CYPRESS CYIS1SM0250-EVAL

CYIS1SM0250-AA
CYIS1SM0250-AA STAR250 250K Pixel
Radiation Hard CMOS Image Sensor
Overview
Features
(continued)
Parameter
The STAR250 sensor is a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, designed
for application in Optical Inter-Satellite Link beam trackers. The
STAR250 is part of broader range of applications including
space-borne systems such as sun sensing and star tracking. It
features 512 by 512 pixels on a 25 μm pitch, on chip Fixed
Pattern Noise (FPN) correction, a programmable gain amplifier,
and a 10-bit ADC. Flexible operating (multiple windowing,
subsampling) is possible by direct addressable X and Y
registers.
Gamma Total Dose
Radiation tolerance
Typical Value
Increase in average dark current
< 1 nA/cm2 after 3 MRad
Image operation with dark signal
< 1V/s after 10 Mrad demonstrated (Co60)
The sensor has an outstanding radiation tolerance that is
observed using proprietary technology modifications and design
techniques. Two versions of the sensors are available, STAR250
and STAR250BK7. STAR250 has a quartz glass lid and air in the
cavity. The STAR250BK7 has a BK7G18 glass lid with anti
reflective coating. The cavity is filled with N2 increasing the
temperature operating range.
Proton Radiation
Tolerance
1% of pixels has an increase in
dark current > 1 nA/cm2 after
3*10^10 protons at 11.7 MeV
SEL Threshold
> 80 MeV cm3 mg-1
Color Filter Array
Mono
Packaging
84 pin JLCC
Power Consumption
< 350 mW
Applications
Features
Parameter
Typical Value
■
Satellites
Optical Format
1 Inch
■
Spacecraft Monitoring
Active Pixels
512 x 512
■
Nuclear Inspection
Pixel Size
25 μm
Shutter Type
Electronic
Maximum Data Rate/
Master Clock
8 MHz
Frame Rate
Up to 30 full frames/s
ADC Resolution
10 bit
Sensitivity
3340 V.m2/W.s
Dynamic Range
74dB (5000:1)
kTC Noise
76 e-
Dark Current
4750 e-/s at RT
Supply Voltage
5V
Operating Temperature
0°C - +65°C (STAR250)
-40°C - +85°C (STAR250BK7)
Marketing Part Number
Description
CYIS1SM0250AA-HHC
Mono with BK7G18 Glass
CYIS1SM0250AA-HHCS
Mono with BK7G18 Glass, Space Qualified
CYIS1SM0250AA-HQC
Mono with Quartz fused silica Glass
CYIS1SM0250AA-HWC
Mono without Glass
CYIS1SM0250-EVAL
Mono demo kit
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
•
198 Champion Court
Package
84-pin JLCC
Demo kit
•
San Jose, CA 95134-1709
•
408-943-2600
Revised September 18, 2009
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Specifications
Table 1. General Specifications
Parameter
Pixel Architecture
Specification
3-transistor active pixel
4 diodes per pixel
Pixel Size
25 x 25 μm2
Resolution
512 by 512 pixels
Pixel Rate
8 Mps
Shutter Type
Electronic
Frame Rate
29 full frames/second
Extended dynamic range
Remarks
Radiation-tolerant pixel design
4 photodiodes for improved MTF
Integration time is variable in time, steps equal to the row
readout time
Double slope
Programmable gain
Programmable between x1, x2, x4, x8
Supply voltage VDD
5V
Operational temperature
range
-40°C - +85°C
0°C - +65°C
Package
84 pins JLCC
Selectable through pins G0 and G1
STAR250 (Quartz glass lid, air in cavity)
STAR250BK7 (BK7G18 glass lid, N2 in cavity)
Table 2. Electro-optical Specifications
Parameter
Detector Technology
Pixel Structure
Photodiode
Specification (Typical)
Comment
CMOS Active Pixel Sensor
3-transistor active pixel
4 diodes per pixel
Radiation-tolerant pixel design
4 Photodiodes for improved MTF
High fill factor photodiode
Sensitive Area Format
512 by 512 pixels
25 x 25 μm2
Pixel Size
Spectral Range
200 - 1000 nm
Quantum Efficiency x Fill
Factor
Max. 35%
See Figure 1 and Figure 2
Above 20% between 450 and 750 nm
(Note: Metal FillFactor (MFF) is 63%)
Full Well Capacity
311K electrons
Linear Range within + 1%
128K electrons
When output amplifier gain = 1
1.68 V
When output amplifier gain = 1
Output Signal Swing
Conversion Gain
5.7 μV/e-
Temporal Noise
76 e-
Dynamic Range
74 dB (5000:1)
FPN (Fixed Pattern Noise)
PRNU (Photo Response
Non-uniformity)
When output amplifier gain = 1
When output amplifier gain = 1 near dark
Dominated by kTC
At the analog output
1 < 0.1% of full well
(typical)
Measured local, on central image area 50% of pixels, in
the dark
Local: 1 = 0.39% of response
Global: 1 = 1.3% of response
Measured in central image area 50% of pixels, at Qsat/2
4750 e-/s
Average Dark Current
Signal
At RT
DSNU (Dark Signal Non
Uniformity)
3805 e-/s RMS
At RT, scale linearly with integration time
MTF
Horizontal: 0.36
Vertical: 0.39
at 600 nm.
