200W SMPS Evaluation Board using LLC Controller ICE1HS01G-1

AN- EVAL- 1H S01G -1 - 200 W
2 00 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A S MP S
de mons trator wi th I CE1 H S 01 G - 1
Application Note
About this document
Scope and purpose
This document is a 200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A 280 VAC input off-line half bridge LLC resonant converter
demonstrator board using Infineon ICE1HS01G-1.
Intended audience
This document is intended for users of the ICE1HS01G-1 who wish to design a system of high efficiency,
simple in design, low cost and high reliable in half bridge (HB) LLC resonant converter for application of
LED/OLED/LCD/PDP TV, AC-DC adapter and audio SMPS.
Table of Contents
About this document ................................................................................................................... 1
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................ 1
1
Abstract ..................................................................................................................... 3
2
Demonstrator board.................................................................................................... 3
3
Specifications of demonstrator board ........................................................................... 5
4
Features of ICE1HS01G-1.............................................................................................. 5
5
Circuit description....................................................................................................... 6
6
6.1
6.2
Circuit Operation ........................................................................................................ 7
Startup Operation ..................................................................................................................................... 7
Output Voltage Regulation....................................................................................................................... 8
7
7.1
Protection Features..................................................................................................... 9
VCC Under Voltage Protection ................................................................................................................... 9
8
8.1
Circuit Diagram and Components List ......................................................................... 12
Schematics...............................................................................................................................................12
1
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Abstract
8.2
8.3
PCB Layout ...............................................................................................................................................13
Components List .....................................................................................................................................14
9
9.1
Transformer Construction.......................................................................................... 17
Mains Transformer ..................................................................................................................................17
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
Electrical Test Results ............................................................................................... 19
Efficiency Measurements........................................................................................................................19
Zero Voltage Switching ...........................................................................................................................19
Soft Start ..................................................................................................................................................20
Over Current Protection .........................................................................................................................21
Over Load Protection ..............................................................................................................................21
Output Short Circuit Protection ............................................................................................................22
Mains Under Voltage Protection ............................................................................................................23
Burst Mode Operation at No Load .........................................................................................................23
Dynamic Load Response ........................................................................................................................24
11
References ............................................................................................................... 25
Revision History........................................................................................................................ 25
Application Note
2
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Abstract
1
Abstract
The demo board described in this paper is a 200W half bridge LLC resonant converter using LLC controller
ICE1HS01G-1, which is an 8-pin LLC controller developed by Infineon Technologies. ICE1HS01G-1 is specially
designed for applications of switch mode power supplies used in LED / OLED / LCD / PDP TV, AC/DC adapter
and Audio system.
ICE1HS01G-1 is an 8-pin DSO-8 controller IC, the PCB layout can be easily implemented. Moreover, it
includes all necessary control strategies for HB LLC resonant converter. ICE1HS01G-1 allows the designer to
