Datasheet

Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Large photodiode area (120 × 120 mm)
The C7942CA-22 is a compact, lightweight digital X-ray image sensor developed as a key device for non-destructive inspection,
biochemical imaging, and X-ray microscopy. High-resolution, high-definition digital X-ray images can be acquired in real time.
Features
Applications
2400 × 2400 pixels
Non-destructive inspection (off-line only)
12-bit digital output
Digital X-ray photography
High-speed imaging: 2 frames/s (single operation)
9 frames/s (4 × 4 binning)
Low noise and wide dynamic range
Configuration
PIXEL NUMBER
1 2
2339 2400
2401
4799 4800
SCINTILLATOR
(120 × 120 mm)
PHOTODIODE
ARRAY
5759999
AMP ARRAY No. 1
VERTICAL SHIFT REGISTER
The C7942CA-22 is comprised of a sensor board and a control board. Mounted on the sensor board is a CMOS image sensor chip made
up of a tow-dimensional photodiode array, row-scanning vertical shift register, and 8 charge amplifier arrays. Each charge amplifier array
has a horizontal shift register and consists of 300 ch charge amplifiers with CDS circuit.
A CsI scintillator plate is mounted on the two-dimensional photodiode array. X-rays incident on the scintillator are converted to
fluorescence, which then enters the two-dimensional photodiode array where electric charge is accumulated in each pixel according to
the light intensity. The accumulated charge on each row is sequentially selected by the row-scanning vertical shift register, transferred
to the amplifiers through the data line, and converted to a voltage signal. Then an analog signal is sent out from each amplifier array by
scanning the horizontal shift register.
The control board converts the analog signal into a 12-bit digital signal, which is then sent to a frame grabber board as a 12-bit parallel
output through one port.
5760000
EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY
A.vdd, D.vdd, V (±7.5)
(not attached)
IntExt
BINNING
(bin0, bin1)
TIMING
PULSE
GENERATOR
AMP ARRAY No. 8
OSCILLATOR
ExtTrgLemo
ExtTrgGrb
Vsync
Hsync
Pclk
BIAS
GENERATOR
BUFFER
AMP
PROCESSING
AMP
A/D
FIFO
BUFFER
AMP
PROCESSING
AMP
A/D
FIFO
VIDEO OUTPUT
(12 BIT DIGITAL)
Note: Signals are read out in order of pixel number.
KACCC0216EB
www.hamamatsu.com
1
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Structure
Parameter
Pixel size
Photodiode area
Number of pixels
Number of active pixels
Readout
Video output (Data1-12)
Output data rate
Synchronous signal (Vsync, Hsync, Pclk)
bin0/1, ExtTrgGrb, ExtTrgLemo, IntExt
Scintillator
Specifications
50 × 50
120 × 120
2400 × 2400
2240 × 2344
Charge amplifier array
RS-422 (differential), 12-bit
15.15
RS-422 (differential)
TTL
CsI
Unit
μm
mm
pixels
pixels
MHz
-
Absolute maximum ratings (Ta=25 °C)
Parameter
Symbol
Value
Unit
Supply voltage for digital circuitry (+5 V)
D.vdd
+6.0
V
Supply voltage for analog circuitry (+5 V)
A.vdd
+6.0
V
Supply voltage for analog circuitry (±7.5 V)
V(±7.5)
±12
V
Input voltage (bin0/1, ExtTrgGrb, ExtTrgLemo, IntExt)
Vin
0 to 6.0
V
Topr
0 to +40
°C
Operating temperature*1
Tstg
-10 to +60
°C
Storage temperature*1
Incident X-ray energy
100
kVp
D
1 (8730)
MR (Gy)
Total warranty dose*2
*1: No condensation
When there is a temperature difference between a product and the surrounding area in high humidity environment, dew condensation
may occur on the product surface. Dew condensation on the product may cause deterioration in characteristics and reliability.
*2: Incident X-ray energy 100 kVp or less
Note: Exceeding the absolute maximum ratings even momentarily may cause a drop in product quality. Always be sure to use the
product within the absolute maximum ratings.
