datasheet

Technical Explanation
Board SKiM4
MLI / TMLI
Revision:
00
Issue date:
2015-11-12
Prepared by:
Ingo Rabl
Approved by:
Johannes Krapp
Keyword: SKiM4, MLI, TMLI, IGBT driver, SKYPER 42LJ,
performance, application
1. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................1
1.1 Features ..............................................................................................................................2
1.2 Hardware of the SKiM4 MLI/TMLI driver boards .........................................................................3
2. Safety Instructions .....................................................................................................................5
3. Technical Data ...........................................................................................................................7
3.1 Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI block diagram ....................................................................................7
3.2 Electrical and mechanical characteristics ..................................................................................7
3.3 Integrated functions ..............................................................................................................9
3.3.1 Thermal protection ..........................................................................................................9
3.3.2 Short circuit protection ....................................................................................................9
3.3.3 Desaturation detection at T1 and T4 ..................................................................................9
3.3.4 Desaturation detection at T2 and T3 ..................................................................................9
3.4 Board description ................................................................................................................ 10
3.4.1 Adjustment of temperature error threshold ...................................................................... 11
3.4.2 Gate resistors ............................................................................................................... 12
3.4.3 Gate-Emitter (GE) components ....................................................................................... 12
3.4.4 VCE,Desat components ...................................................................................................... 13
3.4.5 Error interaction of driver T1/T4 and driver T2/T3 ............................................................. 13
3.4.6 Error handling of driver T1/T4 and driver T2/T3 ................................................................ 13
3.4.7 Interlock time of driver T1/T4 and driver T2/T3 ................................................................ 14
4. User Interface .......................................................................................................................... 15
4.1 Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI interface.......................................................................................... 15
4.1.1 Module interface ........................................................................................................... 15
4.1.2 Temperature sensing interface ........................................................................................ 16
4.2 User interface ..................................................................................................................... 17
5. Restrictions and Requirements ................................................................................................... 17
5.1 Switching pattern of TMLI modules ........................................................................................ 17
5.2 Error treatment ................................................................................................................... 18
5.2.1 Secondary error at T1 (T4) ............................................................................................. 18
5.2.2 Secondary side error at T2 (T3) ...................................................................................... 18
5.2.3 Error treatment in parallel operation ................................................................................ 18
5.2.4 Error treatment in 3-phase systems ................................................................................ 18
5.3 Design limits gate resistors................................................................................................... 19
5.3.1 Minimum gate resistor ................................................................................................... 19
5.3.2 Power rating of the gate resistors .................................................................................... 19
5.4 Design limits switching frequency .......................................................................................... 19
5.5 Design limits ambient temperature ........................................................................................ 19
5.6 SEMIKRON assembly ........................................................................................................... 19
1.
Introduction
SEMIKRON set up a driver kit for SKiM4 MLI and SKiM4 TMLI modules for evaluation purposes. The SKiM4
driver boards are able to operate the modules up to a DC-link voltage of 1500V (MLI) respectively 1200V
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
PROMGT.1023/ Rev.4/ Template Technical Explanation
Page 1/22
(TMLI) at a maximum switching frequency of 20kHz for SKiM 301 MLI 12E4 and SKiM 601 TMLI 12E4B
which are the most powerful modules available.
Two standard 2L drivers (SKYPER 42 LJ) are used to operate the two parallel 3L TMLI modules; one driver
operates switches T1 and T4 (the outer switches), the other operates the inner switches T2 and T3.
The failure management of the two SKYPER 42 LJ drivers detects desaturation events at all four switch
positions and also monitors the modules’ built-in temperature sensors. While desaturation of the inner
switches (IGBTs T2 and T3) just produces an error message sent to the user interface, desaturation of the
outer switches (IGBTs T1 and T4) as well as exceeding a set sensor temperature leads to immediate safe
shut-off of the outer IGBTs and an error signal.
Figure 1: MLI (left) and TMLI (common emitter; right)
DC+
T1
D1
T2
D2
DC+
D5
N
D1
T1
D2
AC
T3
AC
N
T3
D3
D6
T2
D3
T4
D4
D4
T4
DC-
DC-
This Application Sample is dedicated to both universities and professional development engineers. It offers
an easy way to set up high power inverters with SKiM4 MLI and TMLI modules using 2L drivers.
