DATASHEET

NOT RECO
MMENDED
FOR NEW
RECOMME
DESIGNS
NDED REP
LACEMEN
T PARTS
ISL97671A
or ISL9767
2B
ISL97672
Features
The ISL97672 is an integrated power LED driver that
controls 6 channels of LED current for LCD backlight
applications. The ISL97672 is capable of driving up to
78 LEDs from 4.5V to 26V or 48 LEDs from a boost
supply of 2.7V to 26V and a separate 5V bias supply on
the VIN pin.
• 6 Channels
The ISL97672 compensates for non-uniformity of the
forward voltage drops in the LED strings with its 6 voltage
controlled-current source channels. Its headroom control
monitors the highest LED forward voltage string for output
regulation, to minimize the voltage headroom and power
loss in a typical multi-string operation.
• PWM Dimming Linearity 0.4%~100% <30kHz
The ISL97672 allows direct PWM mode by following the
external signal from 0Hz to 30KHz at 0.4% to 100% duty
cycle and maintaining a typical ±0.7% current matching
between channels.
• 4.5V to 26.5V Input
• 45V Output Max
• Up to 40mA LED Current per channel
• Direct PWM Dimming without Phase Shift
• Adjustable 200kHz to 1.4MHz Switching Frequency
• Dynamic Headroom Control
• Protections with Flag Indication
- String Open/Short Circuit, VOUT Short Circuit,
Overvoltage and Over-Temperature Protections
- Optional Master Fault Protection
• Current Matching ±0.7%
• 20 Ld 4mmx3mm QFN Package
The ISL97672 features a separate EN pin and extensive
protection functions that flag whenever a fault occurs.
The protections include string open and short circuit
detections, OVP, OTP, thermal shutdown and an optional
input overcurrent protection with fault disconnect switch.
Applications
Related Literature
• Automotive or Traffic Lighting
• Notebook Displays LED Backlighting
• LCD Monitor LED Backlighting
• Automotive Displays LED Backlighting
• See AN1581, “ISL97671/2/3/4IRZ-EVAL Quick Start
Guide”
Typical Application Circuit
VOUT = 45V*, 40mA PER STRING
VIN = 4.5V~26.5V
ISL97672
1 FAULT
2 VIN
4 VDC
18 COMP
LX 20
OVP 16
PGND 19
6 /FLAG
CH0 10
CH1 11
5 PWM
3 EN
CH2 12
CH3 13
17 RSET
CH4 14
8 FSW
CH5 15
9 AGND
* VIN > 12V
FIGURE 1. ISL97672 TYPICAL APPLICATION DIAGRAM
August 14, 2012
FN7632.3
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 |
Intersil (and design) is a trademark owned by Intersil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2010, 2012. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ISL97672
6-Channel LED Driver
ISL97672
Block Diagram
45V*,40mA
25mA per string
78 (6x13) LEDs
VIN = 4.5V~26V
(Optional Q1)
VIN
10uH/3A
FAULT
EN
REG
VDC
O/P Short
Bias
Σ=0
/FLAG
Imax
Fault
Flag
OVP
OVP
Fault
Flag
fsw
OSC &
RAMP
Comp
4.7uF/50V
LX
Boost SW
Logic
FET
Driver
ILIMIT
PGND
pe
Open Ckt, Short Ckt
Detects
Fault/Status Control
GM
AMP
COMP
CH5
VSET
0
+
+
-
RSET
REF
GEN
REF_OVP
CH0
CH1
Highest VF
String Detect
Temp
Sensor
PWM0
Fault
Flag
REF_VSC
GND
1
+
-
PWM1
PWM
V
12V
* Vin
> 6V
IN >
PWM
GENERATOR
+
-
5
PWM5
ISL97672
FIGURE 2. ISL97672 BLOCK DIAGRAM
2
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Pin Configuration
20
NOTES:
1. Add “-T” or “-TK” suffix for tape and reel. Please refer to
TB347 for details on reel specifications.
2. These Intersil Pb-free plastic packaged products employ
special Pb-free material sets, molding compounds/die
attach materials, and 100% matte tin plate plus anneal
(e3 termination finish, which is RoHS compliant and
compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering
operations). Intersil Pb-free products are MSL classified at
Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the
Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
19
18
17
FAULT
1
16 OVP
VIN
2
15 CH5
EN
3
14 CH4
VDC
4
13 CH3
PWM
5
12 CH2
/FLAG
6
3. For Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL), please see device
information page for ISL97672. For more information on
MSL please see techbrief TB363.
Pin Descriptions
RSET
ISL97672IRZ-EVAL Evaluation Board
11 CH1
7
8
9
10
CH0
L20.3x4
COMP
20 Ld 4x3 QFN
ISL97672
(20 LD 4X3 QFN)
TOP VIEW
AGND
PKG.
DWG. #
PGND
7672
PACKAGE
(Pb-Free)
FSW
ISL97672IRZ
PART
MARKING
LX
PART
NUMBER
(Notes 1, 2, 3)
NC
Ordering Information
(I = Input, O = Output, S = Supply)
PIN NAME
PIN #
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
FAULT
1
O
Fault disconnect switch
VIN
2
S
Input voltage for the device and LED power
EN
3
I
The device needs 4ms for initial power-up Enable. It will be disabled if it is not biased for longer
than 28ms.
VDC
4
S
De-couple capacitor for internally generated supply rail.