Optical Cross Talk
5% (TBC) to nearest neighbor if central
pixel is homogeneously illuminated
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 2 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Table 2. Electro-optical Specifications (continued)
Parameter
Specification (Typical)
Anti-blooming Capacity
x 1000 to x 100 000
Output Amplifier Gain
Windowing
Comment
1, 2, 4 or 8
Controlled by two bits
X and Y 9-bit programmable shift
registers
Electronic Shutter Range
Indicate upper left pixel of each window
1: 512
ADC
Integration time is variable in time steps equal to the row
readout time
10 bit
ADC Linearity
± 3.5 counts
Missing Codes
INL
none
ADC Setup Time
310 ns
ADC Delay Time
125 ns
Power Dissipation
< 350 mW
To reach 99% of final value
Average at 8 MHz pixel rate
Spectral Response Curve
Figure 1. Spectral Response Curve
0.2
QE 0.4
QE 0.3
QE 0.2
Spectral respnse [A/W]
0.15
0.1
QE 0.1
QE 0.05
0.05
QE 0.01
0
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
Wavelength [nm]
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 3 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Figure 2. UV Region Spectral Response Curve
STAR250
UV-m easurem ent
1,00E+00
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
FF * Spectral Response [A/W]
QE 100%
1,00E-01
QE 10%
1,00E-02
QE 1%
1,00E-03
1,00E-04
WaveLength [nm ]
Pixel Profile
Figure 3. Pixel Profile
horizontal pixel profile
Vertica pixel profile
Relative profile
Imaginary pixel boundaries
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
Scan distance [mm]
The pixel profile is measured using the 'knife edge' method: the
image of a target containing a black to white transition is scanned
over a certain pixel with subpixel resolution steps. The image
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
sensors settings and the illumination conditions are adjusted
such that the transition covers 50% of the output range. The scan
is performed both horizontal and vertical.
Page 4 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Electrical Specifications
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Absolute Ratings are those values beyond that damage to the device may occur.
Table 3. Absolute Maximum Ratings STAR250
Characteristics
Limits
Units
Min
Any Supply Voltage
-0.5
+7
V
Voltage on any Input Terminal
-0.5
Vdd + 0.5
V
Operating Temperature
Remarks
Max
0
+60
°C
Storage Temperature
-10
+60
°C
Sensor soldering Temperature
NA
125
°C
Hand soldering only. The sensor’s temperature during soldering should not exceed this
limit.
Units
Remarks
Table 4. Absolute Maximum Ratings STAR250BK7
Characteristics
Limits
Min
Max
Any Supply Voltage
-0.5
+7
V
Voltage on any Input Terminal
-0.5
Vdd + 0.5
V
Operating Temperature
-40
+85
°C
Storage Temperature
-40
+85
°C
-40
+120
°C
Maximum 1 hour
NA
125
°C
Hand soldering only. The sensor’s temperature during soldering should not exceed this
limit.
Sensor Soldering Temperature
Table 5. Radiation Tolerance
Parameter
Gamma Total Dose Radiation
tolerance
Criterion
Qualification level
Increase in average dark current < 1 nA/cm2 after
3 MRad
See Figure 4
Image operation with dark signal < 1V/s
10 Mrad demonstrated (Co60)
Single (test) pixel operation with dark signal < 1V/s 24 Mrad demonstrated (Co60)
Proton Radiation Tolerance
1% of pixels has an increase in dark current > 1
nA/cm2 after 3*10^10 protons at 11.7 MeV
See Figure 4
SEL Threshold
> 80 MeV cm3 mg-1
To be confirmed
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 5 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Figure 4 shows the increase in dark current under total dose irradiation. This curve is measured when the radiation is at high dose
rate. Annealing results in a significant dark current decrease.
1,4
Dark current increase [nA/cm
2
]
Figure 4. Dark Current Increase
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Total Ionizing Dose [Mrad(Si)]
Figure 5 shows the percentage of pixels with a dark current increase under 11.7 Mev radiation with protons.