1.1
Features
The SKiM4 driver boards are designed for the SKiM4 MLI modules with 650V or 1200V semiconductors at
all switch positions (“Board SKIM4 MLI”) respectively SKiM4 TMLI modules with 1200V semiconductors at
the vertical and 650V semiconductors at the horizontal branch (“Board SKiM4 TMLI”). All MLI/TMLI modules
(different current rating, different voltage rating) can be operated with this driver board as long as they are
pin-compatible (this is valid for all SEMIKRON SKiM4 modules) and the design limits are met (e.g.
maximum DC voltage and maximum SKYPER 42 LJ output power may not be exceeded). Please note that
MLI modules may only be operated with the Board SKiM4 MLI and TMLI modules may only be operated
with the Board SKiM4 TMLI in order to avoid malfunction or damage.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Figure 2: SKiM4
1.2
Hardware of the SKiM4 MLI/TMLI driver boards
The SKiM4 MLI/TMLI driver boards consist of one printed circuit board (PCB) each; the PCB is directly
mounted onto the SKiM4 module (item number 45120701 for MLI and 45121301 for TMLI). The PCBs
provide sockets for two SKYPER 42 LJ drivers and a user interface.
Figure 3: SKiM4 MLI driver board
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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The SKiM4 modules (voltage / current rating, MLI / TMLI) may be chosen according to the desired
application.
Figure 4: SKiM4 TMLI driver board
Depending on the power rating and the operating conditions (voltage, current, inductance of the DC-link
connection) it might be necessary to adjust gate resistors, clamping voltage and trip levels of the safety
circuits.
The Gerber files of both boards are available on request. For ordering the boards or the files please contact
your SEMIKRON sales partner.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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2.
Safety Instructions
The Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI bares risks when put in operation. Please carefully read and obey the following
safety instructions to avoid harm or damage to persons or gear.
Table 1: Safety instructions
In operation the Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
inherits high voltages that are dangerous to
life!
Only qualified personnel should work with
this Application Sample.
Some parts of the Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI or
connected devices (e.g. heatsink) may reach
high temperatures that might lead to burns
when touched.
When connected to DC-link capacitors it must
be made sure that the DC-link voltage is
reduced to values below 30V before touching
the system.
Insulation coordination and testing has been
performed regarding a PE connection of one
potential. It is mandatory to provide a PE
connection with sufficient cross section when
operating the Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Table 2: Safety regulations for work with electrical equipment
Safety Regulations
for work with electrical equipment
1) Disconnect mains!
2) Prevent reconnection!
3) Test for absence of harmful voltages!
4) Ground and short circuit!
5) Cover or close of nearby live parts!
To energize, apply in reverse order!
Please follow the safety regulations for working safe with the Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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3.
Technical Data
3.1
Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI block diagram
The electrical block diagrams in Figure 5 and Figure 6 show two parts: the blue marked part is the driver
part with gate resistors, clamping circuitry and sockets for the SKYPER 42 LJ drivers. The red part
symbolizes the 3-level modules.
Figure 5: Board SKiM4 MLI block diagram
Board SKiM4 MLI
SKiM4 MLI
DC+
Driver T1
RG,T1
T1
D1
T2
D2
D5
RG,T2
T2
VCE,T3
SKYPER42 LJ
T1
VCE,T2
Driver T4
Interface
SKYPER42 LJ
VCE,T1
RG,T3
AC
N
T3
Driver T2
VCE,T4
Driver T3
RG,T4
T3
D3
T4
D4
D6
T4
NTC
DC-
Figure 6: Board SKiM4 TMLI block diagram
Board SKiM4 TMLI
SKiM4 TMLI
Driver T1
RG,T1
T1
VCE,T2
RG,T2
D1
T1
T2
D2
VCE,T3
SKYPER42 LJ
DC+
Driver T4
Interface
SKYPER42 LJ
VCE,T1
RG,T3
T3
T3
N
AC
T2
D3
Driver T2
VCE,T4
Driver T3
RG,T4
D4
T4
T4
NTC
DC-
3.2
Electrical and mechanical characteristics
With regard to the requirement specification the Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI allows for operation within the
following boundaries:
- Max. DC-link voltage
VDC = 1500V (1200V) in total, max. 750V (600V) per individual DClink half for MLI (TMLI)
- Max. AC voltage
VAC = 1000VRMS (690VRMS) line-to-line for MLI (TMLI)
Max. switching frequency
fsw = 20kHz (see chapter 5.4 for further information)
Ambient temperature
Ta = 0°C…40°C (see chapter 5.5 for further information)
Installation altitude
≤ 2000m above sea level
IP rating
IP 00
Pollution degree
PD 2
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Neglecting the above mentioned boundaries may lead to malfunction or damage of the Board
SKiM4 MLI / TMLI.
Concerning insulation coordination the driver boards have been developed with respect to EN50178. An
electrically protective separation is implemented between the user interface (PELV – Protective Extra Low
Voltage) and the high voltage connections by using the SKYPER 42 LJ’s protective separation.
Up to a DC-link voltage of 1200V reinforced insulation, between 1200V and 1500V basic insulation is
realized.
The boards are 125mm long and 103mm wide, see Figure 7 and Figure 8.