choose suitable operation frequency range by programming the oscillator with an external resistor. And the
built-in soft-start function to limit both the inrush current and the overshoot of output voltage is also
provided. In addition, ICE1HS01G-1 performs all necessary protection functions in HB LLC resonant
converters. All of these make ICE1HS01G-1 an outstanding product for HB LLC resonant converter in the
market.
2
Demonstrator board
The 200W half bridge LLC resonant converter demo board with ICE1HS01G-1 is implemented as shown in
Figure 1. The LLC stage’s full load efficiency reaches >93.9%.
Figure 1
EVAL-1HS01G-1-200W half bridge LLC resonant converter (top view)
Application Note
3
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Figure 2
EVAL-1HS01G-1-200W half bridge LLC resonant converter (bottom view)
Application Note
4
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Specifications of demonstrator board
3
Specifications of demonstrator board
Table 1
Specifications of EVAL-1HS01G-1-200W
Nominal AC Input voltage
280 VAC
Nominal DC Input voltage
380 VDC
Mains under voltage protection point
285 VDC
Auxiliary power supply for IC VCC
15 VDC
Nominal output full load
24 V 6 A, 12 V 5 A
Switching frequency
95kHz @ 24 V 6 A,12 V 5 A and 380 VDC input
Form factor case size (L x W x H)
200mm x 120mm x 32mm
4
Features of ICE1HS01G-1
Table 2
Features of ICE1HS01G-1
Maximum 600kHz switching frequency
Adjustable minimum switching frequency with high accuracy
50% duty cycle
Mains input under voltage protection with adjustable hysteresis
Two levels of over-current protection: frequency shift and latch off
Open-loop/over load protection with extended blanking time
Built-in digital and nonlinear soft start
Adjustable restart time during fault protection period
Application Note
5
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit description
5
Circuit description
In actual application, the LLC stage is used to follow a PFC pre-regulator. In this demo board, in order to
simplify and speed up the LLC controller’s feature evaluation, the conventional bridge rectifier BR100,
instead of PFC, is used to provide high input DC voltage for the downstream LLC stage. Thus, around 280 VAC
input voltage is recommended to feed this demo board, and accordingly 380 VDC voltage across bulk
capacitor C100 can be achieved.
The AC line input side comprises the input fuse FUSE100 as over-current protection. The X2 Capacitors
CX100, CX101 and Choke L101 and Y1 capacitors CY100 and CY101 forms a main filter to minimize the
feedback of RFI into the main supply. NTC resistor RT100 is placed in series with input to limit the initial
peak inrush current. After the bridge rectifier BR100, together with a smoothing capacitor C100, a voltage of
300 VDC to 400 VDC is provided, depending on mains input voltage, to simulate the real operation condition
with front end PFC pre-regulator.
Also, the bulk capacitor C100 can be directly connected to an external DC power supply, thus the 380 VDC can
be obtained. This measure makes sense when the customers want to evaluate the LLC stage’s efficiency.
The second stage is a half bridge LLC resonant converter, operating in zero voltage switching mode. The
controller ICE1HS01G-1 is an 8 pin LLC controller, which incorporates the necessary functions to drive the
half bridge’s high side and low side MOSFETs (Q100 and Q101) by a 50% duty cycle with dead time. The
switching frequency can be changed by ICE1HS01G-1 to regulate the output voltage against the load and
input voltage variations. During operation, the primary MOSFETs Q100 and Q101 are turned-on under ZVS
condition and the secondary rectifier diodes D100~D103 are turned-on and turned-off under ZCS condition.
Hence high power conversion efficiency can be achieved.
The Driver Circuit can be implemented by cost-effective pulse transformer. As shown in Figure-7, Pulse
transformer TR200 is used to transmit the driver signal to MOSFETs for isolation purpose.
The mains transformer TR100 uses the magnetic integration approach, incorporating the resonant series
and shunt inductances. Thus, no additional external coils are needed for the resonance. The transformer
configuration chosen for the secondary winding is center-tapped, and the output rectifiers D100~D103 are
schottky diodes, in order to limit the power dissipation.
In case of a short circuit, the current flowing through the primary winding is detected by the lossless circuit
(C106, C111, D104, D105, R102, and R107) and the resulting signal is fed into CS Pin.
In case of overload, the voltage on CS pin will overpass an internal threshold 0.8V that triggers a protection
mode which keeping the current flowing in the circuit at a safe level. In addition, the blanking time and the
restart time can be adjusted by external components.
Application Note
6
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Operation
6
Circuit Operation
6.1
Startup Operation
The controller ICE1HS01G-1 is targeting at applications with auxiliary power supply. In most cases, a frontend PFC pre-regulator with a PFC controller is used in the same system.
After IC supply voltage is higher than 12V, and if the voltage on VINS pin is higher than 1.25V, IC will start
switching with soft start. The soft start function is built inside the IC with a digital manner. During soft start,
the switching frequency of the MOSFET is controlled internally by changing the current I SS instead of by the
feedback voltage. The charging current ISS during soft start, which determines the switching frequency, is