PWM
5
I
PWM brightness control pin.
/FLAG
6
O
/Flag = 0 for any fault conditions. /Flag =1 for normal condition. Open drain that needs pull up.
NC
7
I
No Connect
FSW
8
I
Boost switching frequency set pin by connecting a resistor. See “Switching Frequency” on page 10
for resistor calculation
AGND
9
S
Analog Ground for precision circuits
CH0
10
I
Input 0 to current source, FB, and monitoring
CH1
11
I
Input 1 to current source, FB, and monitoring
CH2
12
I
Input 2 to current source, FB, and monitoring
CH3
13
I
Input 3 to current source, FB, and monitoring
CH4
14
I
Input 4 to current source, FB, and monitoring
CH5
15
I
Input 5 to current source, FB, and monitoring
OVP
16
I
Overvoltage protection input
RSET
17
I
Resistor connection for setting LED current, (see Equation 1 for calculating the ILEDpeak)
COMP
18
O
Boost compensation pin
PGND
19
S
Power ground (LX Power return)
LX
20
O
Input to boost switch
3
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Absolute Maximum Ratings (TA = +25°C)
Thermal Information
VIN, EN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to 28V
FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIN - 8.5V to VIN + 0.3V
VDC, COMP, RSET, PWM, OVP, /FLAG, FSW . . . -0.3V to 5.5V
CH0 - CH5, LX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to 45V
PGND, AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to +0.3V
Above voltage ratings are all with respect to AGND pin
ESD Rating
Human Body Model (Tested per JESD22-A114E) . . . . . 3kV
Machine Model (Tested per JESD22-A115-A) . . . . . . . 300V
Charged Device Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1kV
Latch Up (Tested per JESD-78B; Class 2, Level A) . . . 100mA
Thermal Resistance (Typical)
θJA (°C/W) θJC (°C/W)
20 Ld QFN Package (Notes 4, 5, 7) .
Thermal Characterization (Typical)
40
2.5
PSIJT (°C/W)
20 Ld QFN Package (Note 6) . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Absolute Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . +150°C
Recommended Max Operating Junction Temperature . +125°C
Storage Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -65°C to +150°C
Pb-Free Reflow Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see link below
http://www.intersil.com/pbfree/Pb-FreeReflow.asp
Operating Conditions
Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to +85°C
IMPORTANT NOTE: All parameters having Min/Max specifications are guaranteed. Typical values are for information purposes only. Unless
otherwise noted, all tests are at the specified temperature and are pulsed tests, therefore: TJ = TC = TA
CAUTION: Do not operate at or near the maximum ratings listed for extended periods of time. Exposure to such conditions may adversely impact
product reliability and result in failures not covered by warranty.
NOTES:
4. θJA is measured in free air with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board with “direct attach”
features. See Tech Brief TB379.
5. For θJC, the “case temp” location is the center of the exposed metal pad on the package underside assumed under ideal case
temperature.
6. PSIJT is the junction-to-top thermal resistance. If the package top temperature can be measured, with this rating then the die
junction temperature can be estimated more accurately than the θJC and θJC thermal resistance ratings.
7. Refer to JESD51-7 high effective thermal conductivity board layout for proper via and plane designs.
Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
All specifications below are tested at TA = +25°C; VIN = 12V, EN = 5V, RSET = 20.52kΩ, unless
otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range,
-40°C to +85°C.
DESCRIPTION
CONDITION
MIN
(Note 8)
TYP
MAX
(Note 8) UNIT
GENERAL
VIN (Note 9)
IVIN_STBY
VOUT
Backlight Supply Voltage
TC = <+60°C
TA = +25°C
4.5
26.5
V
10
µA
4.5V < VIN ≤ 26V,
FSW = 600kHz
45
V
8.55V < VIN ≤ 26V,
FSW = 1.2MHz
45
V
4.5V < VIN ≤ 8.55V,
FSW = 1.2MHz
VIN/0.19
V
3.3
V
VIN Shutdown Current
Output Voltage
Vuvlo
Undervoltage Lock-out Threshold
Vuvlo_hys
Undervoltage Lock-out Hysteresis
2.6
275
mV
ENABLE AND PWM GENERATOR
VIL
Guaranteed Range for PWM Input Low
Voltage
VIH
Guaranteed Range for PWM Input High
Voltage
FPWM
tON
0.8
V
1.5
VDD
V
PWM Input Frequency Range
200
30,000
Hz
Minimum On Time
250
350
ns
4
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
All specifications below are tested at TA = +25°C; VIN = 12V, EN = 5V, RSET = 20.52kΩ, unless
otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range,
-40°C to +85°C. (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
CONDITION
MIN
(Note 8)
TYP
4.55
4.8
MAX
(Note 8) UNIT
REGULATOR
VDC
LDO Output Voltage
VIN > 6V
Standby Current
EN = 0V
IVDC
Active Current
EN = 5V
VLDO
VDC LDO Droop Voltage
VIN > 5.5V, 20mA
ENLow
Guaranteed Range for EN Input Low
Voltage
ENHi
Guaranteed Range for EN Input High
