dm00098387

AN4382
Application note
100 W LED street lighting application using STLUX385A
Ambrogio D’Adda, Francesco Ferrazza
Introduction
The STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board is a complete and configurable solution that
manages a single high brightness LED string using the STLUX385A digital controller and
two stages of power conversion. The application consists of a PFC regulator followed by
a zero voltage switching (ZVS) LC resonant stage. The LED current is adjusted using
a primary side regulation (PSR) control technique. The LED brightness can be dimmed by
controlling the LED current down to a very low level. Communication interfaces like DALI
and UART are present, as well as an insulated 0 - 10 control input. This application note
describes the use of the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board, the hardware design
and the firmware implementation. A real measurement is also described. For complete
information on the STLUX385A digital controller, please refer to STLUX385A datasheet.
Danger:
Caution:
High voltage is present on the PSR-ZVS demonstration
board.
This board shall be used by qualified and knowledgeable people due to internal high
voltage. The user shall take great care when handling the demonstration board, even when
no power is supplied.
February 2014
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Contents
AN4382
Contents
1
Board features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2
Getting started with STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board . . . . . 7
First power-on procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3
4
PFC stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1
Constant TON working principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
3.2
Protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.3
Implementation on STLUX385A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4
PFC stage customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.1
Inductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.2
Output capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.3
Zero current detection circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
ZVS LC resonant stage description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1
LC stage customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.1
Resonant Cell ZVS design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.1.2
LC stage characteristic selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.3
Half bridge operating parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.4
Transformer output voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2
Protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3
ZVS LC resonant stage implementation on STLUX385A . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5
STLUX - pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6
Schematic diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7
Bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
8
Board connector pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
9
User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.1
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Status LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
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Contents
9.2
List of supported DALI commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.3
Serial command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
9.3.1
ll - configure LED output current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.3.2
st - status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
9.3.3
gp - get PFC status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
9.3.4
gh - get half bridge status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
9.3.5
ad - get last ADC samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.3.6
ti - time since power-on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.3.7
co - clear error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
9.3.8
in - enabled/disable features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
9.3.9
hf - configure half bridge deadtime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
9.3.10
hb - configure half bridge frequency and status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
9.3.11
pf - configure PFC voltage and status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
9.3.12
dt -delay time compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.4
Error codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
9.5
0 - 10 V interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10.1
Output current precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.2
Output current regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
10.3
Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
10.4
IDLE and minimum power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.5
Demonstration board power factor and THD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
10.6
PFC startup phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
11
Firmware download procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
12
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
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List of tables
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List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22.
Table 23.
Table 24.
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List of STLUX385A pins used by the PFC stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Current values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
List of STLUX385A pins used by the ZVS LC stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
STLUX385A pinout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Connector J8 pinout - AC-DC input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connector J4 pinout - DC output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connector J3 pinout - DALI interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connector J9 pinout - 0 - 10 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connector J2 pinout - serial interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Connector J1 pinout - SWIM interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
List of supported DALI commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IEC62386 part 207 - command extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
“ll” <-> output current relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Status information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
PFC status information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Half bridge status information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
ADC samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Startup configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Error code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
0 - 10 V voltage to output current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Output current precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Board standby and minimum power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
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List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
PSR-ZVS block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
STLUX385A PSR-ZVS demonstration board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
STLUX385A PSR-ZVS board connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
PFC concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
PFC input current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
PFC logical implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
PFC - ZCD sensing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
ZVS concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
ZVS - Λ vs. frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
ZVS output circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Half bridge logical implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - STLUX385A - top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - PFC and DC/DC zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - PSR-ZVS stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - digital dimming stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - THD optimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - DALI and 0 - 10 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
PSR-ZVS demonstration board schematic - serial interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Power-up message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Command list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Output current precision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Output current ramp-up and down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Demonstration board efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Standby power vs AC input voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Demonstration board power factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Demonstration board current distorsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
PFC startup at 110 Vac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
PFC startup at 220 Vac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Program.bat screenshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Power-up message after a firmware update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Power-up message of a fully enabled board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
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Board features
1
AN4382
Board features
•
Wide input voltage range: 90 V to 265 V AC (50 or 60 Hz) compliant with IEC61000-3-2
•
Single isolated output suitable for LED connection.
•
Output voltage range (hardware configurable):
•
–
Standard version: 30 V to 100 V
–
High voltage version: 60 V to 200 V
Output current and dimmability range:
–
Standard version: from 10 mA to 1000 mA
–
High voltage range: from 5 mA to 500 mA
•
Output resolution: 11-bit equivalent.
•
Maximum output power: 100 W
•
Primary side control for higher efficiency (92% at full load)
•
Faults detection and protection: short- or open circuit.
•
IDLE mode power consumption: < 200 mW
•
Remote control:
–
DALI command (IEC62386 - 201)
–
Isolated serial line
–
Isolated 0 - 10 V (alternative to DALI)
•
Two status LEDs: green = ready-run-CPU load; red = fault
•
Primary to secondary and interfaces isolation: 3750 V
Block diagram
Figure 1. PSR-ZVS block diagram
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2
Getting started with STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board
Getting started with STEVAL385LEDPSR
demonstration board
This section is intended to provide directions to correctly connect, power up and control the
demonstration board.
Danger:
Very high voltages are present on the board: suitable IPD
(“Individual Protection Devices”) and specific skills are
required to operate on the board.
Figure 2. STLUX385A PSR-ZVS demonstration board
Figure 3. STLUX385A PSR-ZVS board connections
The LED string is not provided with the board and the user shall provide a suitable LED
string with a total forward voltage and a maximum current rate that match the current board
configuration (100 V at 1 A, 200 V at 0.5 A). The LED string is connected to the board output
connector J4. The output power is isolated from the main AC input.
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Getting started with STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board
Caution:
AN4382
The user shall observe the correct string polarity as reported on the PCB.
An incorrect LED connection may damage the LED due to the high inverse voltage
The board supports a wide range AC input (J8 connector) and operates within the range
90 VAC - 265 VAC. This makes the board suitable to be connected directly into mains. The
board also supports, on the same connector J8, a DC voltage comprised between 170 V
and 350 V. The AC or DC connection to J8 is shown in Figure 3.
The STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board offers 3 different communication channels:
DALI, 0 - 10 V and a serial interface. The DALI and 0 - 10 V interface share the same
STLUX385A pins and are therefore mutually exclusive. The active line is selected via serial
line commands.
The DALI interface can be controlled by any DALI master compliant with the IEC62386-201
standard. When the DALI protocol is used, the DALI bus must be connected before starting
the application. An absence of the DALI line (OPEN DALI) for more than 500 mS from
power-up causes the DALI interface to be disabled. When using the DALI interface, it is
recommended that the DALI master is already “up and running” before connecting the
board. The DALI connector is J3, it has no polarity and it is also isolated from the power
stage. The DALI command set implemented on this board is described in Chapter 9.2 on
page 42.
An isolated 0 - 10 V interface can be activated alternatively to the DALI bus when the DALI
protocol is not required or is unavailable. The 0 - 10 V interface connector is J9 and is
polarized.
A voltage below 1 V powers off the output LED strings. A voltage starting from 1 V to 10 V
drives the output current from 10% to 100% of the maximum rated value, in a linear fashion.
A voltage between 0 V and 1 V switches off the LED.
The serial line is accessible via the J2 connector and is isolated from the power stage.
