Emission Microscope -1000

Emission Microscope
R
-1000
Reveals “Invisible” Defects and Failures
Detects very faint emissions caused by anomalies quickly and accurately to
determine failure locations.
The PHEMOS series of emission microscope is a group of semiconductor
failure analysis tools that detect faint emissions caused by semiconductor
device anomalies to specify the failure location.
They can be used on anything from memory and logic devices to power
and flat panel devices.
They have a wide range of applications, from failure analysis in the design
stage to defective product analysis in the field.
2
ESD damage
localization
Standby current
failure
FET rush current
caused by a short
or open circuit
Metal wiring defect
analysis using the
IR-OBIRCH method
Pressure resistance
defects
Latch-up analysis
in CMOS, etc.
Failure analysis of
LOC packages and
below-multilayer
metal wiring
Failure analysis on
flat panel displays
Emission Microscope
-1000
The PHEMOS-1000 is a standard model high-resolution
emission microscope that includes an IR confocal laser scan
microscope. From a socket board to a 300 mm double-sided
wafer prober, the PHEMOS-1000 flexibly corresponds to device
environment and set-up. It can also accommodate the highly
sensitive NIR camera and the high-resolution NanoLens as
options. There are various options including IR-OBIRCH
analysis, connection to an LSI tester and the CAD navigation
function, all of which give the PHEMOS-1000 the ability to
handle a wide range of measuring needs.
Features
Detection targets
IR confocal laser scan microscope
NanoLens for high-resolution, high-sensitivity observation (option)
Applicable
devices
IR-OBIRCH analysis function (option)
Dynamic analysis function by laser radiation (option)
EO probing unit C12323 (option)
High-sensitivity NIR camera for low-voltage samples (option)
Compatible
probers
Digital lock-in kit to enhance the IR-OBIRCH detectability (option)
300 mm double-sided semi-auto prober installable (option)
Device emission (emission detection function)
Current alteration (IR-OBIRCH function)
200 mm/300 mm wafer
Diced chips
Cut wafers, packaged devices
(Depends on the prober and sample fixtures)
Double-sided semi-auto prober for use with 200 mm/300*
mm wafers
Double-sided manual prober for use with 200 mm/300* mm
wafers
Semi-auto prober for use with 200 mm/300* mm wafers
(frontside observation)
Manual prober for use with 200 mm/300* mm wafers
(frontside observation)
*Upon request
Basic display functions
Superimposed display/contrast enhancement function
Pattern
images
Superimposed
images
Emission
images
The PHEMOS-1000 superimposes the emission image on a highresolution pattern image to localize defect points quickly. The
contrast enhancement function makes an image clearer and more detailed.
Display function
• Annotations
Comments, arrows, and other indicators can be displayed on an image at any
location desired.
• Scale display
The scale width can be displayed on the image using segments.
• Grid display
Vertical and horizontal grid lines can be displayed on the image.
• Thumbnail display
Images can be stored and recalled as thumbnails, and image information such as
stage coordinates can be displayed.
• Split screen display
Pattern images, emission images, superimposed images, and reference images
can be displayed in a 4-window screen at once.
3
Emission Microscope
-1000
C-CCD camera C4880-59
IR confocal laser scan microscope
The cooled CCD camera is a basic emission detector available for
the PHEMOS series. High resolution and low readout noise provide
high contrast and clear images. Although its main strength is for
frontside detection, its sensitivity extends into the 1100 nm nearinfrared range, making it useful for backside observations as well.
SI-CCD camera C11231-01
The SI-CCD camera detects low-light emissions from minute
patterns in LSI devices with both high sensitivity and high position
accuracy, which slashes detection time by 90% compared to
ordinary cooled CCD cameras. Real time readout during emission
image acquisition enables monitoring the emission state during the
integration time.