Voltage
IVDC_STBY
tENLow
5
V
5
µA
5
20
mA
200
mV
0.5
V
1.8
EN low time before shut-down
V
30.5
ms
BOOST
SWILimit
rDS(ON)
SS
Eff_peak
ΔIOUT/ΔVIN
Dmax
Dmin
Boost FET Current Limit
1.5
Internal Boost Switch ON-Resistance
TA = +25°C
Soft-start
100% LED Duty Cycle
Peak Efficiency
Boost Minimum Duty Cycle
A
235
300
mΩ
ms
VIN = 12V, 72 LEDs, 20mA
each, L = 10µH with DCR
101mΩ, TA = +25°C
92.9
%
VIN = 12V, 60 LEDs, 20mA
each, L = 10µH with DCR
101mΩ, TA = +25°C
90.8
%
0.1
%
FSW = 600kHz
90
%
FSW = 1.2MHz
81
%
FSW = 600kHz
9.5
%
FSW = 1.2MHz
17
%
fS
Minimum Switching Frequency
RFSW = 200kΩ
fS
Maximum Switching Frequency
RFSW = 33kΩ
LX Leakage Current
LX = 45V, EN = 0
ILX_leakage
2.7
7
Line Regulation
Boost Maximum Duty Cycle
2.0
175
200
235
kHz
1.312
1.50
1.69
MHz
10
µA
±1.0
%
+1.5
%
CURRENT SOURCES
IMATCH
IACC
Vheadroom
VRSET
ILEDmax
Channel-to-Channel Current Matching
RSET =20.52kΩ
(IOUT = 20mA)
Current Accuracy
±0.7
-1.5
Dominant Channel Current Source
Headroom at IIN Pin
ILED = 20mA
TA = +25°C
Voltage at RSET Pin
RSET = 20.52kΩ
Maximum LED Current per Channel
VIN = 12V, VOUT = 45V,
Fsw = 1.2MHz,
TA = +25°C
500
1.2
1.22
mV
1.24
40
mV
mA
FAULT DETECTION
VSC
Short Circuit Threshold
PWM Dimming = 100%
5.2
5.85
6.6
V
Temp_shtdwn
Temperature Shutdown Threshold
150
°C
Temp_Hyst
Temperature Shutdown Hysteresis
23
°C
5
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
VOVPlo
All specifications below are tested at TA = +25°C; VIN = 12V, EN = 5V, RSET = 20.52kΩ, unless
otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range,
-40°C to +85°C. (Continued)
DESCRIPTION
MIN
(Note 8)
CONDITION
Overvoltage Limit on OVP Pin
MAX
(Note 8) UNIT
TYP
1.19
OVPfault
OVP Short Detection Fault Level
FLAG_ON
Fault Flag
When Fault Occurs
IFAULT
Fault Pull-down Current
VIN = 12V
VFAULT
Fault Clamp Voltage with Respect to VIN
VIN = 12, VIN-VFAULT
1.25
V
400
mV
0.4
V
FAULT PIN
LXstart_thres
ILXStartup
LX Start-up Threshold
LX Start-up Current
VDC = 5.0V
12
21
30
µA
6
7
8.3
V
1.3
1.4
1.5
V
1
3.5
5
mA
NOTES:
8. Parameters with MIN and/or MAX limits are 100% tested at +25°C, unless otherwise specified. Temperature limits established
by characterization and are not production tested.
9. At maximum VIN of 26.5VV, minimum VOUT is 28V. Minimum VOUT can be lower at lower VIN.
10. Limits established by characterization and are not production tested.
100
100
90
90
80
80
70
24VIN
12VIN
60
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
Typical Performance Curves
5VIN
50
40
30
20
10
0
6P10S_30mA/CHANNEL
70
24VIN
12VIN
60
5VIN
50
40
30
20
10
0
5
10
15
20
0
25
0
5
10
ILED(mA)
FIGURE 3. EFFICIENCY vs up to 20mA LED CURRENT
(100% LED DUTY CYCLE) vs VIN
15
20
ILED(mA)
25
30
35
FIGURE 4. EFFICIENCY vs up to 30mA LED CURRENT
(100% LED DUTY CYCLE) vs VIN
100
100
80
70
580k
60
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
90
1.2MHz
50
40
30
20
80
60
1.2MHz
580k
40
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
VIN
FIGURE 5. EFFICIENCY vs VIN vs SWITCHING
FREQUENCY AT 20mA (100% LED DUTY
CYCLE)
6
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
VIN
FIGURE 6. EFFICIENCY vs VIN vs SWITCHING
FREQUENCY AT 30mA (100% LED DUTY
CYCLE)
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
100
0.40
CURRENT MATCHING(%)
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
70 +25°C
60
-40°C
+85°C
0°C
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
-0.30
21 VIN
1
2
VIN
4
6
5
7
FIGURE 8. CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL CURRENT
MATCHING
1.2
0.60
+25°C
0.8
VHEADROOM (V)
1.0
CURRENT
3
CHANNEL
FIGURE 7. EFFICIENCY vs VIN vs TEMPERATURE AT
20mA (100% LED DUTY CYCLE)
4.5 VIN
0.6
12 VIN
0.4
-40°C
0.55
0.50
0°C
0.45
0.2
0
12 VIN
-0.20
-0.40
0
30
4.5 VIN
-0.10
0
1
2
3
DC
4
5
6
FIGURE 9. CURRENT LINEARITY vs LOW LEVEL PWM
DIMMING DUTY CYCLE vs VIN
FIGURE 11. VOUT RIPPLE VOLTAGE, VIN = 12V, 6P12S
AT 20mA/CHANNEL
7
0.40
0
5
10
15
VIN (V)
20
25
30
FIGURE 10. VHEADROOM vs VIN AT 20mA
FIGURE 12. IN-RUSH and LED CURRENT AT VIN = 6V
FOR 6P12S AT 20mA/CHANNEL
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
FIGURE 13. IN-RUSH AND LED CURRENT AT VIN = 12V
FOR 6P12S AT 20mA/CHANNEL
FIGURE 14. LINE REGULATION WITH VIN CHANGE
FROM 6V TO 26V, VIN = 12V, 6P12S AT
20mA/CHANNEL
FIGURE 15. LINE REGULATION WITH VIN CHANGE
FROM 26V TO 6V FOR 6P12S AT
20mA/CHANNEL
FIGURE 16. LOAD REGULATION WITH ILED CHANGE
FROM 0% TO 100% PWM DIMMING,
VIN = 12V, 6P12S AT 20mA/CHANNEL
FIGURE 17. LOAD REGULATION WITH ILED CHANGE
FROM 100% TO 0% PWM DIMMING,
VIN = 12V, 6P12S AT 20mA/CHANNEL
FIGURE 18. ISL97671 SHUTS DOWN AND STOPS
SWITCHING ~ 30ms AFTER EN GOES LOW
8
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Theory of Operation
PWM Boost Converter
The current mode PWM boost converter produces the
minimal voltage needed to enable the LED stack with the