reduced step by step as shown in product datasheet [1]. The maximum duration of soft start is 32ms with
1ms for each step. Figure 3 illustrates the actual switching frequency vs start time when RFMIN=25kΩ. During
soft start, the frequency starts from 209 kHz, and step by step drops to normal operation point.
Switching Frequency (KHz)
220.0
200.0
180.0
160.0
140.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
0
2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32
Time (ms)
Switching frequency during soft start @ RFmin=25kΩ
Soft Start 1st step Frequency (KHz)
Figure 3
500.0
450.0
400.0
350.0
300.0
250.0
200.0
150.0
100.0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
RFmin (Kohm)
Figure 4
Soft start 1st step switching frequency vs RFmin
The soft start 1st step switching frequency, maximum frequency during soft start, is also closely related to
the minimum switching frequency fixed by external RFmin resistance. Figure 4 illustrates the relationship
between the 1st step frequency and RFmin.
During soft start, the overload protection is disabled because FB voltage is high.
Application Note
7
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Operation
6.2
Output Voltage Regulation
The minimum switching frequency is a very important factor to guarantee the LLC topology output voltage
regulation at low line input and full load condition. ICE1HS01G-1 allows the minimum switching frequency
easily programmed by connecting an external resistor RFMIN between FMIN pin and ground.
The FMIN pin provides a precise 1.5V reference. The resistor RFMIN, connected from FMIN pin to GND,
determines the current (IFMIN) flowing out of FMIN pin. Around one-tenth of IFMIN is defined as the minimum
charging current (Ichg_min), which in turn defines the minimum switching frequency. The maximum switching
frequency during normal operation and the switching frequency variation range during soft start and over
current protection are all related to this current flowing out of FMIN pin, which is discussed in the product
datasheet [1].
Figure 5
Minimum switching frequency VS RFMIN
The output load information is fed into the controller through feedback voltage V FB. Inside the IC, the
feedback (FB) pin is connected to the 5V voltage source through a pull-up resistor RFB. Outside the IC, this
pin is connected to the collector of opto-coupler. Normally, a ceramic capacitor CFB can be put between this
pin and ground for signal smoothing purpose, also CFB is used to determine the extended blanking time for
over load protection, which will be discussed in section 7.3.
If the output load is increased, and consequently VFB is higher, ICE1HS01G-1 will reduce the switching
frequency to regulate the output voltage and vice versa. The regulation of switching frequency is achieved
by changing the charging current IFB. The relationship between IFB and VFB can be found in product datasheet
[1]. The effective range of feedback voltage VFB is from 1V to 4V. Figure 6 graphs the relationship between the
actual switching frequency and feedback voltage VFB when RFMIN=25kΩ.
160
Frequency (KHz)
140
120
100
80
60
40
0.80
1.30
1.80
2.30
2.80
3.30
3.80
4.30
FB voltage (V)
Figure 6
Switching frequency VS feedback @ RFmin=25kΩ
Application Note
8
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Protection Features
7
Protection Features
7.1
VCC Under Voltage Protection
The controller ICE1HS01G-1 is targeting at applications with auxiliary power supply. In most cases, a frontend PFC pre-regulator with a PFC controller is used in the same system.
The controller starts to operate when the supply voltage VCC reaches the on-threshold, typically 12V. The
minimum operating voltage after turn-on, VVCCoff, is typically 11V. The maximum supply voltage VVCCmax is 18V.
It is suggested that IC is supplied with a regulated dc power supply for stable operation. At the same time, a
small bypass filter capacitor is suggested to be put between VCC and GND pins, as closely as possible.
7.2
Over Current Protection
Current sense pin in ICE1HS01G-1 is only for protection purpose. ICE1HS01G-1 features two-level over
current protection. In case of over-load condition, the lower OCP level,0.8V,will be triggered, the switching
frequency will be increased according to the duration and power of the over load. The higher OCP
level,1.6V,is used to protect the converter if transformer winding is shorted. When V CS reaches 1.6V, the IC
will be latched immediately.
If VCS is higher than 0.8V, IC will boost up the switching frequency. If V CS is lower than 0.75V, IC will resume to
normal operation gradually. If VCS is always higher than 0.8V for 1.5ms, the frequency will rise to its
maximum level and vice versa.
To sum up, ICE1HS01G-1 will increase the switching frequency to limit the resonant current in case of
temporary over-load and will also decrease the switching frequency to its normal value after over-load
condition goes away.
7.3
Over Load Protection
In case of output over load or open control loop fault, the FB voltage will increase to its maximum level. If FB
voltage is higher than VFBH and this condition last longer than a fixed blanking time of T OLP (20ms), the IC will
start the extended blanking timer. The extended blanking timer is realized by charging and discharging the
filter capacitor CFB via the internal pull up resistor RFB and switch QFB. Accordingly the voltage across CFB
varies between VFBL and VFBH.
The time needed for CFB being charged from VFBL to VFBH can be calculated as:
 V  VFBH
tchg _ olp   ln  dd
 Vdd  VFBL