To prevent driver board and the SKYPER 42 LJ drivers from loosening from each other both boards come
with mounting holes for dual lock support posts. SEMIKRON recommends nylon support posts from Richco
with item no. DLMSPM-8-01. Please find further information in the technical explanation of SKYPER 42 LJ
[1].
Figure 7: Dimensions of Board SKiM4 MLI
103mm
125mm
The driver boards can be mounted to the modules in two steps. First the particular board needs to be fixed
on the module by pressing it to the white plastic hooks until it snaps.
Secondly the boards are mounted to the module using ten self-tapping screws of the type “EJOT PT
WN1452 K30x8”. The screw head may be chosen by the user. Further information on the mounting process
can be found in the technical explanation of SKiM4 [1].
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Figure 8: Dimensions of Board SKiM4 TMLI
103mm
125mm
The blue marked areas in Figure 7 and Figure 8 indicate the PELV area with the user interface socket. The
insulation is provided by the galvanic insulation of the SKYPER 42 LJ drivers. All area besides the blue
marking may be considered as high voltage area.
3.3
Integrated functions
The Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI have some integrated safety functions to protect the device from certain
harmful conditions.
3.3.1
Thermal protection
The module’s built-in NTC temperature sensor is monitored. At a pre-defined temperature (to be defined by
the user by adjusting a resistor; standard setting is 115°C) a secondary-side error triggers the error-input
of the SKYPER 42 LJ responsible for IGBTs T1 and T4. IGBTs T1 and T4 are switched off immediately and
the error is transmitted from secondary side (high voltage) to primary side (PELV) by the driver. On the
primary side an error is set and the user can react accordingly.
3.3.2
Short circuit protection
A shoot-through from DC+ to DC- by applying incorrect PWM pattern is prohibited by the interlock function
between T1 and T4: it is not possible to turn on both IGBTs at the same time. The interlock time is 2µs.
3.3.3
Desaturation detection at T1 and T4
The voltage drop across the outer IGBTs T1 and T4 is measured while conducting. As soon as the voltage
rises above a pre-defined value (that correlates to very high current of a desaturation event) an error
message is generated by the driver which the user shall react to. The driver automatically turns off the
particular IGBT using the soft-turn-off gate resistor.
3.3.4
Desaturation detection at T2 and T3
The voltage drop across the inner IGBTs T2 and T3 is also measured while conducting. As soon as the
voltage rises above a pre-defined value (that correlates to very high current of a desaturation event) an
error message is generated by the driver which the user shall react to. The driver does not turn off the
desaturated IGBTs by itself; this must be done by the user.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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3.4
Board description
On both boards several components are meant to be changed by the user to achieve an adaptation to the
application conditions.
The changeable components of the contact board are marked with different coloured frames in Figure 9
and Figure 10; function and possible values are explained in chapters 3.4.1 to 3.4.7.
Figure 9: Board SKiM4 MLI; user-changeable components are framed
R123 for adjustment of
temperature error threshold
User access to module
built-in NTC
3x MiniMELF pads for
turn-on resistors
R10, interconnection of
errors of the two
SKYPER 42 LJ drivers
R21
R22
R20
R19
2x MiniMELF pads for
turn-off resistors
R10
R15 – R18, configuration
of error handling of
SKYPER 42 LJ drivers
1x MiniMELF pad for softturn-off resistor
R19 – R22, configuration of
interlock time of the two
SKYPER 42 LJ drivers
G-E suppressor diode
G-E resistor
G-E capacitor
Aux. power supply
23V, 4mA
Pads for adjustment of
VCE_Desat detection level
Figure 10: Board SKiM4 TMLI; user-changeable components are framed
R123 for adjustment of
temperature error threshold
User access to module
built-in NTC
3x MiniMELF pads for
turn-on resistors
R20
R21
R19
R22
2x MiniMELF pads for
turn-off resistors
R10, interconnection of
errors of the two
SKYPER 42 LJ drivers
R10
1x MiniMELF pad for softturn-off resistor
G-E suppressor diode
G-E resistor
G-E capacitor
Pads for adjustment of
VCE_Desat detection level
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
R15 – R18, configuration
of error handling of
SKYPER 42 LJ drivers
R19 – R22, configuration of
interlock time of the two
SKYPER 42 LJ drivers
Aux. power supply
23V, 4mA
Page 10/22
3.4.1
Adjustment of temperature error threshold
A thermal overload can be detected by evaluating the modules’ built-in NTC sensors. In case a thermal
overload is detected the comparator shown in Figure 11 pulls the SKYPER’s error input to GND and so the
driver can communicate an error message.
The resistor R123 (framed brown in Figure 9 and Figure 10) can be used for adjusting the error
temperature threshold.