The IR confocal laser scan microscope obtains clear, high-contrast
pattern images by scanning the backside of a chip with the infrared
laser. Within 1 second a pattern image can be acquired. By the
flexible scan in 4 directions, it is possible to scan a device from
different directions without rotating it. Scanning in parallel with a
metal line makes OBIRCH image clearer. The function is also useful
in OBIRCH analysis using a digital lock-in and dynamic analysis by
stimulation by laser stimulation.
< Standard function >
Dual scan: Obtain a pattern image and an IR-OBIRCH image
simultaneously
Flexible scan: Normal scan (1024 × 1024, 512 × 512), Zoom, Slit scan, Area
scan, Line scan, Point scan, Scan direction changeable (0°,45°,90°,180°,270°)
Reflected images and OBIRCH images are obtained, and then both
images are superimposed.
InGaAs camera C8250 series
When device design becomes smaller and driving voltage is
lowered, a detector that has high sensitivity in the near-infrared
range is indispensable. The C8250 series cameras are highly
sensitive in the near-infrared range from 900 nm to 1550 nm, making
them suitable for low-voltage drive IC chips and backside faint
emission analysis.
Features
Scan speed (second/image)
512 × 512
1
2
4
8
1024 × 1024
2
4
8
16
• Laser*
1.3 μm Laser diode
Output: 100 mW
1.3 μm High power laser (option)
Output: 400 mW or more
1.1 μm Laser diode (option)
Output: 200 mW (CW), 800 mW (pulse)
* For 1.3 μm laser, one of two laser can be integrated.
High-sensitivity (high quantum efficiency) in the infrared region
Powerful tool for low-voltage drive IC chips and backside
observation through silicon
High resolution and highly sensitive analysis possible when
combined with a laser confocal microscope
Peltier cooling systems are maintenance free (without LN2).
The hermetic vacuum shield camera; C8250-27 is maintenance
free from periodic re-evacuation.
• Optical stage travel range*
X
±20 mm
Y
±20 mm
Z
75 mm
* These values may become smaller due to interference with the prober used, the sample stage and
the NanoLens option.
Laser marker C7638
A comparative chart of wavelength sensitivity ranges
100
Hot carrier
emission region
Quantum efficiency (%)
90
The laser marker uses a pulse laser, and its spot size is φ5 μm under
a 100× lens.
80
70
Failure location information can be easily transfered to another
analytical instrument by marking the area of an identified failure
location, or by marking around it.
InGaAs
60
50
C-CCD
Lens magnification
40
SI-CCD
30
Up to 5 lenses selectable for a turret
20
10
0
400
Lens
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Wavelength (nm)
NIR camera lineup
C8250-27
C8250-31
C8250-21
Model
Liquid nitrogen cooling Peltier cooling Liquid nitrogen cooling
Cooling type
PHEMOS-1000
Corresponding product
-70 ˚C
-183 ˚C or less
-120 ˚C or less
Cooling temperature
900 nm to 1550 nm
Spectral sensitivity
1000 (H) × 1000 (V)
640 (H) × 512 (V)
Effective number of pixels
133 μm × 133 μm
128 μm × 102.4 μm
Field of view 100×
16.7 mm × 16.7 mm
16.0 mm × 12.8 mm
Maximum field of view 0.8×
12 bit
A/D converter
4
Analysis
N.A.
1800
0.8× : A7909-13
1× : A7649-01
2× : A8009
NIR 5× : A11315-01
NIR 20× : A11315-03
NIR 50× : A11315-04
NIR 50× (Backside): A8756-01
High NA 50× : A8018
NIR 100× : A11315-05
NIR-HR 50× : A11315-06
NIR 100× (Backside) : A8756-02
NIR-HR 100× : A11315-07
NIR-HR 100× (Backside): A11315-08
: Standard
Emission
0.40
OBIRCH
0.03
OBIRCH/Emission 0.055
OBIRCH/Emission 0.14
OBIRCH/Emission 0.40
OBIRCH/Emission 0.42
OBIRCH/Emission 0.42
OBIRCH
0.76
OBIRCH/Emission 0.50
OBIRCH/Emission 0.65
OBIRCH/Emission 0.50
OBIRCH/Emission 0.70
OBIRCH/Emission 0.70
W.D.