  RFB  CFB

The time needed for CFB being discharged from VFBH to VFBL can be calculated as:
V
tdischg_ olp  ln  FBH
 VFBL

  RQFB  C FB

Thanks to an internal counter, the total extended blanking time can be calculated as:
text _ blank  512  tchg _ olp  tdischg_ olp 
where RQFB is switch QFB‘s on resistance, RQFB=900ohm, VFBH =4.5V, VFBL =0.5V.
Application Note
9
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Protection Features
For example, if CFB is 680pF, tchg _ olp is about 30us, tdischg_ olp is about 1.4us, text _ blank is about 16ms.
If the converter returns to normal operation during the extended blanking time, IC will reset all faults timer
to zero and return to normal operation.
After IC enters into OLP, both switches will be stopped. However, the IC remains active and will try to start
with soft start after an adjustable period. This period is realized by charging and discharging the capacitor
CINS, connected to VINS pin, for N OLP_R times (NOLP_R=2048), accordingly the voltage across CINS varies between
VINSH and VINSL.
The charging and discharging time of CINS can be approximated as:
tch arg ing
R


 VBUS  eq  I INST  Req  VINSH 
RINS1

  Req  C INS  ln 

Req
 I INST  Req  VINSL 
 VBUS 
RINS1


t dicharg ing
R


 VBUS  eq 2  VINSL 
RINS1

  Req 2  CINS  ln 

Req 2
 VINSH 
 VBUS 
RINS1


where Req is the equivalent resistance for paralleling of RINS1 and RINS2,
Req  RINS1 // RINS 2
Req2 is the equivalent resistance for paralleling of RINS1, RINS2 and RQ3 (900ohm typically).
Req 2  RINS1 // RINS 2 // RQ 3
IINST is an internal constant current source IINST=680μA.
VINSL and VINSH is the min. and max voltage at VINS pin: VINSL=0.5V, VINSH=4.5V.
For example, if assume RINS1=5MΩ, RINS2=22kΩ, then tcharging=158µs, tdischarging=44µs.
IC will repeat the charging and discharging process for N OLP_R times (NOLP_R=2048). After that, IC will turn off
the switches for both charging and discharging. In addition, the current source for hysteresis will be turned
on and another blanking time of TBL_VINS (TBL_VINS=20ms) will be added so that VINS pin fully recovers and
represents the bus voltage information. IC will start the soft start after the additional blanking time in case
VVINS is higher than the VVINSon.
The total restart time can be calculated as:
trestart  2048  tch arg ing  tdischarg ing   20ms
7.4
Mains Under Voltage Protection
The working range of mains input voltage needs to be specified for LLC resonant converter. It is important
for the controller to have input voltage sensing function and protection feature, which allow the IC to stop
switching when the input voltage drops below the specified range and restart with soft start when the input
voltage resumes to its normal level. The mains input voltage sensing circuit is shown in product datasheet
[1]. Thanks to the internal current source Ihys (12µA) connected between VINS pin and Ground, an adjustable
hysteresis between the on and off threshold of mains input voltage can be created as:
Application Note
10
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Protection Features
Vhys  RINS1  I hys
The mains input voltage is divided by RINS1 and RINS2. If the on and off threshold for mains input voltage is
Vmainon and Vmainoff, the resistors RINS1 and RINS2 can be selected as:
RINS1 
Vmainon  Vmainoff
I hys
,
RINS 2  RINS1 
VVINSon
Vmainoff  VVINSon
where Ihys=12µA, VVINSon=1.25V.
For example, if RINS1=5MΩ and RINS2=22kΩ, the calculated Vmainon=345V, Vmainoff=285V.
7.5
Open Load Protection
At very light load condition, eg. open load, the designed maximum frequency may not be high enough to
regulate the output voltage, the output voltage may loss control and cause damages. In order to avoid this
issue, the feedback signal VFB is continuously monitored. When VFB drops below VFB_off (typical 0.2V), the
switching signal is disabled after a fixed blanking time, TFB (typical 200ns). VFB will then rise as VOUT starts to