Figure 5. Percentage of Pixels with Dark Current Increase
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 6 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
DC Operating Conditions
Table 6. DC operating conditions
Parameter[1,2,3]
Symbol
VDD_ANA
Min
Analog supply voltage to imager part
Typ
Max
5
Units
V
VDD_DIG
Digital supply voltage to imager part
5
V
VDD_ADC_ANA
Analog supply voltage to ADC
5
V
VDD_ADC_DIG
Digital supply voltage to ADC
VDD_ADC_DIG_3.3/5
Supply voltage of ADC output stage
5
V
3.3 to 5
V
VIH
Logical '1' input voltage
2.3
Vdd
V
VIL
Logical '0' input voltage
0
1
V
VOH
Logical '1' output voltage
VOL
Logical '0' output voltage
1
V
VDD_PIX
Pixel array power supply (default 5V, the device is
then in "soft reset". In order to avoid the image lag
associated with soft reset, reduce this voltage to
3…3.5V "hard reset")
5
V
VDD_RESL
Reset power supply
5
V
4.25
4.5
0.1
V
Notes
1. All parameters are characterized for DC conditions after establishing thermal equilibrium.
2. Unused inputs must always be tied to an appropriate logic level, for example, either VDD or GND.
3. This device contains circuitry to protect the inputs against damage due to high static voltages or electric fields. Take normal precautions to avoid applying any voltages
higher than the maximum rated voltages to this high impedance circuit.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 7 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Sensor Architecture
Figure 6. STAR250 Schematic
Clk_YR
SyncYR
Sync_YL
9
Clk_YL
A8...A0
Col
Sel
Rst
D9...D0
10-bit ADC
9
512
Pixel Array
512 by 512 Pixels
Y Address
Decoder / Shift Register
9
512
Y Address
Decoder / Shift Register
Ld_Y
Y-Start Registeer-Decoder
10
Clk_ADC
Ain
512
S
R
Column Amplifiers
1024
512
Rst
1024
Sig
9
Progr. Gain
Amplifier
Aout
X-Start Register
X Address
Decoder / Shift Register
The base line of the STAR250 sensor design consists of an
imager with a 512 by 512 array of active pixels at 25 μm pitch.
The detector contains on-chip correction for Fixed Pattern Noise
(FPN) in the column amplifiers, a programmable gain output
amplifier, and a 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC).
Through additional preset registers the start position of a window
can be programmed to enable fast read out of only part of the
detector array.
The image sensor consists of several building blocks as outlined
in Figure 6 The central element is a 512 by 512 pixel array with
square pixels at 25 μm pitch. Unlike classical designs, the pixels
of this sensor contain four photodiodes. This configuration
enhances the MTF and reduces the PRNU. Figure 7 shows an
electrical diagram of the pixel structure. The four photodiodes
are connected in parallel to the reset transistor (T1). Transistor
T2 converts the charge, collected on the photo diode node, to a
voltage signal that is connected to the column bus by T3. The
G0
G1
Reset and the Read entrance of the pixel are connected to one
of the Y shift registers.
Figure 7. STAR250 Pixel Structure
T1
Read
Reset
T2
Column Bus
Pixel Structure
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Blackref
Cal
Sync_X
CLKX
Ld_X
T3
Page 8 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Shift Registers
The shift registers are located next to the pixel array and contain
as many outputs as the number of rows in the pixel array. They
are designed as "1-hot" registers, (YL and YR shift register) each
allowing selection of one row of pixels at a time. A clock pulse
moves the pointer one position down the register resulting in the
selection of every individual row for either reset or for readout.
The spatial offset between the two selected rows determines the
integration time. A synchronization pulse to the shift registers
loads the value from a preset register into the shift register
forcing the pointer to a predetermined position. Windowing in the
vertical (Y) direction is achieved by presetting the registers to a
row that is not the first row and by clocking out only the required
number of rows.
Column Amplifiers
All outputs from the pixels in a column are connected in parallel
to a column amplifier. This amplifier samples the output voltage
and the reset level of the pixel whose row is selected at that
moment and presents these voltage levels to the output
amplifier. As a result, the pixels are always reset immediately
after readout as part of the sample procedure and the maximum
integration time of a pixel is the time between two read cycles.
The first process resets lines in a progressive scan. At line reset,
all the pixels in a line are drained from any photo charges
collected since their last reset or readout. After reset, a new
exposure cycle starts for that particular line.
The second process is the actual readout, which also happens
in an equally fast linewise progressive scan.
During readout, the photo charges collected since the previous
reset are converted into an output voltage. This is then passed
on pixel by pixel to the imager's pixel serial output and ADC.
Readout is destructive, meaning the accumulation of charges
from successive exposure phases is not possible in the present
architecture.
The STAR250 has two Y- shift registers; YL and YR. One is used
for readout of a line (YL) and the other is used to reset a line (YR).
The integration time is equal to the time between the last reset
and the readout of that line, see Figure 8 The integration time is
thus equal to:
Integration time = (Nr. Lines * (RBT + pixel period * Nr. Pixels))
with:
■
Nr. Lines: Number of Lines between readout and reset (Y).
■
Nr. Pixels: Number of pixels read out each line (X).
Electronic Shutter
■
RBT: Row Blanking Time = 3.2 μs (typical).
In a linescan integrating imager with electronic shutter, there are
two continuous processes of image gathering.