(mm)
24
20
34
37.5
20
17
17.3
12
12
10
12.3
10
6
Optional
Optional
Optional
Optional
Optional
Optional
Optional
Optional
Optional
Emission Microscope
-1000
IR -OBIRCH analysis A8755
IR-OBIRCH (Infrared Optical Beam Induced Resistance CHange)
analysis detects current alteration caused by leakage current paths and
contact area resistance failure in devices by irradiating an infrared laser.
PRINCIPLE OF OBIRCH ANALYSIS
Laser : = 1.3 μm
Laser (frontside)
Leakage Current Path
I
A1
or
or
Heated
A1
I
R/V)I2
(
Digital lock-in kit M10383
The M10383 digital lock-in kit is a new function added to the
OBIRCH analysis, in order to boost detection sensitivity by sampling
one pixel into multiple data using lock-in processing. The M10383
allows acquiring a sharp and clear image in a short acquisition time
compared to the A9188-01 lock-in kit which uses an analog
processing method.
Analog lock-in (5 kHz, 72 s)
Digital lock-in (5 kHz, 52 s)
I
V
Si-sub.
T, TCR
Laser (backside)
V=
*Depends on defects and materials
R×I
I : Current before laser irradiation
V : Applied voltage
Defects in Metal Line
I : Current change due to laser irradiation (when constant voltage is applied)
V : Voltage change due to laser irradiation (when constant current is applied)
OBIRCH signal
R : Resistance increase with the temperature increase due to laser irradiation
T : Temperature increase due to laser irradiation
TCR : Temperature coefficient of resistance
● High-resolution, high-contrast reflection pattern images
● Backside observation capable (using a 1.3 μm wavelength laser)
● By using a 1.3um laser, OBIRCH signal detection is not disturbed
by OBIC signal.
Fixed voltage mode, fixed current mode, and high-sensitivity current
mode (fixed current mode) are selectable via software. The A8755 also
uses a new OBIRCH amp. It has 10× better detectability than before.
Fixed voltage mode Fixed current mode High-sensitivity current mode
Applied voltage range
-10 V to +10 V
-10 V to +10 V
-25 mV to +25 V
Max. current
100 mA
100 mA
100 μA
Detectability
1 nA*1
1 μV*2
3 pA*1
Integrate noise cancellation function
< by improving noise caused by external equipment >
Current detection head
Standard type*1
Possible to measure at 4 quadrant voltage/current
New OBIRCH amp. can work for devices, which need to apply
negative voltage/current. The new amp is also effective to detect
reverse current flowed differently from design.
Max. 250 V
3 kV
Applicable current
6.3 A (Max. 10 A)
30 mA(90 VA)
10 nA*2
Detectability
Due to high integration and increased performance of LSI, functional
failure analysis under LSI tester connection becomes very important.
Dynamic analysis by laser stimulation (DALS) is a new method to
analyze device operation conditions by means of laser radiation.
Stimulate a device with a 1.3 μm laser while operating it with test
patterns by LSI tester. Then device operation status (pass/fail)
changes due to heat generated by the laser. The pass/fail signal
change is expressed as an image that indicates the point causing
timing delay, marginal defect, etc.
Analysis done by driving an LSI
under conditions at the boundary
* The Pass/Fail status changes as
a reaction to the laser stimulation
Source
+25 V
Positive voltage/Negative current
High voltage type (optional)
Applicable voltage
Dynamic analysis by laser stimulation kit (DALS) A9771
with noise cancel
Sink
Analysis using the current detection head
A current detection head can be used to measure devices that require
higher voltage or higher current than the range of standard OBIRCH
amp (10V/100 mA or 25V/100 μA).
*1 The standard type head is included in M10383 Digital Lock-in kit.
*2 Minimum detectable pulse signal input into an OBIRCH amp. Detectability can differ
by device set-up environment.