highest forward voltage drop to run at the programmed
current. The ISL97672 employs current mode control
boost architecture that has a fast current sense loop and
a slow voltage feedback loop. Such architecture achieves
a fast transient response that is essential for the
notebook backlight application where the power can be a
series of drained batteries or instantly changed to an
AC/DC adapter without rendering a noticeable visual
nuisance. The number of LEDs that can be driven by
ISL97672 depends on the type of LED chosen in the
application. The ISL97672 is capable of boosting up to
45V and typically driving 13 LEDs in series for each of the
8 channels, enabling a total of 104 pieces of the
3.2V/20mA type of LEDs.
Enable
The Enable pin is used to enable the device. If there is
no signal for longer than 28ms, the device will enter
shutdown. Do not let Enable pin floating thus a 10k or
higher pull-down resistor should be added.
OVP and VOUT
The Over Voltage Protection (OVP) pin has a function of
setting the overvoltage trip level as well as limiting the
VOUT regulation range.
The ISL97672 OVP threshold is set by RUPPER and
RLOWER such that:
VOUT_ovp = 1.21V*(RUPPER+RLOWER)/RLOWER
and VOUT can only regulate between 61% and 100% of
the VOUT_ovp such that:
Allowable VOUT = 61% to 100% of VOUT_ovp
For example, if 10 LEDs are used with the worst case
VOUT of 35V. If R1 and R2 are chosen such that the OVP
level is set at 40V, then the VOUT is allowed to operate
between 24.4V and 40V. If the requirement is changed to
a 6 LEDs of 21V VOUT application, then the OVP level
must be reduced and users should follow VOUT = (61%
~100%) OVP level requirement. Otherwise, the
headroom control will be disturbed such that the channel
voltage can be much higher than expected and
sometimes it can prevent the driver from operating
properly.
The ratio of the OVP capacitors should be the inverse of
the OVP resistors. For example, if RUPPER/RLOWER = 33/1,
then CUPPER/CLOWER = 1/33 with CUPPER = 100pF and
CLOWER = 3.3nF.
Current Matching and Current Accuracy
Each channel of the LED current is regulated by the
current source circuit, as shown in Figure 19.
The LED peak current is set by translating the RSET
current to the output with a scaling factor of 410.5/RSET.
9
+
-
+
REF
RSET
+
PWM DIMMING
FIGURE 19. SIMPLIFIED CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUIT
The source terminals of the current source MOSFETs are
designed to run at 500mV to optimize power loss versus
accuracy requirements. The sources of errors of the
channel-to-channel current matching come from the
op amp’s offset, internal layout and reference and these
parameters are optimized for current matching and
absolute current accuracy. The absolute accuracy is also
determined by the external RSET. A 1% tolerance resistor
should be used.
Dynamic Headroom Control
The ISL97672 features a proprietary Dynamic Headroom
Control circuit that detects the highest forward voltage
string or effectively the lowest voltage from any of the
CH0-CH5 pins. When this lowest channel voltage is lower
than the short circuit threshold, VSC, such voltage will be
used as the feedback signal for the boost regulator. The
boost makes the output to the correct level such that the
lowest channel pin is at the target headroom voltage.
Since all LED stacks are connected to the same output
voltage, the other channel pins will have a higher
voltage, but the regulated current source circuit on each
channel will ensure that each channel has the same
current. The output voltage will regulate cycle by cycle
and it is always referenced to the highest forward voltage
string in the architecture.
Dimming Controls
The ISL97672 allows two ways of controlling the LED
current, and therefore, the brightness. They are:
1. DC current adjustment
2. PWM chopping of the LED current defined in Step 1.
MAXIMUM DC CURRENT SETTING
The initial brightness should be set by choosing an
appropriate value for RSET. This should be chosen to fix
the maximum possible LED current:
410.5
I LEDmax = --------------R SET
(EQ. 1)
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
For example, if the maximum required LED current
(ILED(max)) is 20mA, rearranging Equation 1 yields
Equation 2:
R SET = 410.5 ⁄ 0.02 = 20.52kΩ
(EQ. 2)
PWM CURRENT CONTROL
The ISL97672 employs direct PWM dimming such that
the output PWM dimming follows directly with the input
PWM signal without modifying the input frequency. The
average LED current of each channel can be calculated as
Equation 3:
(EQ. 3)
I LED ( ave ) = I LED × PWM
Switching Frequency
The boost switching frequency can be adjusted by a
resistor as Equation 4:
10
( 5 ×10 )
f SW = ----------------------R FSW
(EQ. 4)
where fSW is the desirable boost switching frequency and
RFSW is the setting resistor.