■
Pixel period: 1/8 MHz = 125 ns (typical).
Figure 8. Electronic Shutter
x
Reset line
Read line
y
x
y
Reset sequence
Line number
Time axis
Frame time
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Integration time
Page 9 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Timing and Readout of the Image Sensor
Programmable Gain Amplifier
The signal from the column amplifiers is fed to an output amplifier
with four presettable gains (adjustable with pins G0 and G1). The
offset correction of this amplifier is done through a black
reference procedure. The signal from the output amplifier is
externally available on the analog output terminator of the
device.
Image Readout Procedure
A preamble or initialization phase is irrelevant. The sensor is
read out continuously. The first frame is generally saturated and
useless because there is no preceding reset of each pixel.
Image Readout
Analog-to-Digital Converter
The on-chip 10-bit ADC is electrically separated from the other
circuits of the device. The ADC conversion range is set by the
voltages on VLOW_ADC (pin 47) and VHIGH_ADC (pin 70).
Make voltages on these pins equal to about 2V on VLOW_ADC
and 4V on VHIGH_ADC. The voltages are set by connecting
VLOW with 1.2 kΩ to GND and VHIGH_ADC with 560Ω to VDD.
This way, a resistor ladder is created as shown in Figure 9
Figure 9. ADC Resistor Ladder
RADC_VHIGH
Pin 70: VHIGH_ADC
External
Internal
RADC
Reset the X read address shift register to the value in its shadow
register (X1).
Perform a pixel readout operation, operating the track/hold and
the ADC.
Shift the X read address shift register one position further.
External
Pin 47: VLOW_ADC
In an infinite uninterrupted loop, follow these steps line-by-line:
1. Synchronize the read (YL) and/or reset (YR) registers, in this
cases:
❐ SYNC_YL - to re-initiate the readout sequence to row position
Y1
❐ SYNC_YR - to re-initiate the reset pointer to row position Y1
For all other lines do not pulse one of these SYNC_Y signals.
2. Operate the double sampling column amplifiers with two
RESETs. Apply one to reset the line that is currently selected
to produce the reset reference level for the double sampling
column amplifiers. Apply the other reset to another line
depending on the required integration time reduction.
3. Perform a Line Readout:
RADC_VLOW
The internal ADC resistance varies according to temperature.
The resistance value increases approximately 4.4Ω/°C with
increasing temperature. If the ADC range is set externally with
resistors, the conversion range may vary with temperature. This
effect is cancelled out by not making use of resistors but directly
applying voltages on VLOW_ADC and VHIGH_ADC.
Shift the Y read and reset address shift registers one position
further. If either of Y read or reset address shift register comes
to the end of the pixel array (or the ROI), wrap it around to the
start position by pulsing SYNC_YL.
Readout Timing
The actual line readout process starts with addressing the line to
read. This is done either by initializing the YL pointer with a new
value, or by shifting it one position beyond its previous value.
(Addressing the line has reset, YR is done in an analogous
fashion). During the "blanking time", after the new line is
addressed on the sensor, the built-in column-parallel double
sampling amplifiers are operated. This renders offset-corrected
values of the line under readout.
After the blanking time the pixels of the row addressed by YL are
read by multiplexing all the pixels one by one to the serial output
chain. The pixel is selected by the X pointer, and that pointer is
either initialized with a new value or an increment of the previous
position.
The time between row resets and their corresponding row
readouts is the effective exposure time (or integration time). This
time is proportional to the number of lines (DelayLines) between
the line currently under reset and the line currently under
readout: DelayLines = (YR - YL+1). This time is also equal to the
delay between the SYNC_YR pulse and the subsequent
SYNC_YR.
The effective integration time tint is calculated as delaylines * line
time. The line time itself is a function of four terms: the time to
output the desired number of pixels in the line (Wframe), and the
overhead ("blanking") time that is needed to select an new line
and perform the double sampling and reset operations.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 10 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
May occur at any moment,
persumably once per
sequence of frames
Once per frame
Figure 10. Basic Readout Timing
SYNC_YL
T13
SYNC_YR
T10
CAL
T2
T9
T16
Row Start
Address
T15
T17
LD_Y
CLK_YL
T14
T12
CLK_YR
T1
S
T3
T7
RESET
T4
T4
T6
R
T11
T5
L/R
T8
Row
Y-1
Row Blanking Time
SYNC_YR is not identical to SYNC_YL. SYNC_YR is used in
electronic shutter operation. The CLK_YR is driven identical to
CLK_YL, but the SYNC_YR pulse leads the SYNC_YL pulse by
a certain number of rows. This lead time is the effective
integration (electronic shutter ~) time. Relative to the row timing,
both SYNC pulses are given at the same time position, once for
each frame, but during different rows.
Time Available for Read Out of Row Y
The minimal idle time is 1.4 μs (before starting reading pixels).