*1 Minimum detectable pulse signal input into the amplifier
*2 Calculated value
without noise cancel
Comparing analog lock-in with digital lock-in (short scan period)
Positive voltage/Positive current
+10 V
–100 mA
–100 μA
+100 μA
+100 mA
Image
formation
–10 V
Negative voltage/Negative current
Pass/Fail status
Negative voltage/Positive current
–25 V
Source
Sink
Analysis possible range
Pass/Fail map
corresponding to laser scan
LSI tester
Failure location
Status changes due to
laser heat
Change in status in reaction to
the laser = failure location
Concept of the analysis of a failed device
by utilizing the "drive voltage – operating frequency" characteristics
5
Emission Microscope
-1000
EO Probing Unit C12323
The EO Probing Unit is a tool to observe a transistor's status through
the Si substrate using an incoherent light source. It is composed of
the EOP (Electro Optical Probing) to measure operation voltage of a
transistor rapidly and the EOFM (Electro Optical Frequency
Mapping) to image active transistors at a specific frequency. With a
NanoLens, high resolution and sensitivity can be obtained.
Gate
Source
Drain
Features
● High quality pattern image with no interference fringe
● No sample damage by incoherent light source
● Low power light source and high sensitive detector provides stable
and accurate measurement.
● EOP waveform with high S/N ratio in 2 seconds
● Easy-to-use software identical to the PHEMOS interface
● EOFM phase image provides intuitive interpretation of signal propagation.
● Possible to get 2 different frequency data simultaneously.
● Retrofit on PHEMOS, uAMOS, iPHEMOS, THEMOS in the field is possible.
Depletion layer
Incoherent
light source
EOP Function
This function acquires switching timing of a specific transistor
rapidly by high speed sampling. As an extended analysis of
emission and OBIRCH, the EOP function improves accuracy
of failure point localization, enabling a much smoother followup physical analysis.
Detector
EOFM image
Phase image
EOP principle
When the drain voltage of a FET varies by switching
operation, the electric field distribution at a drain boundary
also changes. This induces a change of refractive index due to
the electro-optical effect of each material. When irradiating a
drain by a light beam through the Si substrate, the intensity of
reflected light varies corresponding to the voltage level. The
EOP is a newly developed method that can observe the
reflected light which expresses the status of a transistor.
EOP waveform
EOFM Function
This function measures transistors switching at a specific
frequency and images them. The reflected light from a drain has
the power spectrum distribution. The EOFM picks up the
intensity of signal under certain frequency from the distribution
and visualize it as an image. By operating transistors in a
specific region under certain frequency, it is possible to observe
if the circuits are correctly switching or not.
Pattern
image
Amplitude
image
I/Q
image
Phase
image
(Lock-in)
(Timing)
Detector
Light source
Incoherent light source (Patent pending)
Light source output
Maximum 10 mW (Variable)
Light source wavelength
1.3 μm
Optical sensor
Photodiode
Bandwidth
Analog band (10 kHz to 1 GHz)
EOP Measurement function
Signal processing
High speed digitizer
Digital sampling frequency
4 GHz
EOFM Measurement function
6
Signal processing
Spectrum analyzer (2 ch simultaneous output)
Scan speed
0.2 seconds/line to 2 s/line
CAD navigation system connections
NanoLens (solid immersion lens) C9710
For backside observation, nearinfrared light is used to penetrate the
Si layer. On the other hand, optical
resolution gets worse at longer
wavelengths. The NanoLens (a solid
immersion lens) is a hemispherical
lens that touches the LSI substrate
and utilizes the index of refraction of
silicon to increase the numerical aperture, which improves spatial
resolution and convergence efficiency. By setting the NanoLens on a
point to observe on the backside of a device, it is possible to perform
analysis at a sub-micron level of spatial resolution in a short period of
time with greatly improved accuracy. 3 types of SIL lens cap are
available in order to correspond to Si thickness from 70um to 800um.