decrease due to no switching signal. Once VFB exceeds the threshold VFB_on (typical 0.3V), IC resumes to
normal operation.
Application Note
11
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Diagram and Components List
8
Circuit Diagram and Components List
8.1
Figure 7
Schematics
Schematics of 200W half bridge LLC resonant
Application Note
12
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Diagram and Components List
8.2
PCB Layout
Figure 8
Component side - View from component side
Figure 9
Solder side - View from solder side
Application Note
13
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Diagram and Components List
8.3
Components List
Table 3
Bill of Materials
Item
Circuit code
C100
Part value
KBU8G
(8A / 400V)
220µF/450V
1
BR100
2
Aluminum Electrolyte
3
4
C101
C102
1000µF/35V
1000µF/35V
Aluminum Electrolyte
Aluminum Electrolyte
5
C103
10µµF/50V
Aluminum Electrolyte
6
C104
100nF/50V
CERAMIC
7
C105
22nF/630V
CERAMIC
8
9
C106
C107
220pF / 630V
1000µF/25V
CERAMIC
Aluminum Electrolyte
10
C108
1000µF/25V
Aluminum Electrolyte
11
C109
470µF/25V
Aluminum Electrolyte
12
C110
470µF/35V
Aluminum Electrolyte
13
14
C111
C112
220nF/50V
680pF/50V
CERAMIC
CERAMIC
15
C113
22nF/50V
CERAMIC
16
C114
33nF/50V
CERAMIC
17
C115
N.C.
CERAMIC
18
19
C116
C117
1µF/50V
1µF/50V
Aluminum Electrolyte
CERAMIC
20
CX100
100nF/305 VAC
CERAMIC
21
CX101
220nF/305 VAC
CERAMIC
EPCOS / B32922C3224K000
22
CY100
2n2/500Vac Y1
CERAMIC
EPCOS / B81123C1222M000
23
24
CY101
CY102
2n2/500Vac Y1
2n2/500Vac Y1
CERAMIC
CERAMIC
EPCOS / B81123C1222M000
EPCOS / B81123C1222M000
25
D100
MBR2035CT
Vishay / MBR2035CT
26
D101
MBR2560CT
SCHOTTKY DIODE
SCHOTTKY DIODE
27
28
D102
D103
MBR2560CT
MBR2035CT
SCHOTTKY DIODE
Vishay / MBR2560CT
Vishay / MBR2035CT
29
D104
1N4148
DIODE
30
D105
1N4148
DIODE
31
D106
1N4148
DIODE
32
D107
1N4148
33
D202
MBR160
DIODE
SCHOTTKY DIODE
34
D204
MBR160
SCHOTTKY DIODE
35
FUSE100
5A/250V
RESISTOR FUSE
36
IC100
ICE1HS01G-1
Resonant-Mode
Application Note
Description
Supplier / Part No.
BRIDGE RECTIFIER
SCHOTTKY DIODE
14
EPCOS / B43304C5227M000
EPCOS / B41821A6106M000
EPCOS / B32621A6223J000
Vishay / MBR2560CT
INFINEON / ICE1HS01G-1
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Diagram and Components List
Controller
37
IC101
SFH617A-2
OPTO COUPLER
38
IC102
TL431
ERROR AMPLIFIER
39
L100
1.2µH/7.5A
CHOKE
40
L101
3.3mH/4.6A
COMMON MODE CHOKE
41
L102
1.2µH/7.5A
CHOKE
42
Q100
IPA50R299CP
POWER MOSFET
INFINEON / IPA50R299CP
43
Q101
IPA50R299CP
POWER MOSFET
INFINEON / IPA50R299CP
44
R100
2M /1%
RESISTOR
45
R102
150R
RESISTOR
46
R103
2M / 1%
RESISTOR
47
R104
1M / 1%
RESISTOR
48
R105
22k / 1%
RESISTOR
49
50
R106_1
R106_2
24k / 1%, 0805
1k / 1%
RESISTOR
RESISTOR
51
R107
75R
RESISTOR
52
R108
5k6
RESISTOR
53
R109
1k1
RESISTOR
54
55
R110
R111
10k / 1%
680R / 1%
RESISTOR
RESISTOR
56
R112
13k / 1%
RESISTOR
57
R113
1k0 / 1%
RESISTOR
58
R114
30k / 1%
RESISTOR
59
R115
3k6 / 1%
RESISTOR
60
R116
3k6 / 1%
RESISTOR
61
R117
2k2
RESISTOR
62
R200
8R2
RESISTOR
63
R201
10R
RESISTOR
64
R202
11K
RESISTOR
65
R205
8R2
RESISTOR
66
R206
10R
RESISTOR
67
R207
11K
RESISTOR
68
RT100
S237/5
Thermister
69
TR100
TRANS-LLC-TWO
LLC Transformer
70
TR200
71
VR100
72
ZD100
JP1, JP2, JP3,
JP4, JP5, JP6,
73
Application Note
Pulse
Transformer
S10k/275
Pulse transformer
VDR
15V
Zener diode
Jumper
Jumper
15
EPCOS / B82734R2462B30
EPCOS / B57237S509M000
Wurth Electronics Midcom
Inc. (Model:750342784)
Wurth Electronics Midcom
Inc. (Model:750342109)
EPCOS / B72210S271K101
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200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Circuit Diagram and Components List
74
JP7, JP8, JP9,
JP10, JP11,
JP12
HS1
For Q100, Q101
Heatsink
75
HS2
For D101, D102
Heatsink
76
HS3
For D100, D103
Heatsink
77
CN1
For AC
2-pin connector
78
CN2
For 15V
2-pin connector
79
CN3
For 12V
2-pin connector
80
CN4
For 24V
2-pin connector
Application Note
16
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Transformer Construction
9
Transformer Construction
9.1
Mains Transformer