A dedicated USB cable (e.g. TTL-232R-3V3 from FTDI) can be used to connect a personal
computer with the serial interface and control the board using a terminal emulator software
such as hyperterminal. The 2.54 mm connector of the USB cable shall be linked to the
board so that the black wire is connected to the J2, pin1.
The serial input allows the user to interact with the board in parallel with the DALI bus. When
the 0 - 10 V interface is selected, the output current is regulated only via the 0 - 10 V
interface and no changes are allowed via the serial line. The serial line command set is
described in Chapter 9.3 on page 46.
The STEVAL385LEDPSR can be set in a very low-power state, named IDLE, when the
LEDs are switched off via DALI commands. During this state all operations are halted until
a new DALI command is received or the DALI_RDY button is pushed. The serial line also
stops to be active during the low-power mode.
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Getting started with STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board
First power-on procedure
The following section describes a step-by-step procedure which guarantees a correct
power-on during the first configuration of the board.
This guide assumes that the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board is tested using the
following elements:
•
A DALI master or a 0 - 10 V master line or the serial line.
•
A USB TTL serial cable shipped with the board
•
An AC Power supply or a DC power supply
•
A computer running Microsoft® Windows®, Linux® or Apple® Mac OS® operating
system and HyperTerminal or an equivalent terminal program.
•
LED strings
Before first power-on the user shall connect the serial line as per the following instructions:
1.
Connect the USB TTL serial cable to the USB port of the computer. Windows
recognizes the cable as a new COM port and launches the driver installation.
2.
Install the appropriate USB TTL serial cable drivers. The drivers are the “virtual COM
port (VCP)” and they are provided by FTDI (http://www.ftdichip.com). If you need any
help to install the drivers, please refer to your IT administrator. Once the drivers are
installed, the Windows device manager panel shows a new USB serial port (COMx)
device and the COM number associated.
3.
Run Hyperterminal or an equivalent program from the computer connected to the COM
port associated to the USB TTL serial cable. The serial connection configuration is:
•
Baud rate 115200
•
Data bits: 8
•
Stop bits: 1
•
Parity: no
•
Flow control: no handshake
DocID025437 Rev 1
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Getting started with STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board
AN4382
At any power-on of the board, the users shall verify the correct configuration of the board.
The following instructions show a correct initialization of the board:
•
The board input connector is J8 and the input voltage range goes from 96 VAC to 265
VAC (50 Hz or 60 Hz) or 170 VDC to 350 VDC. The user can supply the input from:
–
AC or DC power supply: configure the power supply output to one of the allowed
input values; make sure that the power supply output is OFF and connect the
power supply to J8.
–
Mains: make sure that the mains output is within the allowed range. Connect the
power cable to J8 but do NOT plug the cable into a main socket.
•
Connect the LEDs string to the connector J4. Verify the polarity: the LED string anode
must be connected to “+” pole while the cathode follows the “-” pole. The LED string
forward voltage and current must be within the current board configuration: 100 V (refer
to Section 4.1.4: Transformer output voltage on page 21).
•
Optionally connect the DALI or 0 - 10 V interface.
–
Connect the DALI line to the J3 connector (polarization is not important). Check
with the serial line if this interface is enabling (default when the board is skipped).
–
Connect the 0 - 10 V line to the J9 connector (the interfaces is polarized). Check
with the serial line if this interface is enabling (disabled when the board is
skipped).
•
Connect the serial cable to J2 using the USB TTL serial cable.
•
Turn on the input power and verify that:
–
The RUN-FAULT LED goes on for few seconds before switching off. Should the
RUN-FAULT LED stays ON than an error happened or that a protection is active.
Switch off the board and investigate the problem.
–
The output current starts flowing in the LED string after less than 1 second. At
power on the output current is low (~1% of total output power). The current level
may vary depending on the external interfaces available:
•
If the DALI bus is enabled and active, the output current is set to the “DALI power on
level”.
•
If the 0 - 10 V is enabled the output current defined by the voltage applied on J9.
•
Verify the correct operation by changing the output current using alternatively DALI
commands, 0 - 10 V or the serial command “ll”. Note that the serial “ll” command works
only when the DALI and 0 - 10 are not active.
Should an error be detected (for example, no load condition) the PFC and ZVS stage are
immediately switched off. See Section 9.3.2: st - status on page 49 to debug the error code
retrieved via the “st” command.
10/70
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
3
PFC stage
PFC stage
The STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board is based on two power conversion stages
where a first PFC stage generates the DC voltage to apply to the LC resonant stage. The LC
resonant stage controls the output current.
3.1
Constant TON working principles
Figure 4. PFC concept
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The PFC stage is based on a boost converter operating in a transitional mode (also referred
as critical conduction or a boundary mode) using the constant on-time method.
In boost topology the variation of the inductor current during the conduction time of the main
switch (TON) depends on the input voltage as shown by Equation 1:
Equation 1
∆ILboost = Ton
2 ⋅Vac (sin2π ⋅ fmains ⋅ t )
LBoost
DocID025437 Rev 1
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PFC stage
AN4382
The conduction time (Ton) is the time the MOSFET remains on. Ton is updated every 100 μs
and based on the PFC output voltage during the previous 200 ms. The PFC bandwidth is
~5 Hz. The boost MOSFET is turned on when the boost inductor current falls down to zero.
The result of this algorithm is that the inductor current is shaped like a series of adjacent
triangles whose peak's envelope is a half-wave sinusoid in phase with the AC input line
voltage. For geometrical reason, the average current absorbed from the input line is also
sinusoidal.
Figure 5. PFC input current
During light load conditions, a valley skipping mechanism is adopted, allowing a lower
output voltage ripple and lower operating frequencies.
3.2
Protections
The STLUX385A device implements several protections that prevent the component
degradation due to electrical overstresses or overheating. The protections implemented in
the PFC stage are:
12/70
1.
Overvoltage protection (OVP): stops the switching activity when the output capacitor
voltage reaches a threshold. The PFC is turned on as soon as the capacitor voltage
returns below the threshold.
2.
Overcurrent protection (OCP): is activated when the inductor peak current reaches
very high values during Ton (e.g. due to input overvoltage or output overloading). The
current is read by the RCS shunt resistor and compared with a threshold. The threshold
is dynamic and adjusted depending on the input voltage.
3.
Brownout: When the input voltage is lower than a threshold the PFC stage is disabled.
When the input voltage returns to acceptable levels, the PFC is turned on again. This
prevents overstressing the PFC power components due to operations at very low input
voltages.
4.
Controlled soft start: the protection limits the charging current of the Cpfc capacitor.
This method has two big advantages: a limited inrush current related with the PFC
activation and better control of the output voltage that does not experience
overshooting (and the audible noise associated).
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
3.3
PFC stage
Implementation on STLUX385A
The PFC stage is implemented exploiting the SMED technology used in the STLUX385A. In
particular, two SMEDs, used in a coupled mode, are used to drive a single PWM output
connected to the PFC MOSFET.
In Table 1 is the list of the STLUX385A inputs and outputs used for the PFC stage:
Table 1. List of STLUX385A pins used by the PFC stage
Pin
Description
PWM5
Used as a PWM for the PFC MOSFET. It is internally driven by the SMED4 and SMED5
CPP0
Input for OVP protection
CPP2
Senses the current during Ton time
ADC0
PFC output voltage measurement
ADC3
Input voltage, phase and frequency measurement
DGIN3
“Zero Current Detection” input
DGIN2
Input THD optimizer
Figure 6 offers a system view on STLUX385A PFC implementation:
Figure 6. PFC logical implementation
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The STLUX385A embeds the algorithms used to control the PFC behavior by regulating the
PWM switching frequency. The correct switching parameters (Ton, Toff) are calculated
starting from the PFC output voltage.