Figure 11: Schematic of NTC evaluation
5k
T-
T+
30k1
30k1
NTC inside
SKiM4 module
0R
to SKYPER 42 LJ
error input
R123
0R
332R
J
The standard value for R123 is 332 which refers to a temperature threshold of approximately 115°C. The
thermal overload detection is deactivated by removing the two 0 resistors shown in Figure 11.
An error is detected, when the voltage at the negative input of the comparator is greater than the voltage
at the positive input. The resistance of the NTC at a desired shut-off temperature can be taken from the
diagram in Figure 12. With this resistance value the value of R123 can be calculated.
Chip resistors with the size 0805 can be used for R123 and the two 0 jumpers.
Figure 12: SEMiX5 TMLI NTC characteristic (excerpt)
1000
900
800
700
[]
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
[°C]
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Figure 12 shows an excerpt of the SKiM4 MLI/TMLI NTC characteristic which includes the most interesting
temperature range between 70°C and 150°C. The full characteristic can be found in the Technical
Explanations or can be calculated from the formula given in the SKiM4 MLI/TMLI datasheets [1].
3.4.2
Gate resistors
What is called gate resistor in this document for the sake of convenience is realized by three resistors on
the contact board. The SKYPER 42 LJ offers separate connections for turn-on (RGon), turn-off (RGoff) and
soft-turn-off (Rsoft), see Figure 13. RGon is used for every turn-on process, RGoff for every turn-off action. In
case of an error the driver uses Rsoft instead of the standard RGoff. All resistor positions must be populated
for proper operation.
Figure 13: Schematic of gate resistor arrangement
SKYPER 42 LJ
connected to turn-on pin of driver
connected to turn-off pin of driver
connected to soft-turn-off pin of driver
RGon
RGoff
Rsoft
connected to emitter pin of driver
Turn-on resistor (RGon) / capacitor
The boards offer three pads per IGBT (framed blue in Figure 9 and Figure 10) taking MiniMELF or 1206
sized components. Resistor/capacitor values need to be chosen according to the particular application (DClink voltage, DC-link inductance, switching frequency, switching losses, etc.) so there is no general
recommendation. However, the boards come with 3x 13.7 resistors in parallel for immediate start of
operation.
It is necessary to calculate the power losses of the gate resistor in order not to overload and damage it.
Please refer to chapter 5.3 for further information.
Turn-off resistor (RGoff) / capacitor
The boards offer three pads per IGBT (framed orange in Figure 9 and Figure 10) taking MiniMELF or 1206
sized components. Resistor/capacitor values need to be chosen according to the particular application (DClink voltage, DC-link inductance, switching frequency, switching losses, etc.) so there is no general
recommendation. However, the boards come with 3x 13.7 resistors in parallel for immediate start of
operation.
It is necessary to calculate the power losses of the gate resistor in order not to overload and damage it.
Please refer to chapter 5.3 for further information.
Soft-turn-off resistor (Rsoft)
The boards offer one pad per IGBT (framed green in Figure 9 and Figure 10) taking a MiniMELF or 1206
sized component. The resistor value needs to be chosen according to the particular application (DC-link
voltage, DC-link inductance, switching frequency, switching losses, etc.) so there is no general
recommendation. However, the boards come with a 47.5 resistor for immediate start of operation.
It is recommended to calculate the power losses of the gate resistor in order not to overload and damage
it.
Please refer to chapter 5.3 for further information.
3.4.3
Gate-Emitter (GE) components
For every IGBT the boards offer one pad sized SMB and two pads sized 0805 (framed red in Figure 9 and
Figure 10). SEMIKRON recommends to use one of the 0805 sized pads for placing a 10k resistor and the
SMB sized pad for placing a 15V bidirectional breakdown-diode for gate protection which is also the
standard value the boards are equipped with. The additional 0805 sized pad may be used for a GE
capacitor if required.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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3.4.4
VCE,Desat components
For every IGBT the boards offers two pads sized 0805 (framed purple in Figure 9 and Figure 10) for
adjusting the VCE,Desat detection level. The standard values are 10k and 820pF for the outer IGBTs T1 and
T4 and 15k and 820pF for the inner IGBTs T2 and T3. With these values the detection at the outer
switches is more sensitive and it can be made sure that the inner switches will not detect an error before
the outer switches.
For further information please refer to the technical explanation of SKYPER 42 LJ [1].
3.4.5
Error interaction of driver T1/T4 and driver T2/T3
The 0805 sized R10 (framed orange-dotted in Figure 9 and Figure 10) on the driver board may either be
left open or equipped with a 0 jumper. In case of 0 the error outputs/inputs of the two SKYPER 42 LJ
drivers are connected. In case R10 is not connected an error output of one driver would not be
communicated to the error input of the other driver immediately. SEMIKRON recommends to equip R10
with 0. Please refer to chapter 5.2 for detailed information.
