplifier. The resistor R22 is required to prevent DC-output before the LM3647 has control of the RC-networks. MaximumBatteryVoltage R8 ≈ ------------------------------------------------------------------MaximumDisch arg eRate 8 www.national.com The PWM duty cycle for the different charge cycles are listed below: CURRENT-LIMITER PWM R6 R5 10k 10k C9 1uF R22 10k Charge Phase: DC-PWM C1 1uF PWM Duty Cycle: Soft Start Fast Charge Topping Charge Maintenance Charge C2 1uF 10% 100% 10% 5% 4.3.9 User Interface The user interface consists of three LEDs and one buzzer. The LEDs have four different states: Slow PWM-mode: The PWM-pin turns the external current source on and off at a rate of 0.1Hz. (This example is just one of many possible design solutions.) The PWM-pin (SLOW_PWM) turns the transistor Q1 on and off. When the transistor is off the current source is on, and when the transistor is on the current source is off (V_OUT at approximate 0.7V). The value of R1 depends on the size of the charge current (see formula): I out = 1.25 - Vd R1 On, off, slow flash (~1 Hz) and fast flash (~10 Hz). The buzzer has three different states: off, one short beep (~100ms) and one long beep (~1s). The user interface is designed in a flexible way. Use of the buzzer or the LEDs is optional, depending on design requirements. It is possible to use the LM3647 with one, two or all three LEDs. A single Charged Status LED can be implemented with a 2input NAND gate on LED1 and LED3. In this implemention, note that a pull-up resistor is required on LED1 and LED3. Vd = Voltage Drop Across D1 Ni-Cd/Ni-MH User Interface Scheme Charge phase LED1 status LED2 status LED3 status Buzzer status No battery Off Off Off Off New battery / Temp-test Fast flash Off Off Short beep Softstart charge Slow flash Off Off Off Charging On Slow flash Off Off Topping charge On Fast flash Off Off Maintenance On Off On Long beep Discharge Off Slow flash Off Off Temperature error 2 Fast flashes Off On Short beep Error Fast flash Off Fast flash Short beep 9 www.national.com Li-Ion User Interface Scheme Charge phase LED1 status LED2 status LED3 status Buzzer status No battery Off Off Off Off New battery / Temp-test Fast flash Off Off Short beep Qualification charge Slow flash Off Off Off Charging CC On Slow flash Off Off Charging CV On Fast flash Off Off Maintenance On Off On Long beep Temperature error 2 Fast flashes Off On Short beep Error Fast flash Off Fast flash Short beep 10 www.national.com 4.4 Typical Circuit Configurations 4.4.1 Common Circuitry used for both Ni-Cd/Ni-MH and Li-Ion 11 www.national.com 4.4.2 Circuitry used only for Ni-Cd/Ni-MH 12 www.national.com 4.4.3 Circuitry used for Li-Ion (can also be used for Ni-Cd and Ni-MH if those chemestries are to be supported with the same charger) Note: D7 is required to protect Q4 from reverse current. 13 www.national.com Figure 1. Li-lon Charger Application UNREGULATED_DC (MAX20V) 4.4.4 Li-Ion Application Example 14 14 www.national.com Figure 2. Ni-Cd/NiMH Charger Application UNREGULATED_DC (MAX20V) 4.4.5 Ni-Cd/Ni-MH, Application Example 15 15 www.national.com 4.5 Recommended dimensioning for the NTC The voltage at TEMP-input must be between 2.2V and 0.5V for the charger to start. While charging the voltage, must stay between 3.0V (maximum temperature) for Li-Ion, or 3.15V (maximum temperature) for Ni-Cd/Ni-MH, and 0.5V (mini- mum temperature) or the charger will register a temperature fault and abort the charge. These voltages correspond to the upper and lower limits for the battery pack temperature. When no NTC is used the TEMP-input pin must be biased to a voltage level between 2.2V and 0.5V. Voltage at Temperature input Typical configuration curve, (NTC characteristics: 3kΩ @ 25°C, β=3988: 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Temperature in °C 16 www.national.com LM3647 Universal Battery Charger for Li-Ion, Ni-MH and Ni-Cd Batteries Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted Molded SO Wide Body Package (WM) Order Number LM3647IM See NS Package Number M20B LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform, when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Francais Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Response Group Tel: 65-254-4466 Fax: 65-250-4466 Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: 81-3-5620-6175 Fax: 81-3-5620-6179 www.national.com National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied, and National reserves the right, at any time without notice, to change said circuitry or specification.