The system calculates the difference between the actual (ADC0) and the target (Vref) PFC
output voltage. The error is firstly filtered by a 5 Hz low-pass filter obtaining a dynamic gain
factor ranging from 1 x to 6 x. Every 100 μs, the new working parameters (Ton or Toff,
depending on the load condition) are calculated by adding the error, amplified by the gain, to
the current parameters. The output voltage is filtered by a 200 ms moving average window
DocID025437 Rev 1
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PFC stage
AN4382
technique. The algorithm also adapts the bandwidth to quickly react to fast variation of the
input voltage or output load. The resulting bandwidth is then approximately equal to 5 Hz.
The CPP0 input is used to detect an overvoltage and switches off the PWM once the PFC
voltage is greater than an internally configured safety threshold. The threshold is adjusted
depending on the AC input voltage. Once the PFC output voltage reaches the safety
threshold, the PWM is disabled within ~50 ns.
The PFC is activated 30 mS after power-on or activation. This time is used to sense the
input AC voltage and enable the PFC with the optimal parameters for the given AC voltage.
The STLU385A also implements a THD optimizer approach (US2013194842 and
US2013194845) via the DIGIN2 pin.
3.4
PFC stage customization
3.4.1
Inductor
The operating frequency of the PFC stage varies along every half cycle of the rectified AC
input voltage and at different load conditions. The inductor value can be selected in order to
obtain an operating frequency greater than a minimum value, normally ranging between
35 kHz and 60 kHz. Equation 2 can be used to select the minimum operating frequency,
using either minimum or maximum VAC value, whichever gives the lower value for L.
Equation 2
2
-
Vac ·(Vpfc - v2Vac )
L Boost =
2 f sw_min ·Pin ·V pfc
The saturation current can be selected slightly higher than the maximum peak current
occurring in correspondence of the peak of the input sine wave at full output power and low
input voltage.
Equation 3
ILsat = 2 ⋅ 2
Pin
Vac,min
Once obtained these two values, the inductor physical design can be done using one of the
approaches described in some relevant application notes (see AN966 on www.st.com).
3.4.2
Output capacitor
The output capacitor is responsible for reducing the frequency ripple and maximizing the
hold-up time. The operating frequency of the secondary LC stage is strongly dependent on
its input voltage: it is therefore necessary to minimize the PFC output voltage ripple to avoid
very wide frequency variation during the LC half bridge operations. The capacitor can be
chosen according to Equation 4.
Equation 4
Cpfc ≥
14/70
Pout
4π ⋅ fmains ⋅ Vpfc ⋅ ∆Vpfc
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
PFC stage
The input filtering capacitor (Cin) and the offline EMI filtering are required to prevent that the
high frequency noise, generated by both PFC and LC switching activity, is injected back to
the input supply.
The STLUX385A device samples the PFC output voltage via a resistive voltage divider (see
Section 6: Schematic diagrams on page 26: R46, R52, R55, R58, C49, C66). The voltage
divider shall be set so that the PFC output voltage reference is divided down to 1.114 V input
to the STLUX385A.
It is suggested to configure the PFC output voltage at least 25 V over the maximum voltage
expected from the rectifying bridge. The STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board
supports a PFC maximum input voltage equal to 375 V, therefore the PFC output voltage
can be set to any value between 390 V and 415 V. The default value is 410 V.
3.4.3
Zero current detection circuit
The STLUX385A detects that the inductor current has fallen to zero via a “Zero Current
Detection” circuit.
The STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board supports two different zero current detection
mechanisms: one uses a capacitor between the MOSFET drain while the other connects an
auxiliary winding across Lboost and detection input pin. In both cases suitable clamping
devices (e.g. Zener diodes or current limiting resistors) are required. The board is currently
configured to use the “Capacitive Zero Current” detection circuit.
Figure 7. PFC - ZCD sensing
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ZVS LC resonant stage description
4
AN4382
ZVS LC resonant stage description
The resonant stage is an LC topology consisting of a half bridge operating in “Zero Voltage
Switching” condition supplying the resonant cell. The half bridge is connected to the PFC
output. The LC stage (Cres, Lres) is separated from the transformer. The transformer XF is
responsible for the energy transfer to the secondary side, where a rectifier circuit (Dout) and
a filtering capacitor transform the AC current into a ripple free DC current required by the
LEDs.
Figure 8. ZVS concept
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The transformer XF is built in a way that maximize the winding coupling and operates
similarly to an ideal transformer where the secondary side current is proportional to the
primary side current and depends only on the transformer turn ratio (n = NPRI / NSEC). This
proportionality is the key to control the secondary side current from the primary side.
The selection of Lres and Cres is made in order to operate above resonance in any
condition therefore guaranteeing a soft switching behavior. The primary current has
a triangular shape so that it can be stated that the average value of the LED current is equal
to half of the peak of the resonant secondary current. Regulating the peak current during the
low side conduction period and operating a 50% duty cycle then the primary side control of
the output current is possible.
The transformer is coupled with an auxiliary winding which is used to measure at the
primary side the reflected voltage and detect abnormal conditions such as short-circuit or no
load.
16/70
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AN4382
ZVS LC resonant stage description
4.1
LC stage customization
4.1.1
Resonant Cell ZVS design
In order to maintain the zero voltage switching condition Equation 5 needs to be met.
Equation 5
n ⋅ (VLED + Vdout ) <
1
⋅ Vpfc
2
When the half bridge switching frequency (fs) is close to the resonance frequency (fR) then
the shape of the resonant tank current is piecewise sinusoidal. Otherwise, when fs >> fR
then the shape of the resonant tank current is piecewise linear.
For the purpose of the analysis both the magnetizing current and the AC voltage across the
tank capacitor Cres are negligible.
Considering that the square wave voltage applied to the resonant tank has 50% duty cycle,
it is possible to state:
Equation 6
V (Cres) ≈
1
⋅ Vpfc
2
Furthermore the output current is given by the superposition of the currents through the
secondary rectifier (Dout) and is a series of contiguous triangles. The DC output current is
equal to half of the resonant current peak value multiplied by transfer ratio (n = NPRI /
NSEC).
Equation 7
ILED ≈
n
⋅ Ires, pk
2
It can be demonstrated that the switching frequency of the converter is represented by
Equation 8:
Equation 8
n
Vpfc 2 − [2n ⋅ (VLED + Vdout )]
⋅
16 ⋅ ILED ⋅ Lres
Vpfc
2
fhb =
The half bridge frequency depends directly on the input voltage and inversely on the LED
current and depends on the difference between the square of the input voltage and the
reflected value of the output voltage.
It should be noted that the half bridge frequency has a hyperbolical behavior depending on
the output power (ILED, VLED). This behavior is the main difference when compared to
an LLC or LCC resonant converter (see AN2644 and AN2450 on www.st.com).
The LC minimum operating frequency is obtained at the maximum output current, maximum
output voltage and minimum PFC output voltage. The maximum frequency is, instead,
obtained at the minimum output current (ILED, min), minimum output voltage (consider
short-circuit if required) and maximum input voltage.