3.4.6
Error handling of driver T1/T4 and driver T2/T3
The 0805 sized resistors R15-R18 (framed green-dotted in Figure 9 and Figure 10) may be equipped as
shown in Table 3 and Table 4. While R15 and R16 set the error handling for the driver of T1 and T4, R17
and R18 set the error handling for the driver of T2 and T3.
Any other combination (e.g. all resistors 0 or all resistors not connected) will lead to malfunction and may
damage the system.
Table 3: Functional table for R15 – R16 (error handling setup for T1 and T4)
R15
0
n.c.
R16
n.c.
0
The particular driver generates an error
signal when a secondary side error occurs,
but the concerned IGBTs are not turned
off.
The driver does not react to an external
error signal; it stays in the previous state
until it is turned off by PWM (in case of a
previous error, the soft-turn-off resistor is
used).
A continuous error signal prevents the
driver from turning on.
The particular driver generates an error
signal and immediately turns off the
concerned IGBTs using the soft-turn-off
resistors when a secondary side error
occurs.
In case an external error signal is applied
the driver turns off the two IGBTs.
A continuous error signal prevents the
driver from turning on.
 Default setup (recommended)
Function ➔
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Table 4: Functional table for R17 – R18 (error handling setup for T2 and T3)
R17
0
n.c.
R18
n.c.
0
The particular driver generates an error
signal when a secondary side error occurs,
but the concerned IGBTs are not turned
off.
The driver does not react to an external
error signal; it stays in the previous state
until it is turned off by PWM (in case of a
previous error, the soft-turn-off resistor is
used).
A continuous error signal prevents the
driver from turning on.
 Default setup (recommended)
The particular driver generates an error
signal and immediately turns off the
concerned IGBTs using the soft-turn-off
resistors when a secondary side error
occurs.
In case an external error signal is applied
the driver turns off the two IGBTs.
A continuous error signal prevents the
driver from turning on.
Function ➔
3.4.7
Interlock time of driver T1/T4 and driver T2/T3
The 0805 sized resistors R19-R22 (framed red-dotted in Figure 9 and Figure 10) may be equipped as
shown in Table 5 and Table 6. R19 and R20 set the interlock function for the driver of T2 and T3, R21 and
R22 set the interlock time for the driver of T1 and T4.
Any other combination (e.g. all resistors 0 or all resistors not connected) will lead to malfunction and may
damage the system.
Table 5: Functional table for R19 – R20 (interlock setup for T2 and T3)
R19
0
n.c.
R20
n.c.
0
The interlock time between T2 and T3 is
set to 0. That means that both IGBTs may
be switched on at the same time.
 Default setup (recommended)
The interlock time between T2 and T3 is
activated and set to 2µs. That means that
one IGBT may be switched on 2µs after
the other IGBT switched off. The two
IGBTs cannot be turned on at the same
time.
Function ➔
Table 6: Functional table for R21 – R22 (interlock setup for T1 and T4)
R21
0
n.c.
R22
n.c.
0
The interlock time between T1 and T4 is
set to 0. That means that both IGBTs may
be switched on at the same time.
The interlock time between T1 and T4 is
activated and set to 2µs. That means that
one IGBT may be switched on 2µs after
the other IGBT switched off. The two
IGBTs cannot be turned on at the same
time.
 Default setup (recommended)
Function ➔
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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4.
User Interface
4.1
Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI interface
The two driver boards connect to a SKiM4 MLI or a SKiM4 TMLI (or compatible) module on the bottom side,
to two SKYPER 42 LJ and the user on the top side.
4.1.1
Module interface
The pinout of a SKiM4 MLI and SKiM4 TMLI module is shown in Figure 14 and explained in Table 7. All
modules that are pin-compatible may be used with the driver kit.
Figure 14: SKiM4 interface
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Table 7: SKiM4 MLI (TMLI) pin description
Pin
Description
Pin
Description
1
n.c.
(n.c.)
20
n.c.
(n.c.)
2
n.c.
(n.c.)
21
n.c.
(Emitter IGBT T3)
3
Collector IGBT T1
(n.c.)
22
n.c.
(n.c.)
4
DC+ terminal
(DC+ terminal)
23
n.c.
(Gate IGBT T3)
5
N terminal
(N terminal)
24
AC terminal
(AC terminal)
6
N auxiliary
(Gate IGBT T2)
25
Gate IGBT T2
(n.c.)
7
n.c.
(n.c.)
26
n.c.
(n.c.)
8
n.c.
(Emitter IGBT T2)
27
Emitter IGBT T2
(n.c.)
9
N terminal
(N terminal)
28
n.c.