Standard lens principles
NanoLens principles
Objective lens
Objective lens
Laser light
collection
Total
reflection
Back side
Back side
Si
Small N.A.
Si
Pattern side
Pattern side
Large N.A.
Sequence software
This function enables automatic measurement of IR-OBIRCH
observation by following the procedure set by a user. IR-OBIRCH
images can be sequentially measured and saved by combining with a
semi-automatic prober. Measurements under the condition with an LSI
tester or an external power source are possible as well.
Connecting to an LSI tester
NanoLens
Emissions
When performing failure analysis of complicated LSI chips on a large
scale, it is possible to connect through a network (TCP/IP) and CAD
navigation software. This helps the subsequent investigation of
problem locations. By superimposing an area where a problem has
been detected, or an image, over the layout diagram, it is possible to
identify defective points.
Improvement
As devices become more complicated, there is
increased demand for analysis under an LSI
tester connection to find a failure occurring at a
specific point while a device is functioning. It is
possible to connect an LSI tester with the
PHEMOS by a short cable and using a probe
card adapter specifically designed for the
analysis under the PHEMOS optics.
Laser spot
Laser spot
▲ OBIRCH observation using a
256-pin probe card adapter
Connection with the FA-Navigation failure analysis support system
Coaxial cable
Power supply/
GND cable
Connector
board
Combining detection signals from PHEMOS and design data, and
automatically extracting suspicious signal lines contributes to
making the work of narrowing down the malfunction locations more
effective and to reducing the time needed to clarify the route cause.
Analysis is easily possible using GDS ll or LEF/DEF at both
laboratory and office. (Patent pending)
PHEMOS
Connector
panel
Adapter board
LSI tester head
PHEMOS
CAD Data
Failure information
physical analysis information
Integrated Information
Wiring information
logic information
Utility
Line voltage
Failure localization supported by FA-Navigation
Pattern images / Design information
AC 220 V (50 Hz/60 Hz)
Power consumption
3000 VA
Vacuum
Approx. 80 kPa or more
Compressed air
0.5 MPa to 0.7 MPa
Acquires a superimposed the signal image and the
pattern image provided by failure analysis system.
Design information overlay/Automatical signal region setting
Design data (CAD data) can also be superimposed on a
failure analysis image. Allows signal region parameter
setting.
Automatic NET extraction
Automatically extracts the NET passing through signal regions. Ranks the NETs in order of most number of times they pass through the signal region.
Dimensions/Weight
Dimensions/Weight
PHEMOS main unit
1360 mm (W) × 1410 mm (D) × 2120 mm (H), Approx. 900 kg
PHEMOS control rack
880 mm (W) × 700 mm (D) × 1542 mm (H), Approx. 255 kg
PC desk
1000 mm (W) × 800 mm (D) × 700 mm (H), Approx. 45 kg
*Weight of PHEMOS main unit includes a prober or equivalent item.
NET highlight display
This function highlights a specified NET from among
the extracted NETs. Analyzing this NET assists in
identifying the failure location in a short time.
7
LASER SAFETY
Hamamatsu Photonics classifies laser diodes, and provides
appropriate safety measures and labels according to the classification
as required for manufacturers according to IEC 60825-1. When using
this product, follow all safety measures according to the IEC.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT
Description Label (Sample)
Caution Label
★ PHEMOS are registered trademark of Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, U.K., U.S.A.)
★ Product and software package names noted in this documentation are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers.
• Information furnished by HAMAMATSU is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for possible inaccuracies or omissions.
Specifications and external appearance are subject to change without notice.
• Subject to local technical requirements and regulations, availability of products included in this promotional material may vary. Please consult your local sales representative.
© 2014 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
www.hamamatsu.com
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K., Systems Division
812 Joko-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu City, 431-3196, Japan, Telephone: (81)53-431-0124, Fax: (81)53-435-1574, E-mail: export@sys.hpk.co.jp
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Cat. No. SSMS0003E15
NOV/2014 HPK
Created in Japan