DocID025437 Rev 1
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ZVS LC resonant stage description
AN4382
It is useful, for further consideration to arrange Equation 5 as:
Equation 9
n = λ⋅
Vpfc, min
2(VLED + Vdout )
with λ ∈ (0,1)
Then the ratio between minimum and maximum frequency can be expressed as:
Equation 10
fhb,max
fhb,min
 λ ⋅ Vdout

Vpfc, max 2 − Vpfc, min 2 ⋅ 

ILED, min
1
VLED
+
Vdout


=
⋅
⋅
ILED, max Vpfc, min
Vpfc, min ⋅ 1 − λ 2
(
2
)
Equation 10 can be simplified as follows:
Equation 11
fhb,max
Γ
= Idim
fhb,min
1 − λ2
(
)
with
Γ=
Vpfc, max
Vpfc, min
and Idim =
ILED, min
ILED, max
Keeping into consideration transient effects and current variations, it is a good empiric
design practice to have:
x
a
m
,
b
f hf h
Equation 12
n
i
m
,
b
≤4
The parameter Γ is directly related with the ripple superimposed to the PFC output voltage.
An indication about the required transformer ratio is obtained combining Equation 11 and
Equation 9. A representation of the frequency range at a fixed current versus Λ at different
values of the parameter Γ is shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9. ZVS - Λ vs. frequency
18/70
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
4.1.2
ZVS LC resonant stage description
LC stage characteristic selection
The following procedure can be used to determine the main component values.
Step1: Determine the primary-to-secondary turn ratio n of the transformer.
From Equation 11 we derive:
Equation 13
λ = 1−
Vpfc, max f hb,max
⋅
Vpfc, min f hb,min
Use Equation 14 to calculate Λ for maximum LED current.
Note:
fhb,max and fhb,max shall be selected so that Λ < 0.9 in order to account for rounding errors,
mismatch and tolerances in the transformers.
Equation 15 can now be used to calculate the transformer transfer ratio n as:
Equation 14
n=
NPRI
Vpfc, min
= λ⋅
NSEC
2(VLED + Vdout )
Vdout is the forward voltage of the output rectified (0.5 V for a Schottky rectifiers, 0.8 V for
p-n rectifiers or Shottky based Wien bridge rectifiers).
Step 2: Use Table 2 to calculate the current in different point of the circuit.
Table 2. Current values
Parameter
Primary side
Secondary side
Peak current
2
Ippk = ILED
n
Ispk = 2 ⋅ ILED
Total current swing
DC current
ΔIp = 2 ⋅ Ippk =
4
ILED
n
Ipdc = 0
1
Ipav = ILED
n
ILED ⋅ (VLED + Vdout )
Iin =
Vpfc
Total RMS current
Iprms =
AC RMS current
Ipac =
2
ILED
n 3
2
ILED
n 3
DocID025437 Rev 1
ΔIs = Ispk = 2 ⋅ ILED
Isdc = ILED
Isrms =
2
ILED
3
Isac =
1
ILED
3
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ZVS LC resonant stage description
AN4382
Step 3: Calculate the inductance value of the Lres, which is given by Equation 8 and
Equation 13:
Equation 15
Lres =
(
)
λ 1- λ2
Vpfc,min2
⋅
32 ⋅ ILED ⋅ fhb,min (VLED + Vdout )
Step 4: determine the capacitance value of the resonant capacitor Cres so that the peak
amplitude of the AC ripple voltage is much lower (e.g always 10%) than the DC offset.
Indicatively:
Equation 16
Cres ≥ 5
ILED
n ⋅ Vpfc, min ⋅ fhb,min
Step 5: select the output capacitors Co so that they are rated for the maximum output
voltage VLED, they meet the output voltage ripple specification (if any) and have an
adequate AC current ripple rating.
The output current ripple specification must be met. To do so, at first we need to find the
value of the overall RLED for the LED string by considering the tangent to the forward
characteristic in the specified operating point. Then Equation 17 can be used to find the
suitable value for Co and its ESR.
Equation 17
ΔILED
⋅ RLED ≥
ILED
2


1

 + 4 ⋅ ESR 2
 4 ⋅ Co ⋅ f

hb,min 

The maximum allowed ripple current for Co must be:
Equation 18
∆ICo ≥
4.1.3
ILED
3
Half bridge operating parameters
In order to generate a proper oscillation into the LC resonant tank, the half bridge must
generate a square wave having a 50% of duty cycle. Any unbalancing of this duty cycle may
cause the loss of zero voltage switching condition and, as a consequence, increases the
risk of components overstress.
The adoption of the same conduction time (Ton) for both the halfbridge MOSFETs ensures
this condition. When one MOSFET is turned off then the middle point of the half bridge,
thanks to resonance, moves to the opposite side of the half bridge, in a time that depends
on the overall capacitance (real or parasitic) connected to this node.
In order to avoid undesired switching losses, a deadtime (see “hf” command), longer than
this transition time , shall be applied between the time one side of the half-bridge switches
off and the time the opposite side turns on.
In order to correctly regulate the LED current, it is important to accurately detect the instant
of the peak of the resonant current. The peak is detected by the STLUX385A via a shunt
resistor placed between the source of the low side MOSFET and ground. The sampling time
20/70
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
ZVS LC resonant stage description
of the peak is therefore dependent on the propagation delay (~200 ns) generated by the
driver and the MOSFET gate capacitance. An internal fixed STLUX385A delay shall be also
considered (< 50 ns).
Given that the propagation time depends from the final board construction, the use shall
measure the final propagation time and use the “dt” command to program the application
specific propagation time.
4.1.4
Transformer output voltage
Transformer XF can be realized using a center tapped secondary side winding or a single
ended secondary side. The structure of this component and the relevant rectifiers are
shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10. ZVS output circuits
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The transformer used in the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board is configured as
center tapped.
In order to change the output from the default 100 V (max 1 A) to 200 (max 0.5 A), the user
shall perform the following steps:
•
Mount the D42 and D43 with the 2 x STTH3R06S (SMC package)
•
Remove the R102.
Note:
The STTH3R06S component are not included in the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration
board.
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ZVS LC resonant stage description
4.2
AN4382
Protections
The STLUX385A offers several levels of protections:
1. Output undervoltage protection (UVP): prevents the LC resonant stage from operating
when it's input voltage, i.e. the PFC output capacitor voltage, is at very low voltage.
When an UVP condition arises, the STLUX385A stops the switching activity on the LC
stage until the PFC voltage returns above an acceptable range.
2.
3.
4.
4.3
No load: prevents the LC stage to operate while there is no LED string connected. This
protection preserves the resonant output capacitors from being damaged due to
overcharge. When the output capacitors voltage reaches a threshold, the STLUX385A
disables the resonant activity within 50 ns.
Brownout protection: When the AC input voltage drops under 90 V the resonant stage
is disabled at the same time as the PFC.
Short-circuit protection: the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board architecture
ensures that the output current in a short-circuit condition is always limited to the actual
current level configured by the serial, DALI or 0 - 10 interface.
ZVS LC resonant stage implementation on STLUX385A
Similarly to the PFC stage, the LC resonant stage is driven by the SMED technology
implemented by the STLUX385A. In particular, one SMED is used to control the half bridge
high-side while another SMED controls the low-side. Using two SMEDs gives the
STLUX385A full control over the half bridge conduction and deadtimes.
An additional PWM (SMED2) is used to feed a low-pass filter and generate a high precision
signal with 12-bit resolution. The signal is monitored via ADC1 and continuously adjusted to
compensate for the external circuit tolerance.
Table 3 shows the STLUX385A inputs and outputs used to control the resonant stage.
Table 3. List of STLUX385A pins used by the ZVS LC stage
Pin
Description
PWM0
PWM driving the half bridge low side MOSFET. The output is generated by SMED0.
PWM1
PWM driving the half bridge high side MOSFET. The output is generated by SMED1.
PWM2
Used to generate a high precision reference with 12 bit resolution. PWM2 is the input to an external lowpass filter which generates the reference.