Specifications [Ta=25 °C, A.vdd= 5.0 V, D.vdd= 5.0 V, V(±7.5)= ±7.5 V]
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Frame rate (single operation)
Sf(int)
1.9
2
frames/s
Frame rate (2 × 2 binning)
4
frames/s
Frame rate (4 × 4 binning)
9
frames/s
Frame rate external (single operation)
Sf(ext)
Sf(int) to 0.1
frames/s
N(rms)
1100
electrons
Noise (rms)*2
Saturation charge
Csat
2.2
M electrons
S
20 (2.3)
25 (2.9)
LSB/mR (LSB/μGy)
Sensitivity*3
Reso
6
8
line pairs/mm
Resolution*4
Dynamic range
2000
20
lines
Defect line*5
600
μm
Blemish*6
4
%
Non-uniformity of sensitivity*6
Not allowed
Defect cluster*6
120
%
Bright line output adjacent to a defect line*6
Output offset*6
65
200
LSB
*2: Internal trigger mode, single operation
*3: at 80 kVp without filter
*4: Spatial frequency at CTF=5 %
*5: A defect line is a horizontal or vertical line containing 4 or more cosecutive pixels located at the opposite side of an amplifier array
or a shift register, that produce 1/8 of the average sensitivity of the surrounding pixels. Adjacent defective lines are not allowed in
the vertical or horizontal directions.
*6: See P. 7, 8, “Description of terms”
*7: Average of all effective pixels in single operation at Sf(int)
Note: X-ray energy range is 20 k to 100 kVp.
2
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Resolution
[Ta=25 °C, A.vdd=5.0 V, D.vdd=5.0 V, V (±7.5 V)=±7.5 V]
100
90
80
CTF (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Spatial frequency (line pairs/mm)
KACCB0202EB
Output vs. X-ray dose
(X-ray source: 80 kVp, no filter, single operation)
5000
Output (LSB)
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
50
100
150 161
200
X-ray dose (mR)
KACCB0410EA
3
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Timing chart
Internal trigger mode
To acquire images through a frame grabber board, write parameters in the software program or parameter file by referring to the
following timing chart and description.
1 frame (Tvc)
Dummy lines
Vsync+ (grabber)
1st row
2nd row
Tvdpw
He
1st row
2nd row
Last row
All pulses are counted in the
“High” period of Hsync+.
Hsync+ (grabber)
Enlarged view
Vsync+ (grabber)
1st row
2nd row
Hsync+ (grabber)
Phe
Pg
Phe
Phd
Phe
Phd
Pclk+ (grabber)
All pulses are counted at the riging edge of Pclk+.
The effective video output is only included in the “Phe” period.
KACCC0362EC
Parameter
He
Phe
Effective line
Dummy line
Effective pixel
Dummy pixel
Phd
Pg
Note: “He” is the Hsync count. Phe, Phd and Pg are the Pclk count.
Count
2×2
binning
1172
28
1120
80
1726
21
Single operation
(1 × 1)
2344
56
2240
160
526
21
4×4
binning
586
14
560
40
2326
21
External trigger mode
To acquire images in external trigger mode, input an external trigger pulse as shown below. When the time Tvd has passed after the rising
edge of the external trigger pulse, synchronous signals and video signals are obtained.
When used in synchronization with a pulsed X-ray source, X-rays should be irradiated during the Txray period.
40-pin receptacle
Mode
Pin No. 17
Pin No. 37
(ExtTrgGrb)
(IntExt)
Internal trigger
(Input signal is
Low
mode
ignored.)
Rectangular signal
External trigger (See the right figure.)
High
mode
High or Open
2-pin receptacle
Pin No. 1
(ExtTrgLemo)
(Input signal is
ignored.)
High or Open
Rectangular signal
(See the right figure.)
Frame time (Tvc to Tmax)
Recommendation: 50 % of frame time
ExtTrgLemo
ExtTrgGrb
(TTL)
Tvd
Tvc - Tvdpw
Txray
Tvl
Vsync+
(RS-422)
Hsync+, Pclk+ and effective video output are the same as internal trigger mode.