(n.c.)
10
DC- terminal
(DC- terminal)
29
n.c.
(Emitter IGBT T1)
11
Emitter IGBT T4
(Collector IGBT T2)
30
n.c.
(n.c.)
12
n.c.
(n.c.)
31
n.c.
(Gate IGBT T1)
13
Gate IGBT T4
(n.c.)
32
Emitter IGBT T1
(n.c.)
n.c.
(n.c.)
33
n.c.
(n.c.)
15
n.c.
(n.c.)
34
Gate IGBT T1
(n.c.)
16
n.c.
(n.c.)
35
NTC sensor
(NTC sensor)
17
Emitter IGBT T3
(Emitter IGBT T4)
36
n.c.
(n.c.)
18
n.c.
(n.c.)
37
NTC sensor
(NTC sensor)
19
Gate IGBT T3
(Gate IGBT T4)
38
n.c.
(n.c.)
14
Further information about module mounting, etc. may be found in the module datasheets and the SKiM4
technical explanation [1].
4.1.2
Temperature sensing interface
In case the internal temperature shut-off shall be replaced by an external (user-side) temperature
evaluation, the two 0 jumpers need to be removed; that deactivates the internal temperature error
detection and disconnects the NTC sensor from the on-board circuits. The user can access the NTC directly
using the solder pads T+ and T- (framed blue-dotted in Figure 9 and Figure 10).
If required the auxiliary power supply of the driver’s secondary side can supply 23V at max. 4mA for the
user’s temperature evaluation circuit. The power supply can be found in the purple-dotted box in Figure 9
and Figure 10. Please note that the temperature sensor and the aforementioned power supply
has no protective separation from high voltage circuits!
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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4.2
User interface
The user interface is the 20-pin connector X10 located in the middle of the driver board. The pin description
is given in Table 8 and is valid for both MLI and TMLI driver board.
Table 8: X10 pin description
Pin
Signal name
Description
Voltage level
1
IF_PWR_VP
Driver supply voltage
2
IF_PWR_VP
Driver supply voltage
3
GND
Ground
0V
4
GND
Ground
0V
5
GND
Ground
0V
6
IF_CMN_T1
PWM pattern IGBT T1
Off=0V / On=15V; Rin=10k / 1nF
7
GND
Ground
0V
8
IF_CMN_T2
PWM pattern IGBT T2
Off=0V / On=15V; Rin=10k / 1nF
9
GND
Ground
0V
10
IF_CMN_T3
PWM pattern IGBT T3
Off=0V / On=15V; Rin=10k / 1nF
11
GND
Ground
0V
12
IF_CMN_T4
PWM pattern IGBT T4
Off=0V / On=15V; Rin=10k / 1nF
13
GND
Ground
0V
14
GND
Ground
0V
15
IF_CMN_NERR_1
Error input/output T1/T4
Error=0V / ready-for-operation=15V
(Pull-Up to 15V on user-side; Rpull-up=1.8k..10k)
16
GND
Ground
0V
17
IF_CMN_NERR_2
Error input/output T2/T3
Error=0V / ready-for-operation=15V
(Pull-Up to 15V on user-side; Rpull-up=1.8k..10k)
18
GND
Ground
0V
19
GND
Ground
0V
20
GND
Ground
0V
5.
15VDC±4%, max. 0.5A
Restrictions and Requirements
This chapter claims some restrictions that must be paid attention to in order to avoid damage to driver kit
or power semiconductor.
5.1
Switching pattern of TMLI modules
A detailed explanation of the TMLI switching pattern is given in the SEMIKRON Application Note AN11001
[3]. Summed up always an inner IGBT (T2 or T3) may be switched on first, the corresponding outer IGBT
(T1 or T4) after a short while, namely when the inner IGBT is entirely switched on. For switch-off this
sequence must be maintained in reverse order: it must be made sure that T1 (T4) is thoroughly turned off
before T2 (T3) may be switched off.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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This sequence is recommended to be maintained at any time, even and especially in case of
emergency shut-down (e.g. because of over current or desaturation).
In case all IGBTs are turned off simultaneously a current through T1 would not commutate to T2 but to D4
instead. As this commutation loop inherits a higher inductance a higher voltage overshoot would happen at
the turning-off IGBT (here: T1). If the voltage applied to T1 exceeded the blocking voltage T1 would be
destroyed.
If switching off all IGBTs simultaneously is recommended it must be made sure that the voltages across the
semiconductors do never exceed the blocking voltages.
5.2
Error treatment
If a desaturation event occurs, the desaturated IGBT must be turned off within 10µs, otherwise it might be
destroyed by this extreme overload. The correct turn-of sequence (inner IGBT first, outer IGBT afterwards)
is recommended to be maintained to prevent the commutating semiconductors from overvoltage.