Bobbin: type ER34
Core: TP4 ER34 from TDG
Primary inductance: 636µH±5%, Gapped between Pin3 and Pin5 (measured at 50kHz)
Leakage inductance: 100µH±5%, measured between Pin3 and Pin5 by shorting (Pin 8 & 10
and Pin 12 &14) or (Pin 8& 9 and Pin 12 & 13) (measured at 100kHz)
Manufacturer and part number : Wurth Electronics Midcom 750342784
Figure 10
LLC resonant transformer electrical diagram
Figure 11
LLC resonant transformer complete – bottom view
Pin 14
Pin 13
Pin 13
Pin 12
Pin 5
Pin10
Pin 9
Pin9
Pin 8
Pin 3
Core Center Limb
Primary winding
Secondary winding 1
Secondary winding 2
Insulation tape
Figure 12
LLC resonant transformer winding position
Application Note
17
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200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Transformer Construction
Table 4
LLC resonant transformer winding characteristics
Pins
3~5
8~9
9~10
12~13
13~14
9.2
winding
primary
Secondary 1
Secondary 2
Secondary 3
Secondary 4
turns
34
4
4
2
2
wire
7*0.20
19*0.20
19*0.20
19*0.20
19*0.20
Pulse Transformer



Bobbin: E16/8/5, Vertical version from TDG
Core: E16/8/5 TP4 from TDG
Manufacturer and part number : Wurth Electronics Midcom 750342109
Pin 8
Pin 1
Pin 7
Pin 5
Pin 4
Pin 6
Figure 13
Pulse Transformer electrical diagram
Vertical bobbin
Figure 14
1
2
3
4
TOP VIEW
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
8
7
6
5
Pulse transformer complete – top view
Insulation tape
Pin 8
Pin 7
22 turns 1XAWG28
Pin 4
Pin 1
18 turns 1XAWG28
Pin 6
Pin 5
22 turns 1XAWG28
Core Centre
Figure 15
Pulse transformer winding position
Application Note
18
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Electrical Test Results
10
Electrical Test Results
10.1
Efficiency Measurements
Table 5 shows the output voltage measurements at the nominal input voltage 380 VDC, with different load
conditions. The input voltage 380 VDC is supplied from a high voltage DC power supply.
Table 5
Efficiency measurements @ input voltage =380 VDC
Load(%)
Vout1(V)
Iout1(A)
Vout2(V)
Iout2(A)
Pout(W)
Vin(V)
Iin(A)
Pin(W)
VCC(V)
Ivcc(A)
Pvcc(W)
Eff.(%)
100%
24.02
6.01
11.80
5.00
203.31
379.9
0.57
216.20
14.18
0.0199
0.28
93.91%
82%
23.99
5.00
11.82
4.00
167.30
379.9
0.47
177.53
14.18
0.0200
0.28
94.09%
65%
23.96
4.00
11.83
3.01
131.45
379.9
0.37
139.39
14.18
0.0202
0.29
94.11%
50%
23.97
3.01
11.82
2.50
101.77
379.9
0.28
108.04
14.18
0.0203
0.29
93.94%
47%
23.93
3.01
11.84
2.00
95.83
379.9
0.27
101.78
14.18
0.0203
0.29
93.90%
29%
23.89
2.01
11.86
1.00
59.89
379.9
0.17
64.13
14.18
0.0205
0.29
92.98%
20%
23.93
1.20
11.84
1.00
40.57
379.9
0.12
44.14
14.18
0.0206
0.29
91.30%
15%
23.89
1.01
11.86
0.51
30.08
379.9
0.09
33.17
14.18
0.0207
0.29
89.90%
10%
23.92
0.60
11.84
0.51
20.35
379.9
0.06
23.36
14.18
0.0207
0.29
86.00%
5%
23.90
0.30
11.85
0.25
10.15
379.9
0.03
12.88
14.18
0.0208
0.30
77.02%
The power losses due to IC and driver circuit are both included. In addition, the efficiency values were
measured after 30 minutes of warm-up at full load.
100%
95%
90%
Efficiency
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
0
50
100
150
Pout (W)
Figure 16
LLC stage efficiency
10.2
Zero Voltage Switching
Application Note
19
200
250
Eff @ 380Vdc
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Electrical Test Results