· Tmax is defined as the reciprocal of the minimum value of Sf(ext).
· Txray = Frame time - Tvd - (Tvc - Tvdpw)
· Tvl = Frame time - (Tvc - Tvdpw)
KACCC0341ED
(Typ.)
Parameter
Delay time (only external trigger mode)
Vsync Cycle time (internal trigger mode)
Pulse width of Vsync+ in low period (internal trigger mode)
Note: The numbers of significant figures is two. (except Tvc)
Symbol
Tvd
Tvc
Tvdpw
Single
operation
390
470
770
2×2
binning
390
230
770
4×4
binning
390
117
770
Unit
μs
ms
μs
4
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Accessories
O Power cable (terminated with an FGG.2B.307.CLAD92Z plug at one end and open at the other end; 2 m; see Table 2.)
O External trigger cable (terminated with an FFA.0S.302.CLAC37 plug at one end and open at the other end; 5 m; see Table 3.)
O Earth cable (AWG18; 4 m)
The image acquisition software and image processing libraries are not included with the flat panel sensor.
System requirements
To operate the C7942CA-22 at full performance, the following system and peripherals are required.
O PC: Prepare a PC that meets the specifications of the frame grabber board while taking the required image processing capability into
account.
O Frame grabber board: Monochrome 16 bits or more, pixel clock 16 MHz or more, RS-422 interface synchronous signal
O Power source: A.vdd = +5.0 ± 0.1 V (1000 mA), D.vdd = +5.0 ± 0.1 V (1000 mA), V(±7.5 V) = ±7.5 V ± 0.5 V (±100 mA)
· The voltages described above are specified at the flat panel sensor side. The impedance of the power cable attached with the flat
panel sensor is low enough but it causes 0.1 V approx. drop. Therefore the voltage at the power source side should be set 0.1 V
higher than the voltage specified above.
· Please use a low noise series power supply. (Avoid using a switching power supply.)
· Install a noise filter on the AC power input line to prevent surges on the AC line.
· Always ground the ground terminal to avoid the effects of noise from peripheral devices.
O Frame grabber board cable (sold separately, see P. 8.): For synchronous signal, video output and external control (see Table 1.)
[Table 1] Pin assignment of 40-pin receptacle
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Signal
Data1+ (LSB)
Data2+
Data3+
Data4+
Data5+
Data6+
Data7+
Data8+
Data9+
Data10+
Data11+
Data12+ (MSB)
Reserved
Reserved
bin0 (TTL)
bin1 (TTL)
ExtTrgGrb (TTL)
Vsync+
Hsync+
Pclk+
Pin No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Signal
Data1- (LSB)
Data2Data3Data4Data5Data6Data7Data8Data9Data10Data11Data12- (MSB)
Reserved
Reserved
GND
GND
IntExt (TTL)
VsyncHsyncPclk-
Unless otherwise noted, signal level is RS-422.
40-pin receptacle: 10240-52B2PL made by 3M Co. Ltd.
Mating plug: 10140-6000EL made by 3M Co. Ltd.
5
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
[Table 2] Power pin assignment and cable color
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Shield
Color
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
-
Signal
+7.5 V
Analog GND
-7.5 V
Analog GND
Analog +5 V
Digital GND
Digital +5 V
Analog GND
7-pin power receptacle: ECG.2B.307.CLV made by LEMO S.A.
Mating power plug: FGG.2B.307.CLAD92Z made by LEMO S.A.
[Table 3] External trigger pin assignment and cable color
Pin No.
1
2
Shield
Color
Red
Black
-
Signal
ExtTrgLemo (TTL)
Signal GND
Analog GND
2-pin receptacle: ECP.0S.302.CLL made by LEMO S.A
Mating plug: FFA.0S.302.CLAC37 made by LEMO S.A.
Binning mode
The C7942CA-22 has binning mode for reading out signals from multiple pixels at a time. The binning mode setting can be changed by
using I/O port.
[Table 4] Binning mode setting (Grabber interface: 40-pin receptacle)
Pin No.