PWM3
Used for synchronization.
DIGIN5 Used for synchronization.
CPP3
Monitors the current on half bridge.
CPM3
Input of the high precision reference
CPP1
Monitor for no load conditions. The half bridge operation is stopped when there is no load.
ADC1
Monitor for the high precision reference.
ADC2
Samples the scaled reflected voltage from the transformer.
22/70
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AN4382
ZVS LC resonant stage description
Figure 11. Half bridge logical implementation
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The control stage algorithm of the half bridge resonator makes sure that the half bridge is
always driven at the correct frequency so that the amount of current sensed (CPP3)
matches the target current (Iref) as selected by the user via the DALI, UART or the 0/10
interface.
The high precision signal generated by the PWM2 is used as a comparison with the actual
current.
The control loop bandwidth is 10 KHz. The minimum allowed frequency is 70 KHz and
maximum frequency is 400 KHz.
The STLUX385A limits the resonant output current increases or decreases rate to
a maximum of 300 mA /second, in order to preserve both the output capacitors and the LED
string.
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STLUX - pinout
5
AN4382
STLUX - pinout
Table 4 describes the STLUX pins used by the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board.
Table 4. STLUX385A pinout
Pin
Dir.
Function
Note
1
OUT
PWM [0]
Low side MOSFET driving signal for ZVS resonant stage (SMED0)
2
OUT/IN
DIGIN [0] /CCO
Used for internal synchronization OR a 0 - 10 V interface clock
3
IN
DIGIN [1]
Button used to initiate DALI identification procedure
4
OUT
PWM [1]
High side MOSFET driving signal for ZVS resonant stage (SMED1)
5
OUT
PWM [2]
PWM to generate high resolution reference signal (DAC) (SMED2)
6
IN
DIGIN [2]
THD optimizer input for the PFC stage
7
IN
DIGIN [3]
Zero current sensing for PFC stage
8
OUT
PWM [5]
PFC MOSFET driving signal (SMED5 and SMED4)
9
I/O
SWIM
SWIM connection
10
I/O
RESETn
Reset signal
11
PS
VDD
Power supply input
12
PS
VSS
Power supply reference voltage
13
PS
VOUT
Power supply reference voltage (core)
14
OUT
DALI TX
DALI transmit signal
15
IN
DALI RX
DALI receive signal
16
OUT
GPIO1 [4]
Reserved
17
IN
DIGIN [4]
Not assigned
18
IN
DIGIN [5]
Connected to PWM3 output
19
OUT
PWM [3]
Used for synchronization
20
OUT
GPIO0 [2]
Red LED - fault indication
21
OUT
GPIO0 [3]
Green LED - running, CPU load, indication
22
OUT
UART TX
UART TX signal
23
IN
UART RX
UART RX signal
24
A-IN
CPP3
Half bridge current sensing (SMED0)
25
A-IN
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AN4382
STLUX - pinout
Table 4. STLUX385A pinout (continued)
Pin
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Note
32
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Table 5. Bill of material
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
1
3
C1, C6, C75
1 μF
CAPC-0603
2
5
C2, C4, C7,
C67, C82
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1
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Manuf.
Part number
DocID025437 Rev 1
0603ZG105ZAT2A
CAPC-0603
AVX
06033C103KAT2A
100 nF
CAPC-0603
AVX
06033G104ZAT2A
C8
2.2 μF
CAPC-0603
Murata
GRM188R60J225KE19D
1
C15
2.2 μF
CAPC-0805
Murata
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6
1
C16
1 nF
CAPC-0603
N. M.
7
1
C17
100 nF
CAPC-0603
N. M.
8
1
C18
100 nF
CAPC-0805
N. M.
9
1
C25
1 μF
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10
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C26, C30, C48,
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AVX
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11
1
C27
100 nF
CAPC-0805
TAIYO YUDEN
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12
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C28, C81
150 nF
CER-P15L6
275 Vac
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13
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C29, C79
10 μF
CAPE-R13H20-P5
350 V
Rubycon
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14
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C34
680 pF
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C36, C37
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C39, C42
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17
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470 nF
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19
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100 μF
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450 V
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450VXH100MEFCSN22X25
20
1
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220 pF
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1 KV
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Bill of material
33/70
AVX
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
21
1
C46
1 nF
CAPC-0603
22
1
C47
100 pF
CAPC-0603
23
1
C49
2.2 nF
CAPC-0603
24
1
C51
3.3 μF
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150 nF
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26
1
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27
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28
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Note
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Manuf.
Part number
DocID025437 Rev 1
AVX
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711-2119
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1
C59
100 nF
CAPC-0603
50 V
AVX
06033G104ZAT2A
30
1
C60
1 nF
CAPC-0603
50 V
AVX
06035C102KAT2A
31
1
C61
22 μF
CAPC-1206
10 V
KEMET
C1206C226M8PAC7800
32
1
C63
10 μF
CAPE-R5H11-P25
25 V
Panasonic
ECEA1EKS100
33
1
C65
100 pF N. M.
CAPC-0603
N. M.
34
1
C66
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35
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C70, C72
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36
1
C71
1 nF
CAPC-0805
37
2
C73, C74
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C1210
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AVX
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38
1
C76
1 μF
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100 V N. M.
39
1
C77
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25 V N. M.
40
1
C78
220 nF
CAPC-0603
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41
1
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42
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5.6 V
SOT23
Diodes Zetex
BZX84C5V6-7-F
45
2
D4, D36
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Bill of material
34/70
Table 5. Bill of material (continued)
25 V
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N. M.
C0603C681J5GAC7867
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
46
1
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47
2
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1
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49
1
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STTH1L06
DIODO-SMB
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N. M.
Manuf.
Part number
Vishay
B6S-E3/80
Vishay
B6S-E3/80
AN4382
Table 5. Bill of material (continued)
N. M.
ST
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DocID025437 Rev 1
50
3
D11, D14, D30 MMSD4148T1G
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ON Semiconductor
51
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ST
STTH3R06S
52
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53
1
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D26
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56
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57
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STTH1L06A
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1
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61
2
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1
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SOD123
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DDZ9699-7
63
1
D41
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ON Semiconductor
MMSZ5V1T1G
64
2
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STTH3R06
DIODO-SMC
1 A/0.5 A sel.
ST
STTH3R06S
65
1
F1
FUSE
FUSEPTH-R85H80-P5
4A
Wickmann
3701400000
66
2
ISO1,ISO2
TLP181
OPTO-SOP127P-700X210-6NO25
Toshiba
TLP181 (GB, F)
67
1
JP5
JUMPER
GOCCIA
JP3SO
CLOSE 2 - 3
N. M.
N. M.
Bill of material
35/70
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
Note
Manuf.