5V Low Dropout Regulator
A 5V LDO regulator is present at the VDC pin to develop
the necessary low voltage supply which is used by the
chips internal control circuitry. Because VDC is an LDO
pin, it requires a bypass capacitor of 1µF or more for the
regulation. The VDC pin can be used as a coarse
reference with few mA sourcing capability.
Inrush Control and Soft-Start
The ISL97672 has separately built-in independent inrush
control and soft-start functions. The inrush control function
is built around the short circuit protection FET, and is only
available in applications which include this device. At
start-up, the fault protection FET is turned on slowly due to
a 30µA pull-down current output from the FAULT pin. This
discharges the fault FET's gate-source capacitance, turning
on the FET in a controlled fashion. As this happens, the
output capacitor is charged slowly through the weakly
turned on FET before it becomes fully enhanced. This
results in a low inrush current. This current can be further
reduced by adding a capacitor (in the 1nF to 5nF range)
across the gate source terminals of the FET.
Once the chip detects that the fault protection FET is
turned on hard, it is assumed that inrush is complete. At
this point, the boost regulator will begin to switch and the
current in the inductor will ramp-up. The current in the
boost power switch is monitored and the switching
terminated in any cycle where the current exceeds the
current limit. The ISL97672 includes a soft-start feature
where this current limit starts at a low value (275mA).
This is stepped up to the final 2.2A current limit in seven
further steps of 275mA. This is stepped up to the final
2.2A current limit in 7 further steps of 275mA. These
steps will happen over at least 8ms, and will be extended
at low LED PWM frequencies if the LED duty cycle is low.
This allows the output capacitor to be charged to the
required value at a low current limit and prevents high
10
input current for systems that have only a low to medium
output current requirement.
For systems with no master fault protection FET, the
inrush current will flow towards COUT when VIN is applied
and it is determined by the ramp rate of VIN and the
values of COUT and L.
Fault Protection and Monitoring
The ISL97672 features extensive protection functions to
cover all the perceivable failure conditions. The failure
mode of a LED can be either open circuit or as a short.
The behavior of an open circuited LED can additionally
take the form of either infinite resistance or, for some
LEDs, a zener diode, which is integrated into the device
in parallel with the now opened LED.
For basic LEDs (which do not have built-in zener diodes),
an open circuit failure of an LED will only result in the loss
of one channel of LEDs without affecting other channels.
Similarly, a short circuit condition on a channel that
results in that channel being turned off does not affect
other channels unless a similar fault is occurring.
Due to the lag in boost response to any load change at its
output, certain transient events (such as LED current
steps or significant step changes in LED duty cycle) can
transiently look like LED fault modes. The ISL97672 uses
feedback from the LEDs to determine when it is in a
stable operating region and prevents apparent faults
during these transient events from allowing any of the
LED stacks to fault out. See Table 1 for more details.
A fault condition that results in an input current that
exceeds the devices electrical limits will result in a
shutdown of all output channels.
Short Circuit Protection (SCP)
The short circuit detection circuit monitors the voltage on
each channel and disables faulty channels which are above
approximately 5V (the action taken is described in Table 1).
Open Circuit Protection (OCP)
When one of the LEDs becomes open circuit, it can
behave as either an infinite resistance or a gradually
increasing finite resistance. The ISL97672 monitors the
current in each channel such that any string which
reaches the intended output current is considered
“good”. Should the current subsequently fall below the
target, the channel will be considered an “open circuit”.
Furthermore, should the boost output of the ISL97672
reaches the OVP limit or should the lower
over-temperature threshold be reached, all channels
which are not “good” will immediately be considered as
“open circuit”. Detection of an “open circuit” channel will
result in a time-out before disabling of the affected
channel. This time-out is sped up when the device is
above the lower over-temperature threshold in an
attempt to prevent the upper over-temperature trip
point from being reached.
Some users employ some special types of LEDs that have
zener diode structure in parallel with the LED for ESD
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
enhancement and enabling open circuit operation. When
this type of LED is open circuited, the effect is as if the
LED forward voltage has increased but no lighting. Any
affected string will not be disabled, unless the failure
results in the boost OVP limit being reached, allowing all
other LEDs in the string to remain functional. Care should
be taken in this case that the boost OVP limit and SCP
limit are set properly, so as to make sure that multiple
failures on one string do not cause all other good
channels to be faulted out. This is due to the increased
forward voltage of the faulty channel making all other
channels look as if they have LED shorts. See Table 1 for
details regarding responses to fault conditions.