Operating mode
No. 15 (bin0)
Low
High
High
Single operation (1 × 1)
2 × 2 binning
4 × 4 binning
No. 16 (bin1)
Low
Low
High
Connection example
Install the frame grabber board into the PC by the manufacturer’s instructions. When a general-purpose frame grabber board with I/O
control is used, the binning mode or trigger mode can be set by controlling bin0, bin1, IntExt, and ExtTrgGrb through the I/O line.
OS +
image acquisition
software
Video output
(12-bit digital)
Vsync, Hsync,
Pclk
Frame
grabber
board
X-ray source
Binning
(bin0, bin1)
IntExt
ExtTrgGrb
PC/AT
(Rear view)
Monitor
ExtTrgLemo
CMOS FLAT PANEL SENSOR C7942CA-22
C7942CA-22
Voltage source
[A.vdd, D.vdd, V(±7.5)]
KACCC0476EB
6
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Dimensional outline (unit: mm, tolerance: ±1 mm unless otherwise noted)
200
28
150*
48
EXT.TRIG
165*
15
(2239,2343)
55
DIGITAL OUT
(0, 0)
27*
17*
12.4
Active area 112
12
(4 ×) M3
depth 4
37
POWER
Active area 117.2
CMOS FLAT PANEL SENSOR C7942CA-22
198
22.9
33.5
43
Scintillator
to top cover
8*
CMOS FLAT PANEL SENSOR C7942CA-22
12.4
127*
33*
Top cover is made of aluminum 1.0 mm thick.
Weight: 2.4 kg
*±0.5 mm
KACCA0248EB
Notice
· Do not subject the flat panel sensors to strong vibration or shock (Strong shock such as drop impacts may cause permanent damage
to these sensors).
· Users must take responsibility for implementing X-ray shielding safety measures to avoid the risk of X-ray exposure.
· Data listed in this datasheet is defined at the time of shipment. Characteristics may vary somewhat due to exposure to X-rays so take
proper coutermeasures such as making periodic image correction.
· This product is warranted for a period of 12 months after the date of the shipment.
The warranty is limited to make a replacement or repair of any defective product due to defects in workmanship or materials used in
manufacture. The warranty does not cover loss or damage caused by natural disaster, misuse (including modifications and any use not
complying with the environment, application, usage and storage conditions described in this datasheet), or total radiation dose over 1
MR (incident X-ray energy: less than 100 kVp) even within the warranty period.
· As described above, flat panel sensors have limited resistance to radiation. This must be taken into account when using a flat panel
sensor under continuous irradiation (This sensor cannot be used for in-line application).
· When using flat panel sensors in non-destructive inspection equipment, please contact us and provide information such as irradiation
conditions.
Guideline on the regular replacement period of consumables
The characteristics of the flat panel sensor degrade when it is subject to X-ray irradiation. The scintillator undergoes discoloration causing
the flat panel sensor’s sensitivity to be reduced, and dark output increases as the photodiodes are damaged. The photodiodes’ dark output
may also increase locally. In addition to regularly acquiring images for correction, consider regularly replacing the flat panel sensor as a
consumable product.
As a guideline on the regular replacement period of the flat panel sensor, the period until the total warranty dose is reached can be used.
The period until the total warranty dose is reached can be calculated simply using the following formula.
Period until the total warranty dose is reached [day] =
Total warranty dose [MR] × Minimum sensitivity [LSB/mR] × 0.7*
Saturation output [LSB/frame] × Maximum frame rate [frames/s] × 3600 [s/hour] × X-ray irradiation time [hours/day]
* Sensitivity attenuation of the flat panel sensor due to X-ray irradiation
As an example, if the following values are substituted in the above formula, the number of operating days is 237.
·
·
·
·
·
Total warranty dose: 1 MR
Minimum sensitivity: 20 LSB/mR (80 kVp)
Saturation output: 4096 LSB/frame
Maximum frame rate: 2 frames/s
X-ray irradiation time: 2 hours/day
Typical examples of variations in the sensitivity and dark output due to X-ray irradiation are provided in the flat panel sensor application
manual. If you would like to obtain the application manual, contact your local Hamamatsu office.