However, do not read out pixels during the complete row initialization process (in between the rising edge on S and the falling
edge on L/R). In this case, the total idle time is minimal. This
timing assumes that the Y start register was loaded in advance,
which can occur at any time but before the pulse on SYNC_YL
or SYNC_YR.
SYNC_YL is pulsed when the first row is read out and SYNC_YR
is pulsed for the electronic shutter to start for this first row. CAL
is pulsed on the first row too, 2 μs later than SYNC_YL.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 11 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Table 7. Readout Timing Specifications
Symbol
Min
T1
1.8 μs
Typ
Delay between selection of new row by falling edge on CLK_YL and falling edge on S.
Minimal value. Normally, CLK_YR is low already at the end of the previous sequence.
Description
T2
1.8 μs
Delay between selection of new a row by SYNC_YL and falling edge on S.
T3
0.4 μs
Duration of S and R pulse.
T4
0.1 μs
Duration of RESET pulse.
T5
T4 + 40 ns
T6
0.8 μs
0.3 μs
L/R pulse must overlap second RESET pulse at both sides.
Delay between falling edge on RESET and falling edge on R.
T7
20 ns
0.1 μs
T8
0
1 μs
T9
100 ns
1 μs
Duration of cal pulse. The CAL pulse is given once each frame.
T10
0
2 μs
Delay between falling edge of SYNC_YL and rising edge of CAL pulse.
T11
40 ns
0.1 μs
T12
0.1 μs
1 μs
Delay between falling edge on S and rising edge on RESET.
Delay between falling edge on L/R and falling edge on CLK_Y.
Delay between falling edge on R and rising edge on L/R.
Delay between rising edge of CLK_Y and falling edge on S.
T13
0.5 μs
Pulse width SYNC_YL/YR.
T14
0.5 μs
Pulse width CLK_YL/YR.
T15
10 ns
Address setup time.
T16
20 ns
Load X/Y start register value.
T17
10 ns
Address stable after load.
T18
10 ns
T19
20 ns
T20
10 ns
SYNC_X pulse width. SYNC_X while CLK_X is high.
T21
40 ns
Analog output is stable during CLK_X low.
T22
40 ns
CLK_X pulse width: During this clock phase the analog output ramps to the next pixel
level.
T23
125 ns
ADC digital output stable after falling edge of CLK_ADC.
Loading the X- and Y- Start Positions
The following timing constraints apply:
The start positions (start addresses) for "ROI" (Region Of
Interest) are preloaded in the X or Y start register. They become
effective by the application of the SYNC_X, SYNC_YL and/or
SYNC_YR. The start X or Y address must be applied to their
common address bus, and the corresponding LD_X or LD_Y pin
must be pulsed.
Load the X or Y start addresses in advance, before the X or Y
shift registers are preset by a SYNC pulse. However, if
necessary, they can be load just before the SYNC_X or SYNC_Y
pulse as shown in Figure 11.
On each falling edge of CLK_X, a new pixel of the same row
(line) is accessed. The output stage is in hold when CLK_X is low
and starts generating a new output after a rising edge on CLK_X.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
For example, the X start register can be loaded during the row
idle time. The Y start register can be loaded during readout of the
last row of the previous frame.
If the X or Y start address does not change for later frames, it
does not need to be reloaded in the register.
Page 12 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Figure 11. Timing for Loading X and Y Registers
May Occur at any
Moment in Time
Row Blanking Time
Time Available for Read Out of Row Y
Column Start
Address
T15
LD_X
T17
T16
T19
SYNC_X
CLK_X
T18
Analog
Output
T20
T21
T22
Pixel 1
Pixel 2
Pixel 3
CLK ADC
T23
ADC Out
Other Signals
Tie SELECT signal to VDD for normal operation. This signal is
added for diagnostic reasons and inhibits the pixel array
operation when held low.
The CAL signal sets the output amplifier DC offset level. When
this signal is active (high) the pixel array is internally
disconnected from the output amplifier, its gain is set to unity and
its input signal is connected to the BLACK_REF input. Perform
this action at least once for each frame.
Pixel 1
Pixel 2
TEST DIODE and TESTPIXEL ARRAY are connections to
optical test structures that are used for electro optical evaluation.
TESTDIODE is a plain photodiode with an area of 14x5 pixels.
TESTPIXEL_ARRAY is an array (14x5) of pixels where the
photodiodes are connected in parallel. These structures
measure the photocurrent of the diodes directly.
TESTPIXEL_RESET and TESTPIXEL-OUT are connections to
a single pixel that are used for testing.
EOS_X, EOS_YL and EOS_YR produce a pulse when the
respective shift register comes at its end. These outputs are used
mainly during testing to verify proper operation of the shift
registers.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 13 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Pinlist
Table 8. Power Supply Connections
Pin
Pin Name
10
VDD_ANA
Analog power supply 5V.
Pin Description
11
VDD_DIG
Digital power supply 5V.