Overvoltage Protection (OVP)
The integrated OVP circuit monitors the output voltage
and keeps the voltage at a safe level. The OVP threshold
is set as Equation 5:
OVP = 1.21V × ( R UPPER + R LOWER ) ⁄ R LOWER
(EQ. 5)
These resistors should be large to minimize the power
loss. For example, a 1MkΩ RUPPER and 30kΩ RLOWER sets
OVP to 41.2V. Large OVP resistors also allow COUT
discharges slowly during the PWM Off time. Parallel
capacitors should also be placed across the OVP resistors
such that RUPPER/RLOWER = CLOWER/CUPPER. Using a
CUPPER value of at least 30pF is recommended. These
capacitors reduce the AC impedance of the OVP node,
which is important when using high value resistors.
Undervoltage Lockout
If the input voltage falls below the UVLO level of 2.45V, the
device will stop switching and be reset. Operation will
restart only if the VIN is back in the normal operating range.
Input Overcurrent Protection
During normal switching operation, the current through
the internal boost power FET is monitored. If the current
11
exceeds the current limit, the internal switch will be
turned off. This monitoring happens on a cycle-by-cycle
basis in a self protecting way.
Additionally, the ISL97672 monitors the voltage at the LX
and OVP pins. At start-up, a fixed current is injected out
of the LX pins and into the output capacitor. The device
will not start-up unless the voltage at LX exceeds 1.2V.
The OVP pin is also monitored such that if it rises above
and subsequently falls below 20% of the target OVP
level, the input protection FET will also be switched off.
Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
The ISL97672 includes two over-temperature thresholds.
The lower threshold is set to +130°C. When this
threshold is reached, any channel which is outputting
current at a level significantly below the regulation target
will be treated as “open circuit” and disabled after a timeout period. This time-out period is also reduced to 800µs
when it is above the lower threshold. The intention of the
lower threshold is to allow bad channels to be isolated
and disabled before they cause enough power dissipation
(as a result of other channels having large voltages
across them) to hit the upper temperature threshold.
The upper threshold is set to +150°C. Each time this is
reached, the boost will stop switching and the output
current sources will be switched off. Once the device has
cooled to approximately +100°C, the device will restart
with the DC LED current level reduced to 75% of the
initial setting. If the dissipation problem persists,
subsequent hitting of the limit will cause identical
behavior, with the current reduced in steps to 50% and
finally 25%. Unless disabled via the EN pin, the device
stays in an active state throughout.
For the extensive fault protection conditions, please refer
to Figure 20 and Table 1 for details.
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
LX
VIN
/FLAG
DRIVER
IMAX
LX
FAULT
O/P
SHORT
OVP
FET
DRIVER
LOGIC
ILIMIT
VOUT
CH0
VSC
FAULT FLAG
CH5
THRM
SHDN
REF
OTP
T2
TEMP
SENSOR
T1
FAULT
DETECT
LOGIC
VSET
Q0 VSET
PWM/OC0/SC0
Q5
PWM/OC5/SC5
PWM
GENERATOR
FIGURE 20. SIMPLIFIED FAULT PROTECTIONS
TABLE 1. PROTECTIONS TABLE
CASE
FAILURE MODE
DETECTION
MODE
FAILED CHANNEL ACTION
GOOD CHANNELS ACTION
1
CH0 Short Circuit
CH0 ON and burns power.
Upper
Over-Temperature
Protection limit
(OTP) not triggered
and CH0 < 4V
2
CH0 Short Circuit
All channels go off until chip
Upper OTP
Same as CH0
triggered but VCH0 cooled and then comes back on
with current reduced to 76%.
< 4V
Subsequent OTP triggers will
reduce IOUT further.
3
CH0 Short Circuit
Upper OTP not
triggered but CH0
> 4V
CH1 disabled after 6 PWM cycle CH1 through CH5 Normal
time-out.
Highest VF of
CH1 through
CH5
4
CH0 Open Circuit
with infinite
resistance
VOUT will ramp to OVP. CH1 will CH1 through CH5 Normal
Upper OTP not
triggered and CH0 time-out after 6 PWM cycles and
< 4V
switch off. VOUT will drop to
normal level.
Highest VF of
CH1 through
CH5
5
CH0 LED Open
Circuit but has
paralleled Zener
CH1 remains ON and has
Upper OTP not
CH1 through CH5 ON, Q1
triggered and CH0 highest VF, thus VOUT increases. through Q5 burn power
< 4V
VF of CH0
12
CH1 through CH5 Normal
VOUT
REGULATED BY
Highest VF of
CH1 through
CH5
Highest VF of
CH1 through
CH5
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
TABLE 1. PROTECTIONS TABLE (Continued)
CASE
FAILURE MODE
DETECTION
MODE
FAILED CHANNEL ACTION
GOOD CHANNELS ACTION
VOUT
REGULATED BY
6
CH0 LED Open
Circuit but has
paralleled Zener
Upper OTP
triggered but CH0
< 4V
All channels go off until chip
Same as CH0
cooled and then comes back on
with current reduced to 76%.
Subsequent OTP triggers will
reduce IOUT further
VF of CH0
7
CH0 LED Open
Circuit but has
paralleled Zener
Upper OTP not
triggered but CHx
> 4V
CH0 remains ON and has
VOUT increases, then CH-X
highest VF, thus VOUT increases. switches OFF after 6 PWM
cycles. This is an unwanted
shut off and can be prevented
by setting OVP at an
appropriate level.
VF of CH0
8
Channel-toChannel
ΔVF too high
Lower OTP
triggered but CHx
< 4V
Any channel at below the target current will fault out after 6 PWM Highest VF of
CH0 through
cycles.
CH5
Remaining channels driven with normal current.