7
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Description of terms
Blemish
Length of pixel cluster which has less than 90 % of the average sensitivity of the surrounding pixels.
Bright line output adjacent to a defect line
Column
The relative sensitivity ratio “a/b” should be 120 % or less for both vertical and horizontal
lines, where “a” and “b” are defined as follows:
A B C D E F G H I
a: Average sensitivity of bright line (Line A) adjacent to defect line
b: Average sensitivity of standard line (Line B) adjacent to Line A
Row
Note that the average sensitivity of the bright line is calculated from the region adjacent to
the defect region in the defect line.
Example: See the right figure.
Defect region in defect line: From pixel (J, 1) to pixel (J, 15)
a: Average sensitivity from pixel (I, 1) to pixel (I, 15) or from pixel (K, 1) to pixel (K, 15)
b: Average sensitivity from pixel (H, 1) to pixel (H, 15) or from pixel (L, 1) to pixel (L, 15)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
J K L M N O P Q R S
Line B
(Column H, L)
Line A
(Column I, K)
Defect line
(Column J)
KACCC0385EB
Defect cluster
Formed with more than 3 × 3 pixels which have less
than 1/8 of the average sensitivity of the surrounding pixels.
This is defined as defect cluster.
Normal pixel
This is not defined as defect cluster.
Defective pixel
KACCC0384EB
Nonuniformity of sensitivity
16 × 16 segments are 16 × 16-divided active area excluded 1 mm from the whole edge. Xij is defined as the average sensitivity of
each segment.
Uniformity of sensitivity is calculated as following equation.
Nonunifomity of sensitivity =
σ
x
σ: standard deviation of 16 × 16 “Xij”
x : average value of 16 × 16 “Xij”
20
138 pixels 130 pixels pixels
20
144 pixels 144 pixels pixels
1 mm
20
Pixels 138 pixels 138 pixels
···········
···········
Active area
20
pixels 144 pixels 144 pixels
···········
16 segments
16 segments
···········
1 mm
···········
1 mm
1 mm
Active area
KACCC0406EA
8
Flat panel sensor
C7942CA-22
Frame grabber cables (A8406 series)
Hamamatsu provides the A8406 series as frame grabber board cables. The A8406 series is available in several types with different cable
lengths and terminations. Check the cable specifications that meet your needs. For detailed information, refer to the A8406 series data
sheet.
Related information
http://www.hamamatsu.com/sp/ssd/doc_en.html
Precautions
∙ Disclaimer
Information described in this material is current as of January, 2016.
Product specifications are subject to change without prior notice due to improvements or other reasons. This document has been carefully prepared and the
information contained is believed to be accurate. In rare cases, however, there may be inaccuracies such as text errors. Before using these products, always
contact us for the delivery specification sheet to check the latest specifications.
The product warranty is valid for one year after delivery and is limited to product repair or replacement for defects discovered and reported to us within that
one year period. However, even if within the warranty period we accept absolutely no liability for any loss caused by natural disasters or improper product use.
Copying or reprinting the contents described in this material in whole or in part is prohibited without our prior permission.
www.hamamatsu.com
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K., Solid State Division
1126-1 Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu City, 435-8558 Japan, Telephone: (81) 53-434-3311, Fax: (81) 53-434-5184
U.S.A.: Hamamatsu Corporation: 360 Foothill Road, Bridgewater, N.J. 08807, U.S.A., Telephone: (1) 908-231-0960, Fax: (1) 908-231-1218
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North Europe: Hamamatsu Photonics Norden AB: Torshamnsgatan 35 16440 Kista, Sweden, Telephone: (46) 8-509-031-00, Fax: (46) 8-509-031-01
Italy: Hamamatsu Photonics Italia S.r.l.: Strada della Moia, 1 int. 6, 20020 Arese (Milano), Italy, Telephone: (39) 02-93581733, Fax: (39) 02-93581741
China: Hamamatsu Photonics (China) Co., Ltd.: B1201, Jiaming Center, No.27 Dongsanhuan Beilu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China, Telephone: (86) 10-6586-6006, Fax: (86) 10-6586-2866
Cat. No. KACC1160E08 Jan. 2016 DN
9
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