31
VDD_AMP
Power supply of output amplifier 5V.
33
VDD_DIG
Digital power supply 5V.
34
VDD_ANA
Analog power supply 5V.
49
VDD_RESR
Reset power supply 5V.
50
VDD_DIG
Digital power supply 5V.
53
VDD_ADC_ANA
ADC analog power supply 5V.
66
VDD_ADC_ANA
ADC analog power supply 5V.
67
VDD_ADC_DIG
69
VDD_ADC_DIG_3.3/5
ADC digital power supply 5V.
52
76
VDD_PIX
Pixel array power supply [default: 5V, the device is then in "soft reset". To avoid the image
lag associated with soft reset, reduce this voltage to 3…3.5V "hard reset"].
78
VDD_DIG
Digital power supply 5V.
79
VDD_RESL
Reset power supply 5V.
ADC 3.3V power supply for digital output of ADC.
For interface with 5V external system: connect to VDD_ADC_DIG.
For interface with 3.3V external system: connect to 3.3V power supply.
Table 9. Ground Connections
Pin
Pin Name
9
GND_ANA
Analog ground.
Pin Description
12
GND_DIG
Digital ground.
30
GND_AMP
Ground of output amplifier.
32
GND_DIG
Digital ground.
35
GND_ANA
Analog ground.
51
GND_DIG
Digital ground.
54
GND_ADC_ANA
65
GND_ADC_ANA
ADC analog ground.
68
GND_ADC_DIG
ADC digital ground.
77
GND_DIG
ADC analog ground.
Digital ground.
Table 10. Digital Input Signals
Pin
Pin Name
1
S
Control signal for column amplifier.
Apply pulse pattern - see Figure 10.
2
R
Control signal for column amplifier.
Apply pulse pattern - see Figure 10.
3
RESET
Resets row indicated by left/right shift register.
high active (1= reset row).
Apply pulse pattern - see Figure 10.
4
SELECT
Selects row indicated by left/right shift register.
high active (1=select row).
Apply 5V DC for normal operation.
5
L/R
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Pin Description
Use left or right shift register for SELECT and RESET.
1 = left/0 = right - see Figure 10.
Page 14 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Table 10. Digital Input Signals (continued)
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Description
6
A0
Start address for X- and Y- pointers (LSB).
7
A1
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
8
A2
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
13
A3
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
14
A4
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
15
A5
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
16
A6
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
17
A7
Start address for X- and Y- pointers.
18
A8
Start address for X- and Y- pointers (MSB).
19
LD_Y
Latch address (A0…A8) to Y start register (0 = track, 1 = hold).
20
LD_X
21
CLK_YL
Latch address (A0…A8) to X start register(0 = track, 1 = hold).
22
SYNC_YL
Sets YL shift register to location preloaded in Y start register.
Low active (0=sync).
Apply SYNC_YL when CLK_YL is high.
24
CLK_X
Clock X shift register (output valid and s when CLK_X is low).
25
SYNC_X
Clock YL shift register (shifts on falling edge).
Sets X shift register to location preloaded in X start register.
Low active (0=sync).
Apply SYNC_X when CLK_X is high.
After SYNC_X, apply falling edge on CLK_X, and rising edge on CLK_X.
27
CLK_YR
28
SYNC_YR
Clock YR shift register (shifts on falling edge).
36
CAL
Initialize output amplifier.
Output amplifier will output BLACKREF in unity gain mode when CAL is high (1).
Apply pulse pattern (one pulse per frame) - see Figure 10.
37
G0
Select output amplifier gain value: G0 = LSB; G1 = MSB.
00 = unity gain; 01 = x2; 10 = x4; 11= x8.
38
G1
idem.
71
CLK_ADC
ADC clock.
ADC converts on falling edge.
75
BITINVERT
1 = invert output bits.
0 = no inversion of output bits.
80
TRI_ADC
Sets YR shift register to location preloaded in Y start register.
Low active (0=sync).
Apply SYNC_YR when CLK_YR is high.
Tri-state control of digital ADC outputs
1 = tri-state; 0 = output
Table 11. Digital Output Signals
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Description
23
EOS_YL
End-of-scan of YL shift register.
Low first clock period after last row (low active).
26
EOS_X
End-of-scan of X shift register.
Low first clock period after last active column (low active).
29
EOS_YR
End-of-scan of YR shift register.
Low first clock period after last row (low active).
55
D0
ADC output bit (LSB).
56
D1
ADC output bit.
57
D2
ADC output bit.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 15 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Table 11. Digital Output Signals
Pin
Pin Name
Pin Description
58
D3
ADC output bit.
59
D4
ADC output bit.
60
D5
ADC output bit.
61
D6
ADC output bit.
62
D7
ADC output bit.
63
D8
ADC output bit.
64
D9
ADC output bit (MSB).