The LLC system can achieve ZVS over a very wide range of load.
Vd_Q101
Vd_Q101
Ip_TR100
Ip_TR100
VLDS
VLDS
VHGS
VHGS
Figure 17
Zero Voltage switching (Left: @ 380 VDC input voltage and 100% full load, Right : @ 380 VDC
input voltage and 10% full load)
10.3
Soft Start
During start-up at full load or no load, the primary resonant current is strictly limited, and the 24 V output
voltage smoothly rises to its regulated value. The overshoot is less than 10%, the start-up time is less than
30ms.
fsw
f
sw
Vout_24V
Vout_24V
Ip
Ip
Vgate
Vgate
VFB
VFB
Figure 18
Soft start at full load and no load (Left: Soft start @ 380 VDC input voltage and full load,
Right : Soft start @ 380 VDC input voltage and no load)
Application Note
20
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Electrical Test Results
10.4
Over Current Protection
Figure 19 shows the over current protection. Two kinds of OCP are avilable. The 1st is VCS > 0.8 V and the
switching frequency increase according to the exceeded duration. Then it would return to normal switching
frequency when VCS < 0.75 V (left side waveform). The 2nd one is VCS > 1.6 V, the system enters latch mode
(right side waveform).
o
Vout_12V
Vlg
V_out_12V
2
V
Vout_12V
4
VVlg
Vout_12V
V
V
fsw
I
fsw
N
S
VCS
VCS
V
V
I
N
S
Figure 19
Over Current Protection (Left : 12 V @ 5 A, 24 V @ 6 A – 9 A - switching frequency increase
when VCS > 0.8 V and then drop to normal when V CS < 0.75 V. The system enters AR after
over load protection reached. Right : 24 V @ 6 A, 12 V short circuit - system enter OCP
latch mode when the VCS > 1.6 V.)
10.5
Over Load Protection
Blanking time in case of over load protection can be adjusted as discussed before, the charging time t chg_olp
and discharging time tdischg_olp of CFB is 31.6µs and 1.62µs respectively, this measured result is closely equal to
the calculated result which is mentioned at section 7.3.
Vo_24V
VFB
Vg
VVINS
VFB
Figure 20
Adjustable extended blanking time in case of over load protection
Restart time in case of over load protection can also be adjusted as discussed before, the charging time
tcharge and discharging time tdischarge of Cvins is 118.4µs and 51.8µs respectively, this measured result is closely
equal to the calculated result which is mentioned at section 7.3.
Application Note
Vo_24V
21
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Electrical Test Results
Vo_24V
VFB
VFB
Vg
V
o
Vg _V
VVINS
VVINS
2
F
4
B
VVINS
V
V
V
I
N
VVINS
S
V
V
I
N
S
Figure 21
Adjustable restart time in case of over load protection (Left : CVINS charging time, Right :
CVINS discharging time)
10.6
Output Short Circuit Protection
When the output load is short circuit, VFB jumps to a higher value. When this condition lasts longer than the
internal fixed blanking time 20ms, the extended adjustable blanking time will be initiated. After these two
blanking times the IC will enter restart mode and stops switching if the short circuit condition still exists.
After an adjustable restart time plus an internal fixed restart time 20ms, the IC resumes to normal operation
with soft start. During soft start, the over load protection is disabled. When soft start process completed, if
the output short circuit condition still exists, IC will enter auto restart mode again. When the output short