DocID025437 Rev 1
68
1
JP6
JUMPER
GOCCIA
JP2SO
69
1
J1
SWIM I/F
STRIP254P-M-4
70
1
J2
6 HEADER
STRIP254P-M-6
71
1
J3
DALI
MOR-2POLI-WAGO-250-402
WAGO
250-402
72
1
J4
CH0
MOR-2POLI-WAGO-250-402
WAGO
250-402
73
1
J8
HEADER 3
MOR-3POLI-508
74
1
J9
0 - 10 V
MOR-2POLI-WAGO-250-402
75
3
L1, L10, L11
WE-CBF
76
5
L2, L3, L4, L5,
L6
77
1
78
Part number
CLOSE
TE Connectivity
282837-3
CAPC-0603
WÜRTH
ELEKTRONIK
74279262
WE-CBF
CAPC-0603
WÜRTH
ELEKTRONIK
74279269
L8
2.2 mH
IND-R090H120-P5
Itacoil
SLD0608222
1
L9
SLD0608220
IND-R75H92-P3
Itacoil
SLD0608220
79
1
Q1
STN93003
SOT223
ST
STN93003
80
1
Q2
BC857C
SOT23
ST
BC857C
81
1
Q3
STN1HNK60
SOT223
ST
STN1HNK60
82
2
Q4,Q5
STD16NF25
DPAK
83
2
Q10, Q11
STD12NM50ND
DPAK
ST
STD12NM50ND
84
1
Q12
STF19NM50N
TO220-3PIN-split1
ST
STF19NM50N
85
2
Q13, Q14
BC857CW
SOT323
ST
BC857CW
86
1
Q15
BFN18
SOT89
87
1
RT1
PTC
RESC1206
Bourns
MF-USMF005-2
88
1
RV1
B72210
SIOV-S10K300
EPCOS
B72210S0301K101
89
1
RV2
2R5
NTC-EPCOS-S237
EPCOS
B57237S259M
410 mA
Bill of material
36/70
Table 5. Bill of material (continued)
N. M.
N. M.
AN4382
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
DocID025437 Rev 1
90
5
R1, R2, R48,
R72, R76
1 KΩ
RESC-0603
91
1
R3
9.1 KΩ
RESC-0603
92
1
R4
5.6 KΩ
RESC-0603
93
1
R22
4.7 KΩ
RESC-0603
93
1
R15
10 KΩ
RESC-0603
94
3
R16, R18, R21 68 KΩ
95
1
R17
96
1
97
Note
Manuf.
Part number
CRCW06031K00FKEA
1%
Panasonic
ERJP03F9101V
1%
Panasonic
ERJP03F5601V
Bourns
CR0603-JW-472ELF
RESC-0603
Panasonic
ERJ3GEYJ683V
390 Ω
RESC-0603
Panasonic
ERJ3GEYJ391V
R19
1Ω
RES-900X320-P15-1W2
RS
738-2504
1
R20
1.2 KΩ
RESC-0603
RS
RS-0603-1k2-5%-0.1W
98
1
R23
2.2 KΩ
RESC-0603
N. M.
99
2
R26, R95
47 KΩ
RESC-0805
N. M.
100
3
R27, R30, R57 10 Ω
RESC-0805
Bourns
CR0805-FX-10R0GLF
101
3
R28, R97, R99 12 KΩ
RESC-0603
RS
RS-0603-12k-1%-0.1W
102
1
R29
3.9 KΩ
RESC-0603
103
1
R34
220 Ω
RESC-0603
RS
RS-0603-220R-5%-0.1W
104
2
R36, R37
2R4
RESC-2512
Panasonic
ERJ1TRQF2R4U
105
3
R40, R47, R53 330 KΩ
RESC-1206
TE Connectivity
CRG1206F330K
106
6
R41, R42, R43,
2.2 MΩ
R46, R52, R55
RESC-1206
1%
107
2
R44, R58
18 KΩ
RESC-1206
0.1%
108
2
R45, R59
10 Ω N. M.
RESC-0805
N. M.
109
2
R49, R50
0.39 Ω
RESC-2512
1% 1 W
Panasonic
ERJ1TRQFR39U
110
1
R54
68 KΩ N. M.
RESC-0603
N. M.
111
1
R56
10 KΩ N. M.
RESC-0603
N. M.
1%
1% 1 W
Bill of material
37/70
Vishay
AN4382
Table 5. Bill of material (continued)
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
Note
Manuf.
Part number
DocID025437 Rev 1
1
R60
33 KΩ
RESC-0603
1%
RS
RS-0603-33k-1%-0.1W
113
1
R61
10 KΩ
RESC-0603
1%
Bourns
CR0603-FX-1002HLF
114
1
R62
12 KΩ
RESC-0603
1%
RS
RS-0603-12k-1%-0.1W
115
1
R64
N. M.
RESC-0603
1%
116
1
R65
10 KΩ
RESC-0805
RS
RS-0805-10k-5%-0.125W
117
1
R67
33 KΩ
RESC-1206
TE Connectivity
CRG1206F33K
118
4
R71, R74, R75,
12 KΩ
R77
RESC-0603
YAGEO
232270265123
119
1
R73
10 kΩ
RESC-0603
Bourns
CR0603-JW-103ELF
120
1
R78
2.2 KΩ
RESC-0603
Bourns
CR0603-FX-2201ELF
121
2
R79, R98
22 KΩ
RESC-0603
Bourns
CR0603-FX-2202ELF
121a 1
R82
10 nF
CAPC-0603
AVX
06033C103KAT2A
122
2
R83, R86
100 Ω
RESC-0805
N. M.
123
2
R84, R85
100 KΩ
RESC-0603
N. M.
124
2
R88, R93
1 MΩ
RESC-1206
1%
TE Connectivity
CRG1206F1M0
125
1
R89
24 KΩ
RESC-0603
1%
126
1
R90
18 KΩ
RESC-0603
1%
127
1
R91
510 Ω
RESC-0603
1%
128
1
R92
56 KΩ
RESC-0603
129
1
R94
680 RΩ
RESC-0805
130
1
R96
150 KΩ
RESC-0603
131
1
R100
16 KΩ
RESC-0603
Vishay
CRCW060316K0FKEA
132
1
R101
200 Ω
RESC-0603
Vishay
CRCW0603200RFKEA
133
1
R102
0Ω
RESC-1206
Bourns
CR1206-J/-000ELF
134
2
SW1, SW2
TL1015
BUTTON-ESWITCH-TL1015
E-SWITCH
TL1015BF160QG
AN4382
112
Bill of material
38/70
Table 5. Bill of material (continued)
Item Qty.
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
Note
Manuf.
Part number
135
7
TP22, TP23,
TP24, TP25,
TP31, TP32
TP
TPTH-ANELLO-1MM
136
2
P400V, PGND
TP
TPTH-ANELLO-1MM
137
1
T1
250 μH
TRAFO-ROCCHETTO-EF20D
Itacoil
TLLE20D01
138
1
T2
TRANSFOR CT
TRAFO-STM-ETD341711
Itacoil
TSLETD3402
139
1
T5
10 mH
IND-ITACOIL-SCLE25
Itacoil
SCLE25103
140
1
T6
420 μH
INDPFC-ITACOIL-SMC037100113
Itacoil
TCLPQ262501
141
1
T7
TRAFO
TRAFO-ITACOIL-SMLEP1303
Itacoil
DocID025437 Rev 1
TSSOP050P-640X120-38
STMicroelectronics
AN4382
Table 5. Bill of material (continued)
SMLEP1303
®
STLUX385A
142
1
U1
STLUX385A
143
1
U4
ACPL-M61L-000E OPTO-SOP127P-700X210-6-NO2 N. M.
144
1
U5
L6398D
SOP127P-600X168-8
145
1
U10
L6388ED
SOP127P-600X168-8
ST
L6388ED
146
1
U11
PM8841
SOT23-6
ST
PM8841
147
1
U12
VIPer06XS
ssop100p-620x175-10
ST
VIPer06XS
148
1
U13
LK112M33TR
SOT23-5
ST
LK112M33TR
149
2
U14, U15
ACPL-M61L-000E OPTO-SOP127P-700X210-6-NO2
AVAGO
TECHNOLOGIES
ACPL-M61L-000E
150
1
U16
PM8841
SOT23-6
ST
PM8841
151
1
U17
LD2980CM50TR
SOT23-5
152
1
U18
TS3021ICT
SC70-5
ST
TS3021ICT
N. M.
N. M.
Bill of material
39/70
Board connector pinout
8
AN4382
Board connector pinout
Table 6. Connector J8 pinout - AC-DC input
Name
Type
Function
ACIN
Power
Main AC/DC input
ACIN
Power
Main AC/DC input
EARTH
Power
Protection reference level
Table 7. Connector J4 pinout - DC output
Name
Type
Function
+
Power
Positive load connection.