Table 12. Analog Input Signals
Pin
Pin Name
39
NBIASARR
Pin Description
40
PBIAS
Connect with 39k to ground and decouple to Vdd with a 100 nF capacitor for 8 MHz pixel
rate. (Lower resistor values yield higher maximal pixel rates at the cost of extra power
dissipation).
41
NBIAS_AMP
Output amplifier speed/power control.
Connect with 51 kΩ to VDD and decouple with 100 nF to GND for 8 MHz output rate (Lower
resistor values yield higher maximal pixel rates at the cost of extra power dissipation).
42
BLACKREF
Control voltage for output signal offset level.
Buffered on-chip, the reference level can be generated by a 100kΩ resistive divider.
Connect to ± 2 V DC for use with on-chip ADC.
44
IN_ADC
45
NBIASANA2
Connect with 470k to Vdd and decouple to ground with a 100 nF capacitor.
Input, connect to sensor's output.
Input range is between 2 and 4V (VLOW_ADC and VHIGH_ADC).
Connect with 100k to VDD and decouple to GND.
46
NBIASANA
47
70
VLOW_ADC
VHIGH_ADC
Connect with 100k to VDD and decouple to GND.
48
G_AB
72
PBIASDIG2
Connect with 100K to GND and decouple to VDD.
73
PBIASENCLOAD
Connect with 100K to GND and decouple to VDD.
74
PBIASDIG1
Connect with 47K to GND and decouple to VDD.
Low reference and high reference voltages of ADC should be about 2 and 4V.
The required voltage settings on VLOW_ADC and VHIGH_ADC can be approximated by
tying VLOW_ADC with 1.2kΩ to GND and VHIGH_ADC with 560Ω to VDD.
Anti-blooming drain control voltage:
Default: connect to ground. The anti-blooming is operational but not maximal.
Apply 1V DC for improved anti-blooming.
Table 13. Analog Output Signals
Pin
Pin Name
43
OUT
Pin Description
Analog output signal are connected to the analog input of the ADC.
Table 14. Test Structures
Pin
Pin Name
81
TESTDIODE
82
TESTPIX
ARRAY
83
TESTPIXEL_RESET
84
TESTPIXEL_OUT
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Pin Description
Plain photo diode, size: 14 x 25 pixels.
Must be left open for normal operation.
Array of test pixels, connected in parallel (14 x 25 pixels).
Must be left open for normal operation.
Reset input of single test pixel.
Must be tied to GND for normal operation.
Output of single test pixel.
Must be left open for normal operation.
Page 16 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Package
Package with Glass
Figure 12. STAR250 Package Dimensions
Note All dimensions in Figure 12 are measured in inches.
Table 15. Package Specifications:
Type
JLCC-84
Material
Black Alumina BA-914
Thermal expansion coefficient
7.6 x 10-6 /K
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 17 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Die Alignment
Figure 13. Die Alignment
Parallelism in
X and Y within
+ 50 Pm
68 P
Pin 1
Center of Cavity
and of FPA
Center of
Silicium
A
Bonding Cavity:
0.508+0.051
Offset Between Center of
Silicium and Center of
Cavity:
X: 0
Y: 68 Pm
Die:
0.508+0.01
A
Glass Window:
1.0+/-0.05
Window Adhesive:
0.08+0.02
Die Cavity:
0.508+0.051
A-
Die Adhesive:
0.08+0.02
Section A
Drawing Not to Scale
The die is aligned manually in the package to a tolerance of ±50 μm and the alignment is verified after hardening the die adhesive.
All dimensions in Figure 13 are in mm.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 18 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Window Specifications
STAR250
STAR250BK7
Table 16. STAR250 Glass Cover Specifications:
Table 17. STAR250BK7 Glass Cover Specifications
Material
Fused Silica
Material
BK7G18
Dimensions
25 x 25 mm ± 0.2 mm
Dimensions
25 x 25 mm ± 0.2 mm
Thickness
1 mm ± 0.05 mm
Thickness
1 mm ± 0.05 mm
Anti reflective coating
No
Anti reflective coating
Yes
Cavity fill
Air
Cavity fill
N2
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Page 19 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Soldering and Handling
Manual Soldering
Soldering and Handling Conditions
When a soldering iron is used the following conditions should be
observed:
Take special care when soldering image sensors onto a circuit
board. Prolonged heating at elevated temperatures may result in
deterioration of the performance of the sensor. The following
recommendations are made to ensure that sensor performance
is not compromised during end users' assembly processes.
■
Use a soldering iron with temperature control at the tip. The
soldering iron tip temperature should not exceed 350°C.
■
The soldering period for each pin should be less than five
seconds.
Board Assembly
Reflow Soldering
The STAR250 is very sensitive to ESD. Device placement onto
boards should be done in accordance with strict ESD controls for
Class 0, JESD22 Human Body Model, and Class A, JESD22
Machine Model devices. Assembly operators need to always
wear all designated and approved grounding equipment;
grounded wrist straps at ESD protected workstations are
recommended including the use of ionized blowers. All tools
should be ESD protected.