circuit condition disappears, IC will resume to normal operation and the 24 V output voltage is established
again.
Vo_24V
VFB
Vg
VVINS
Internally fixed
blanking time 20ms
Figure 22
Adjustable
blanking time
Adjustable
restart time
Internally fixed
restart time 20ms
Output short circuit protection
Application Note
22
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
Electrical Test Results
10.7
Mains Under Voltage Protection
When Vbus drops lower than 285 VDC, IC stops switching; When Vbus rises up to 356 VDC, IC starts normal
operation after a 500.8us blanking time. These measured results are closely equal to the calculated results
mentioned at section 7.4.
Vbus
Vbus
Vgate
Vgate
VVINS
VVINS
V
o
_
V
2
F
4
B
V
V
V
I
N
S
V
V
I
N
S
Figure 23
Mains under voltage protection (Left : IC starts operation when Vbus resumes to normal
value, Right : IC stops switching when Vbus drops to designed value)
10.8
Burst Mode Operation at No Load
Burst mode operation is implemented in ICE1HS01G-1 to avoid possible over output voltage issue in case of light load
or no load operation. When VFB drops below VFB_off (measured value 0.180 V), the switching signal will be disabled. VFB
will then rise as Vout starts to decrease due to no switching signal. Once VFB exceeds the threshold VFB_on (measured
value 0.285 V), IC resumes to normal operation.
Vout_24V
VFB
Vgate
Figure 24
Burst mode operation
Application Note
23
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
10.9
Dynamic Load Response
Figure 25 shows the dynamic behavior of this demo board during a load variation from around 10% to 100%
full load on one output, with the other output at its full load. The output voltage ripple of 24 V and 12 V are
both less than 5%.
Vout_24V
Vout_24V
o
_
2
V
Vout_12V
Vout_12V
4
V
V
V
I
Iout_24V
Iout_12V
N
S
V
V
I
N
S
Figure 25
Dynamic load response (Left : 24 V @ 6 A, 12 V @ 0.5 A – 5 A, Right : 24 V @ 0.5 A - 6 A, 12 V
@ 5 A)
Application Note
24
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
200 W 24 V 6 A & 12 V 5 A SMPS demonstrator with ICE1HS01G-1
References
11
References
[1]
Datasheet ICE1HS01G-1 Half-Bridge Resonant Controller, Infineon Technologies AG, 2011
[2]
Application Note ANPS0031 -ICE1HS01G Half Bridge LLC Resonant Converter Design using ICE1HS01G,
Infineon Technologies, 2009
[3]
RW ERICKSON, D MAKSIMOVIC: ‘Fundamentals of power electronics’ (Kluwer Academic Publishers,
2001), pp. 705–755
[4]
B Yang: ‘Topology investigation for front end DC/DC power conversion for distributed power system’,
PhD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2003
[5]
Mingping Mao, Dimitar Tchobanov, Dong Li, Martin Maerz, Tobias Gerber, Gerald Deboy, Leo Lorenz.:
‘Analysis and design of a 1MHz LLC Resonant Converter with Coreless transformer driver’. PCIM
Conference, Shanghai. 2007
[6]
M Mao, D Tchobanov, D Li, M Maerz.: ‘Design optimization of a 1MHz half bridge CLL resonant
converter’. IET Power Elec
Revision History
Major changes since the last revision
Page or Reference
12, 13, 14, 15, 16
Application Note
Description of change
Revise schematic value, add PCB solder side legend and revise BOM typo
25
Revision 2.1a, 2015-11-06
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