-
Power
Negative load connection.
Table 8. Connector J3 pinout - DALI interfaces
Name
Type
Function
DA
DALI signal
DALI signal for isolated DALI interfaces - without polarization
DA
DALI signal
DALI signal for isolated DALI interfaces - without polarization
Table 9. Connector J9 pinout - 0 - 10 V
Name
Type
Function
+
“Positive reference
Positive reference for isolated 0 - 10 V interfaces
-
“Negative reference
Negative reference for isolated 0 - 10 V interfaces
Table 10. Connector J2 pinout - serial interfaces
40/70
Name
Type
Function
1 (black)
Negative power
Directly connected to isolated serial GND
2 (brown)
CTSn
Not used - pulled down
3 (red)
Fixed positive power
5.0 V power for the UART interfaces only
4 (orange)
TXD (input)
TXD signal - RXD on STLUX
5 (yellow)
RXD (output)
RXD signal - TXD from STLUX
6 (green)
RTSn
Not connected
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
Board connector pinout
Table 11. Connector J1 pinout - SWIM interfaces
Name
Type
Function
1
VCC_SWIM
Power reference from board
2
SWIM
SWIM signal to/from STLUX
3
GND_SWIM
Directly connected to primary GND
4
RESn
Connected to STLUX NRST pin
DocID025437 Rev 1
41/70
70
User interface
9
AN4382
User interface
The user can interact with the board via multiple interfaces: the DALI, serial and 0 - 10 V
interface. While the 0 - 10 V interface allows to remotely control the LED current, both DALI
and serial interfaces allow the configuration of several operating and start-up parameters.
The DALI and 0 - 10 V interface are mutually exclusive and the user can select which one to
enable. For safety reasons, the DALI, serial and 0 - 10 V interfaces are isolated.
The serial line is convenient to connect the demonstration board to additional interfaces,
such as Bluetooth®, power line modems, Wi-Fi, etc.
The user can quickly monitor the status of the board by looking at the two status LEDs (red,
green) installed on the board.
9.1
Status LEDs
There are two status LEDs on the board, one green and one red.
•
Green LED (status): active when the input power is correct and the STLUX385A device
is running.
–
LED on: STLUX385A running.
–
LED off: STLUX385A is in IDLE mode.
–
LED toggling (1 sec. on, 1 sec. off): debug mode active. The board is not
operating.
•
Red LED (failure): used to report an error or the intervention of a protection to preserve
the hardware. Once the error has been detected (e.g. via terminal command “st”), fixed
and the “co” command line is used, the red LED goes off.
9.2
List of supported DALI commands
The internal DALI stack has implemented all the standard commands defined into DALI
standard. Also the LED extension is implemented directly on the STLUX firmware.
Table 12. List of supported DALI commands
Command number
Command code
Mnemonic command name
-
YAAA AAA0 XXXX XXXX
DIRECT ARC POWER CONTROL
0
YAAA AAA1 0000 0000
OFF
1
YAAA AAA1 0000 0001
UP
2
YAAA AAA1 0000 0010
DOWM
3
YAAA AAA1 0000 0011
STEP UP
4
YAAA AAA1 0000 0100
STEP DOWN
5
YAAA AAA1 0000 0101
RECALL MAX LEVEL
6
YAAA AAA1 0000 0110
RECALL MIN LEVEL
7
YAAA AAA1 0000 0111
STEP DOWN AND OFF
8
YAAA AAA1 0000 1000
ON AND STEP UP
42/70
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
User interface
Table 12. List of supported DALI commands (continued)
Command number
Command code
Mnemonic command name
9
YAAA AAA1 0000 1001
ENABLE DAPC SEQUENCE
16 - 31
YAAA AAA1 0001 XXXX
GO TO SCENE
32
YAAA AAA1 0010 0000
RESET
33
YAAA AAA1 0010 0001
STORE ACTUAL LEVEL IN THE DTR
42
YAAA AAA1 0010 1010
STORE THE DTR AS MAX LEVEL
43
YAAA AAA1 0010 1011
STORE THE DTR AS MIN LEVEL
44
YAAA AAA1 0010 1100
STORE THE DTR AS SYSTEMFAILURE LEVEL
45
YAAA AAA1 0010 1101
STORE THE DTR AS POWER ONLEVEL
46
YAAA AAA1 0010 1110
STORE THE DTR AS FADE TIME
47
YAAA AAA1 0010 1111
STORE THE DTR AS FADE RATE
64 - 79
YAAA AAA1 0100 XXXX
STORE THE DTR AS SCENE
80 - 95
YAAA AAA1 0101 XXXX
REMOVE FROM SCENE
96 - 111
YAAA AAA1 0110 XXXX
ADD TO GROUP
112 - 127
YAAA AAA1 0111 XXXX
REMOVE FROM GROUP
128
YAAA AAA1 1000 0000
STORE DTR AS SHORT ADDRESS
129
YAAA AAA1 1000 0001
ENABLE WRITE MEMORY
144
YAAA AAA1 1001 0000
QUERY STATUS
145
YAAA AAA1 1001 0001
QUERY CONTROL GEAR
146
YAAA AAA1 1001 0010
QUERY LAMP FAILURE
147
YAAA AAA1 1001 0011
QUERY LAMP POWER ON
148
YAAA AAA1 1001 0100
QUERY LIMIT ERROR
149
YAAA AAA1 1001 0101
QUERY RESET STATE
150
YAAA AAA1 1001 0110
QUERY MISSING SHORT ADDRESS
151
YAAA AAA1 1001 0111
QUERY VERSION NUMBER
152
YAAA AAA1 1001 1000
QUERY CONTENT DTR
153
YAAA AAA1 1001 1001
QUERY DEVICE TYPE
154
YAAA AAA1 1001 1010
QUERY PHYSICAL MINIMUM LEVEL
155
YAAA AAA1 1001 1011
QUERY POWER FAILURE
156
YAAA AAA1 1001 1100
QUERY CONTENT DTR1
157
YAAA AAA1 1001 1101
QUERY CONTENT DTR2
160
YAAA AAA1 1010 0000
QUERY ACTUAL LEVEL
161
YAAA AAA1 1010 0001
QUERY MAX LEVEL
162
YAAA AAA1 1010 0010
QUERY MIN LEVEL
163
YAAA AAA1 1010 0011
QUERY POWER ON LEVEL
164
YAAA AAA1 1010 0100
QUERY SYSTEM FAILURE LEVEL
DocID025437 Rev 1
43/70
70
User interface
AN4382
Table 12. List of supported DALI commands (continued)
Command number
Command code
Mnemonic command name
165
YAAA AAA1 1010 0101
QUERY FADE TIME/FADE RATE
176 - 191
YAAA AAA1 1011 XXXX
QUERY SCENE LEVEL (SCENES 0 - 15)
192
YAAA AAA1 1100 0000
QUERY GROUPS 0 - 7
193
YAAA AAA1 1100 0001
QUERY GROUPS 8 - 15
194
YAAA AAA1 1100 0010
QUERY RANDOM ADDRESS (H)
195
YAAA AAA1 1100 0011
QUERY RANDOM ADDRESS (M)
196
YAAA AAA1 1100 0100
QUERY RANDOM ADDRESS (L)
197
YAAA AAA1 1100 0101
READ MEMORY LOCATION
224 - 254
YAAA AAA1 111X XXXX
Refer to standard IEC62386 - part 207
255
YAAA AAA1 1111 1111
QUERY EXTENDED VERSION NUMBER
256
1010 0001 0000 0000
TERMINATE
257
1010 0011 XXXX XXXX
DATA TRANSFER REGISTER (DTR)
258
1010 0101 XXXX XXXX
INITIALISE
259
1010 0111 0000 0000
RANDOMISE
260
1010 1001 0000 0000
COMPARE
261
1010 1011 0000 0000
WITHDRAW
264
1011 0001 HHHH HHHH
SEARCHADDRH
265
1011 0011 MMMM MMMM
SEARCHADDRM
266
1011 0101 LLLL LLLL
SEARCHADDRL
267
1011 0111 0AAA AAA1
PROGRAM SHORT ADDRESS
268
1011 1001 0AAA AAA1
VERIFY SHORT ADDRESS
269
1011 1011 0000 0000
QUERY SHORT ADDRESS
270
1011 1101 0000 0000
PHYSICAL SELECTION
272