9
Channel-toChannel ΔVF too
high
Upper OTP
triggered but CHx
< 4V
All channels go off until chip cooled and then comes back on with Highest VF of
current reduced to 76%. Subsequent OTP triggers will reduce
CH0 through
IOUT further
CH5
10
Output LED stack
voltage too high
VOUT > VOVP
Any channel that is below the target current will time-out after 6 Highest VF of
CH0 through
PWM cycles, and VOUT will return to the normal regulation
CH5
voltage required for other channels.
11
VOUT/LX shorted
to GND at start-up
or VOUT shorted in
operation
LX current and
timing are
monitored.
OVP pins
monitored for
excursions below
20% of OVP
threshold.
The chip is permanently shutdown 31mS after power-up if
VOUT/Lx is shorted to GND.
13
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Components Selections
According to the inductor Voltage-Second Balance
principle, the change of inductor current during the
switching regulator On time is equal to the change of
inductor current during the switching regulator Off time.
Since the voltage across an inductor is:
(EQ. 6)
V L = L × ΔI L ⁄ Δt
is usually more suitable for EMI susceptible applications,
such as LED backlighting.
The peak current can be derived from the fact that the
voltage across the inductor during the Off period can be
shown as Equation 10:
IL peak = ( V O × I O ) ⁄ ( 85% × V I ) + 1 ⁄ 2 [ V I × ( V O – V I ) ⁄ ( L × V O × f S ) ]
(EQ. 10)
VO ⁄ VI = 1 ⁄ ( 1 – D )
(EQ. 8)
The choice of 85% is just an average term for the
efficiency approximation. The first term is average current
that is inversely proportional to the input voltage. The
second term is inductor current change that is inversely
proportional to L and fS. As a result, for a given switching
frequency and minimum input voltage the system
operates, the inductor ISAT must be chosen carefully. At a
given inductor size, usually the larger the inductance, the
higher the series resistance because of the extra winding
of the coil. Thus the higher the inductance, the lower the
peak current capability. The ISL97672 current limit may
also have to be taken into account.
D = ( VO – VI ) ⁄ VO
(EQ. 9)
Output Capacitors
and ΔIL @ On = ΔIL @ Off, therefore:
( V I – 0 ) ⁄ L × D × tS = ( VO – VD – VI ) ⁄ L × ( 1 – D ) × tS
(EQ. 7)
where D is the switching duty cycle defined by the turnon time over the switching period. VD is Schottky diode
forward voltage that can be neglected for approximation.
Rearranging the terms without accounting for VD gives
the boost ratio and duty cycle respectively as Equations 8
and 9:
Input Capacitor
Switching regulators require input capacitors to deliver
peak charging current and to reduce the impedance of
the input supply. This reduces interaction between the
regulator and input supply, improving system stability.
The high switching frequency of the loop causes almost
all ripple current to flow in the input capacitor, which
must be rated accordingly.
A capacitor with low internal series resistance should be
chosen to minimize heating effects and improve system
efficiency, such as X5R or X7R ceramic capacitors, which
offer small size and a lower value of temperature and
voltage coefficient compared to other ceramic capacitors.
In boost mode, input current flows continuously into the
inductor, with an AC ripple component proportional to the
rate of inductor charging only and smaller value input
capacitors may be used. It is recommended that an input
capacitor of at least 10µF be used. Ensure the voltage
rating of the input capacitor is suitable to handle the full
supply range.
Inductor
The selection of the inductor should be based on its
maximum current (ISAT) characteristics, power
dissipation (DCR), EMI susceptibility (shielded vs
unshielded), and size. Inductor type and value influence
many key parameters, including ripple current, current
limit, efficiency, transient performance and stability.
Its maximum current capability must be adequate to
handle the peak current at the worst case condition. If an
inductor core is chosen with too low a current rating,
saturation in the core will cause the effective inductor
value to fall, leading to an increase in peak to average
current level, poor efficiency and overheating in the core.
The series resistance, DCR, within the inductor causes
conduction loss and heat dissipation. A shielded inductor
14
The output capacitor acts to smooth the output voltage
and supplies load current directly during the conduction
phase of the power switch. Output ripple voltage consists
of the discharge of the output capacitor for ILPEAK during
FET On and the voltage drop due to flowing through the
ESR of the output capacitor. The ripple voltage can be
shown as Equation 11:
ΔV CO = ( I O ⁄ C O × D ⁄ f S ) + ( ( I O × ESR )
(EQ. 11)
The conservation of charge principle in Equation 9 also
brings up a fact that during the boost switch Off period,
the output capacitor is charged with the inductor ripple
current minus a relatively small output current in boost
topology. As a result, the user needs to select an output
capacitor with low ESR and with a enough input ripple
current capability.
Output Ripple
ΔVCo can be reduced by increasing CO or fS, or using
small ESR capacitors. In general, ceramic capacitors are
the best choice for output capacitors in small to medium
sized LCD backlight applications due to their cost, form
factor, and low ESR.
A larger output capacitor will also ease the driver
response during PWM dimming Off period due to the
longer sample and hold effect of the output drooping.
The driver does not need to boost harder in the next On
period that minimizes transient current. The output
capacitor is also needed for compensation, and in
general, 2x4.7µF/50V ceramic capacitors are suitable for
the notebook display backlight applications.