The user can influence the error management by equipping or not connecting R10 on the driver board;
SEMIKRON recommends to equip R10 with 0W. For an error at T1 (T4) it makes no difference if it is
equipped or not, but in case of an error at T2 (T3) the turn-off sequence is faster. The error treatments are
described below.
In any case the user needs to react appropriately to error messages sent from the Board SKiM4 MLI /
TMLI: the correct switching pattern is recommended and a switch-off time below 10µs ins mandatory to
avoid damage.
5.2.1
Secondary error at T1 (T4)
In case a secondary side error (e.g. desaturation) occurs at an outer IGBT (T1 or T4) the error signal is
communicated to the driver’s primary side and an error message is produced and sent to the user interface
using pin 15 of X10 (see Table 8). At the same time the particular IGBT (T1 or T4) is turned off using the
soft-turn-off resistor.

When resistor R10 on the driver board is equipped with 0 the error message from driver of T1 and
T4 is sent to the error input of the driver of T2 and T3. This error message at the input prevents
the driver from turning on as long as the error message is active. If IGBTs T2 or T3 are in on-state
when the error message is received by the error input, however, the IGBTs are not turned off as
long as the PWM signal of T2 (T3) is active. As soon as the PWM signal turns off the IGBTs are
turned off.

Not connecting R10 does not make a difference: the error message from driver of T1 and T4 will
not be sent to driver of T2 and T3 and the correct and in-time shut-off needs to be ensured by the
user.
5.2.2
Secondary side error at T2 (T3)
In case a secondary side error (e.g. desaturation) occurs at an inner IGBT (T2 or T3) the error signal is
communicated to the driver’s primary side and an error message is produced and sent to the user interface
using pin 17 of X10 (see Table 8).
In order to maintain the correct turn-off sequence the inner IGBTs are not turned off automatically.

When resistor R10 on the driver board is equipped with 0 the error message from driver of T2 and
T3 is sent to the error input of the driver of T1 and T4 indicating an immediate turn-off of T1 and
T4.

When resistor R10 on the driver board is not connected the error message from driver of T2 and T3
is not sent to the error input of the driver of T1 and T4. It is in the responsibility of the user to take
care of switching off the short circuit within 10µs using the correct turn-off sequence.
In both cases the IGBTs T2 or T3 are switched off with the next regular PWM turn-off. The IGBT which
detected the error is switched off using the soft-turn-off resistor, the IGBT without error is turned off using
the standard resistors.
5.2.3
Error treatment in parallel operation
It is possible to use several driver boards in parallel to increase the inverter’s output power by simply plug
all parallel drivers to one controller cable. This methods parallels all PWM signals and also the error
messages. The errors of one Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI would be communicated to the other drivers of one
phase leg leading to the error handling as describes above.
5.2.4
Error treatment in 3-phase systems
In 3-phase systems there is no direct connection of the driver’ error signals. This connection must be
provided by the user; either by a hardware connection of the particular error lines or by routing the error
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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messages and appropriate handling on the controller side. Please note that time is critical when an error
occurs and therefore error treatment shall be performed using fast hardware.
5.3
5.3.1
Design limits gate resistors
Minimum gate resistor
The minimum gate resistor is determined by the maximum voltage change of the driver during switching; it
turns from -8V to +15V or back, so the voltage change is 23V. The peak current SKYPER 42 LJ is capable of
driving 20A, so the minimum total gate resistor that needs to be used is 1.15.
The total gate resistor consists of the internal gate resistor of the two module (that can be found in the
module datasheet) and the gate-turn-on or gate-turn-off resistors RGon and RGoff. The minimum gate
resistors can be calculated according to:
, = , = 1.15 − 
If this value is ≤0 the value for RGon or RGoff can be chosen to 0 without overpowering the driver.
Otherwise this minimum gate resistance must be used to avoid damage to the SKYPER 42 LJ.
5.3.2
Power rating of the gate resistors
Depending on the ohmic value of the gate resistors also their power rating needs to be chosen sufficiently
high to avoid overload.
The gate resistors need to be able to withstand high pulse load. It needs to be made sure by the user to
choose suitable resistors.
Please note that 1206 sized chip resistors have a lower power and pulse load rating than MiniMELF
resistors.
Further information about the power rating and correct choice of gate resistors can be found in Application
Note AN7003.
5.4
Design limits switching frequency
The maximum switching frequency is determined by the used modules and their gate charge and the power
of the SKYPER 42 LJ drivers. Further information on calculating the switching frequency limit can be found
in Application Note AN7004.
5.5
Design limits ambient temperature
This Application Sample has been developed as reference design for laboratory use and tested in the range
of 0°C to 40°C accordingly.