Reflow soldering is not allowed.
Precautions and Cleaning
Avoid spilling solder flux on the cover glass; bare glass and
particularly glass with antireflection filters may be harmed by the
flux. Avoid mechanical or particulate damage to the cover glass.
Use isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as a solvent for cleaning the image
sensor glass lid. When using other solvents, it should be confirm
whether the solvent will dissolve the package and/or the glass lid.
RoHS (lead free) Compliance
This section reports the use of Hazardous chemical substances as required by the RoHS Directive (excluding packing material).
Table 18. Chemical Substances in STAR250 Sensor
Any Intentional Content
If there is any intentional content, in which portion
is it contained?
NO
-
Cadmium
NO
-
Mercury
NO
-
Chemical Substance
Lead
Hexavalent chromium
NO
-
PBB (Polybrominated biphenyls)
NO
-
PBDE (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers)
NO
-
Information on Lead Free Soldering
The following case is not treated as "intentional content":
The product cannot withstand a lead free soldering process.
Reflow or wave soldering is not allowed; hand soldering only.
Solder 1 pin on each side of the sensor and let it cool down for
at least 1 minute before continuing
A case that the above material is contained as an impurity into
raw materials or parts of the intended product. The impurity is
defined as a substance that cannot be removed industrially, or it
is produced at a process such as chemical composing or
reaction and it cannot be removed technically.
Note "Intentional content" is defined as any material demanding
special attention that is contained into the inquired product by
these cases:
1. A case that the above material is added as a chemical
composition into the inquired product intentionally to produce
and maintain the required performance and function of the
intended product
2. A case that the above material, which is used intentionally in
the manufacturing process, is contained in or adhered to the
inquired product.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Evaluation kit
For evaluating purposes, an STAR250 evaluation kit is available.
The STAR250 evaluation kit consists of a multifunctional digital
board (memory, sequencer and IEEE 1394 Fire Wire interface)
and an analog image sensor board. Visual Basic software (under
Win 2000 or XP) allows the grabbing and display of images from
the sensor. All acquired images can be stored in different file
formats (8 or 16-bit). All setting can be adjusted on the fly to
evaluate the sensors specs. Default register values can be
loaded to start the software in a desired state. Please contact us
for more information.
Page 20 of 21
[+] Feedback
CYIS1SM0250-AA
Document History Page
Document Title: CYIS1SM0250-AA STAR250 250K Pixel Radiation Hard CMOS Image Sensor
Document Number: 38-05713
Rev.
ECN No.
Submission
Date
Orig. of
Change
**
310213
See ECN
SIL
*A
603159
See ECN
QGS
Converted to Framemaker Format
*B
649360
See ECN
FPW
Title update + package spec label
*C
2766198
09/19/09
NVEA
Updated Ordering Information table
Description of Change
Origination
Sales, Solutions, and Legal Information
Worldwide Sales and Design Support
Cypress offers standard and customized CMOS image sensors for consumer as well as industrial and professional applications.
Consumer applications include solutions for fast growing high speed machine vision, motion monitoring, medical imaging, intelligent
traffic systems, security, and barcode applications. Cypress's customized CMOS image sensors are characterized by very high pixel
counts, large area, very high frame rates, large dynamic range, and high sensitivity.
Cypress maintains a worldwide network of offices, solution centers, manufacturer's representatives, and distributors. For more
information on Image sensors, contact [email protected]
© Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2006-2009. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of
any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress products are not warranted nor intended to be used for
medical, life support, life saving, critical control or safety applications, unless pursuant to an express written agreement with Cypress. Furthermore, Cypress does not authorize its products for use as
critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress products in life-support systems
application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
Any Source Code (software and/or firmware) is owned by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (Cypress) and is protected by and subject to worldwide patent protection (United States and foreign),
United States copyright laws and international treaty provisions. Cypress hereby grants to licensee a personal, non-exclusive, non-transferable license to copy, use, modify, create derivative works of,
and compile the Cypress Source Code and derivative works for the sole purpose of creating custom software and or firmware in support of licensee product to be used only in conjunction with a Cypress
integrated circuit as specified in the applicable agreement. Any reproduction, modification, translation, compilation, or representation of this Source Code except as specified above is prohibited without
the express written permission of Cypress.
Disclaimer: CYPRESS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Cypress reserves the right to make changes without further notice to the materials described herein. Cypress does not
assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein. Cypress does not authorize its products for use as critical components in life-support systems where
a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress’ product in a life-support systems application implies that the manufacturer
assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress against all charges.
Use may be limited by and subject to the applicable Cypress software license agreement.
Document Number: 38-05713 Rev. *C
Revised September 18, 2009
Page 21 of 21
All products and company names mentioned in this document may be the trademarks of their respective holders.
[+] Feedback