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Schottky Diode
Compensation
A high speed rectifier diode is necessary to prevent
excessive voltage overshoot, especially in the boost
configuration. Low forward voltage and reverse leakage
current will minimize losses, making Schottky diodes the
preferred choice. Although the Schottky diode turns on
only during the boost switch Off period, it carries the
same peak current as the inductor’s, and therefore, a
suitable current rated Schottky diode must be used.
The ISL97672 has two main elements in the system; the
Current Mode Boost Regulator and the op amp based
multi-channel current sources. The ISL97672
incorporates a transconductance amplifier in its feedback
path to allow the user some levels of adjustment on the
transient response and better regulation. The ISL97672
uses current mode control architecture, which has a fast
current sense loop and a slow voltage feedback loop. The
fast current feedback loop does not require any
compensation. The slow voltage loop must be
compensated for stable operation. The compensation
network is a series Rc, Cc1 network from COMP pin to
ground and an optional Cc2 capacitor connected to the
COMP pin. The Rc sets the high frequency integrator gain
for fast transient response and the Cc1 sets the
integrator zero to ensure loop stability. For most
applications, Rc is in the range of 15kΩ and Cc1 is in the
range of 2.2nF. Depends on the PCB layout, a Cc2, in
range of 47pF, may be needed to create a pole to cancel
the output capacitor ESR’s zero effect for stability.
Applications
High Current Applications
Each channel of the ISL97672 can support up to 30mA.
For applications that need higher current, multiple
channels can be grouped to achieve the desirable
current. For example, the cathode of the last LED can be
connected to CH0 to CH2; this configuration can be
treated as a single string with 90mA current driving
capability.
VOUT
CH0
CH1
CH2
FIGURE 21. GROUPING MULTIPLE CHANNELS FOR
HIGH CURRENT APPLICATIONS
15
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Revision History
The revision history provided is for informational purposes only and is believed to be accurate, but not warranted. Please go to
web to make sure you have the latest Rev.
DATE
REVISION
CHANGE
August 1, 2012
FN7632.3
page 5
Changed in Electrical Spec Table Current Sources conditions for IMATCH and VRSET the RSET
from 20.1kohms to 20.52kohms
page 9
In "Current Matching and Current Accuracy", changed 401.8 in 2nd paragraph to 410.5
In Eq 1, changed 401.8 to 410.5
page 10:
In Eq 2, changed 401.8/0.02=20.1kohms to 410.5/0.02=20.52kohms
July 18, 2012
FN7632.2
Stamped page 1 “Not Recommended for New Designs”
November 1, 2010
FN7632.1
Corrected part marking in “Ordering Information” on page 3 from “97672” to “7672”
In “Thermal Information” on page 4 changed:
“Maximum Continuous Junction Temperature . . . . . . +125°C
To:
Absolute Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +150°C
Recommended Max Operating Junction Temperature. . +125°C
Added “Related Literature” on page 1.
Added “Latch Up (Tested per JESD-78B; Class 2, Level A) 100mA” on page 4
June 24, 2010
FN7632.0
Initial Release.
Products
Intersil Corporation is a leader in the design and manufacture of high-performance analog semiconductors. The
Company's products address some of the industry's fastest growing markets, such as, flat panel displays, cell phones,
handheld products, and notebooks. Intersil's product families address power management and analog signal
processing functions. Go to www.intersil.com/products for a complete list of Intersil product families.
For a complete listing of Applications, Related Documentation and Related Parts, please see the respective device
information page on intersil.com: ISL97672
To report errors or suggestions for this datasheet, please go to www.intersil.com/askourstaff
FITs are available from our website at http://rel.intersil.com/reports/search.php
For additional products, see www.intersil.com/product_tree
Intersil products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems as noted
in the quality certifications found at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications
at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by
Intersil is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any
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patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
16
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
ISL97672
Package Outline Drawing
L20.3x4
20 LEAD QUAD FLAT NO-LEAD PLASTIC PACKAGE
Rev 1, 3/10
3.00
0.10 M C A B
0.05 M C
A
B
4
20X 0.25
16X 0.50
+0.05
-0.07
17
A
16
6
PIN 1
INDEX AREA
6
PIN 1 INDEX AREA
(C 0.40)
20
1
4.00
2.65
11
+0.10
-0.15
6
0.15 (4X)
A
10
7
VIEW "A-A"
1.65
TOP VIEW
+0.10
-0.15
20x 0.40±0.10
BOTTOM VIEW
SEE DETAIL "X"
0.10 C
C
0.9± 0.10
SEATING PLANE
0.08 C
SIDE VIEW
(16 x 0.50)
(2.65)
(3.80)
(20 x 0.25)
C
(20 x 0.60)
0.2 REF
5
0.00 MIN.
0.05 MAX.
(1.65)
(2.80)
DETAIL "X"
TYPICAL RECOMMENDED LAND PATTERN
NOTES:
1. Dimensions are in millimeters.
Dimensions in ( ) for Reference Only.
2. Dimensioning and tolerancing conform to AMSE Y14.5m-1994.
3. Unless otherwise specified, tolerance : Decimal ± 0.05
4. Dimension applies to the metallized terminal and is measured
between 0.15mm and 0.30mm from the terminal tip.
5. Tiebar shown (if present) is a non-functional feature.
6. The configuration of the pin #1 identifier is optional, but must be
located within the zone indicated. The pin #1 indentifier may be
either a mold or mark feature.
17
FN7632.3
August 14, 2012
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