However, it might be possible to extend the ambient temperature range; the responsibility to test and
qualify this larger range remains with the user.
5.6
SEMIKRON assembly
SEMIKRON has tested the Application Sample with a specific DC-link, DC-link connection and snubber
capacitors. All variable parts (resistors / capacitors, e.g. RGon, RGoff, etc.) are chosen to allow for immediate
start of operation. These values are not suitable for optimal operation (e.g. optimized switching losses or
minimized voltage overshoots). This work needs be done in the final setup.
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
1: MLI (left) and TMLI (common emitter; right) .........................................................................2
2: SKiM4 ...............................................................................................................................3
3: SKiM4 MLI driver board
..................................................................................................3
4: SKiM4 TMLI driver board .....................................................................................................4
5: Board SKiM4 MLI block diagram ...........................................................................................7
6: Board SKiM4 TMLI block diagram .........................................................................................7
7: Dimensions of Board SKiM4 MLI ...........................................................................................8
8: Dimensions of Board SKiM4 TMLI .........................................................................................9
9: Board SKiM4 MLI; user-changeable components are framed .................................................. 10
10: Board SKiM4 TMLI; user-changeable components are framed .............................................. 10
11: Schematic of NTC evaluation ........................................................................................... 11
12: SEMiX5 TMLI NTC characteristic (excerpt) ......................................................................... 11
13: Schematic of gate resistor arrangement ............................................................................ 12
14: SKiM4 interface .............................................................................................................. 15
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
Safety instructions ..............................................................................................................5
Safety regulations for work with electrical equipment ..............................................................6
Functional table for R15 – R16 (error handling setup for T1 and T4) ........................................ 13
Functional table for R17 – R18 (error handling setup for T2 and T3) ........................................ 14
Functional table for R19 – R20 (interlock setup for T2 and T3) ................................................ 14
Functional table for R21 – R22 (interlock setup for T1 and T4) ................................................ 14
SKiM4 MLI (TMLI) pin description ........................................................................................ 16
X10 pin description ............................................................................................................ 17
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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Symbols and Terms
Letter Symbol
Term
2L
Two level
3L
Three level
DC-
Negative potential (terminal) of a direct voltage source
DC+
Positive potential (terminal) of a direct voltage source
fsw
Switching frequency
GND
Ground
IGBT
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
N
Neutral potential (terminal) of a direct voltage source; midpoint between DC+
and DC-
n.c.
not connected
NTC
Temperature sensor with negative temperature coefficient
PELV
Protective Extra Low Voltage
PWM
Pulse Width Modulation
RGint
Internal gate resistance
RGoff
External gate series resistor at switch-off
RGon
External gate series resistor at switch-on
RMS
Root Mean Square
SELV
Safety Extra Low Voltage
t
Time
Ta
Ambient temperature
Tj
Junction temperature
TNPC
T-type Neutral Point Clamped
VCE
Collector-emitter voltage
VDC
Total supply voltage between DC+ and DC-
A detailed explanation of the terms and symbols can be found in the "Application Manual Power
Semiconductors" [2]
References
[1] www.SEMIKRON.com
[2] A. Wintrich, U. Nicolai, W. Tursky, T. Reimann, “Application Manual Power Semiconductors”, ISLE
Verlag 2011, ISBN 978-3-938843-666
[3] I. Staudt, “3L NPC & TNPC Topology”, SEMIKRON Application Note, AN11001 - rev05, Nuremberg,
2015
[4] M. Hermville, “Gate Resistor – Principles and Applications”, SEMIKRON Application Note, AN7003 rev00, Nuremberg, 2007
[5] M. Hermville, “IGBT Driver Calculation”, SEMIKRON Application Note, AN7004 - rev00, Nuremberg,
2007
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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HISTORY
SEMIKRON reserves the right to make changes without further notice herein
DISCLAIMER
SEMIKRON reserves the right to make changes without further notice herein to improve reliability, function
or design. Information furnished in this document is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed with respect to the accuracy or use of such
information, including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights of
any third party. SEMIKRON does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any
product or circuit described herein. Furthermore, this technical information may not be considered as an
assurance of component characteristics. No warranty or guarantee expressed or implied is made regarding
delivery, performance or suitability. This document supersedes and replaces all information previously
supplied and may be superseded by updates without further notice.
SEMIKRON products are not authorized for use in life support appliances and systems without the express
written approval by SEMIKRON.
SEMIKRON INTERNATIONAL GmbH
P.O. Box 820251 • 90253 Nuremberg • Germany
Tel: +49 911-65 59-234 • Fax: +49 911-65 59-262
[email protected] • www.semikron.com
© by SEMIKRON / 2015-11-12 / Technical Explanation / Board SKiM4 MLI / TMLI
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