1100 0001 XXXX XXXX
ENABLE DEVICE TYPE X
273
1100 0011 XXXX XXXX
DATA TRANSFER REGISTER 1 (DTR1)
274
1100 0101 XXXX XXXX
DATA TRANSFER REGISTER 2 (DTR2)
275
1100 0111 XXXX XXXX
WRITE MEMORY LOCATION
44/70
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
User interface
Table 13. IEC62386 part 207 - command extension
Command number
Command code
Mnemonic command name
224
YAAA AAA1 1110 0000
REFERENCE SYSTEM POWER
225
YAAA AAA1 1110 0001
ENABLE CURRENT PROTECTOR - not implemented
226
YAAA AAA1 1110 0010
DISABLE CURRENT PROTECTOR - not implemented
227
YAAA AAA1 1110 0011
SELECT DIMMING CURVE
228
YAAA AAA1 1110 0100
STORE DTR AS FAST FADE TIME
237
YAAA AAA1 1110 1101
QUERY GEAR TYPE
238
YAAA AAA1 1110 1110
QUERY DIMMING CURVE
239
YAAA AAA1 1110 1111
QUERY POSSIBLE OPERATING MODES
240
YAAA AAA1 1111 0000
QUERY FEATURES
241
YAAA AAA1 1111 0001
QUERY FAILURE STATUS
242
YAAA AAA1 1111 0010
QUERY SHORT-CIRCUIT
243
YAAA AAA1 1111 0011
QUERY OPEN CIRCUIT
244
YAAA AAA1 1111 0100
QUERY LOAD DECREASE
245
YAAA AAA1 1111 0101
QUERY LOAD INCREASE
246
YAAA AAA1 1111 0110
QUERY CURRENT PROTECTOR ACTIVE
247
YAAA AAA1 1111 0111
QUERY THERMAL SHUT DOWN - not implemented
248
YAAA AAA1 1111 1000
QUERY THERMAL OVERLOAD - not implemented
249
YAAA AAA1 1111 1001
QUERY REFERENCE RUNNING - not implemented
250
YAAA AAA1 1111 1010
QUERY REFERENCE MEASUREMENT FAILED
251
YAAA AAA1 1111 1011
QUERY CURRENT PROTECTOR ENABLED
252
YAAA AAA1 1111 1100
QUERY OPERATING MODE
253
YAAA AAA1 1111 1101
QUERY FAST FADE TIME
254
YAAA AAA1 1111 1110
QUERY MIN FAST FADE TIME
255
YAAA AAA1 1111 1111
QUERY EXTENDED VERSION NUMBER
272
1100 0001 0000 0110
ENABLE DEVICE TYPE 6
Please refer to the DALI extension manual on www.dali-ag.org (IEC 62386-207) for more
details on the standard.
DocID025437 Rev 1
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70
User interface
9.3
AN4382
Serial command
This section describes the terminal interface line available on the STLUX385A device. The
serial line allows the configuration of the operating condition, including the current level
(dimming). It also allows to enquire the board status and the value of application
parameters.
This section shows a list of commands available via the serial interface according to the
STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board firmware version V3R28.
The STLUX385A command line interface is accessible via a standard terminal utility
installed on the user's PC.
The serial (TTL 0 - 3.3 V) cable is provided together with the demonstration board. The onboard connector is identified as UART I/F. The serial line uses only three lines: GND, TX,
RX plus power and ground derived from USB interfaces. The predefined baud rate is
115200, no parity, 8-bit, 1 stop bit, no handshake. The user should identify the PC COM line
number. The PC will also install the serial COM drivers as soon as the cable is connected. If
the driver is not installed or for other problems please call your IT support.
During the power-up and reset the STLUX385A transmits the following strings to the serial
line.
Figure 19. Power-up message
EVAL STLUX385-PSR-ZVS V3R28
Build Oct 16 2013 13:44:22 core is 385A ok
Option PFC HB Dali R enabled
Ready
The message is used to verify that the link between the PC and the STLUX385A device is
up and that the correct baud rate is selected. Also the following information is displayed:
•
The string “V3R28” reports the firmware version (3) and revision (28).
•
Firmware time and the date.
•
Options currently enabled. In this example the PFC, the resonant stage (HB) and the
DALI interface are enabled.
•
“Ready” appears when the STLUX385A is ready to receive a command.
46/70
DocID025437 Rev 1
AN4382
User interface
The user can interact with the STLUX385A device using one of the following commands
displayed in Figure 20:
Figure 20. Command list
Monitor channel command
ll [dat]
Set output current (2-4094)
st
Get status
gp
Get PFC status
gh
Get HB
ad
Get all ADC channels
ti
Get time
co
Clear error
in [of][val]
Set startup param, "in 0 0" to help
hf [val]
Set HB DEAD time (24<-192)
hb [val]
Set HB ON time (0 = off, 1 = on, 46<->650)
pf [val]
Set PFC 0 = off, 1 = on, 2 = minpw or (875<->920)
dt [val]
Set HB remove delay time
fr [div]
Set CCO freq
hl [??]
help cmd [??] string
hl
get help
?
get help
status
use [enter] to end line, use [backspace] to delete char
The command list can be displayed using the “?” command.
Commands may require several parameters and the user shall use the correct syntax. Any
incorrectly typed character can be modified using the backspace character.
Figure 20: Command list describes the commands accessible through the console. For
convenience, the resonant stage is referred to as HB (“Half Bridge”).
With the exception of the parameters “in” command, all commands are volatile and their
results are defaulted once the board is reset. The “in” command lets the user modify the
startup value for selected parameters. Any new startup value is stored in an EEPROM
memory.
Caution:
The commands guarantee full access to the board configuration. Please take care when
modifying the behavior of the board via commands. An incorrect configuration change may
damage the board.
9.3.1
ll - configure LED output current
Change the LED output current. This command should be used only when the DALI or
0 - 10 V interfaces are not active. The DALI and 0 - 10 V have higher priority over the “ll”
command. The “ll” values are in range from 2 (minimum current) to 4094 (maximum
current). While operating on the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board, the “ll”
parameters should be configured between 539 (minimum current) and 3450 (maximum
current).
DocID025437 Rev 1
47/70
70
User interface
AN4382
The LED can be switched off using parameter 0. Once the LEDs are switched off with the
command “ll”, then the LED can only be switched on again via the command “ll”
(and not 0 - 10 V or DALI).
The STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board also limits the resonant output current
variation rate to a maximum of 333 mA /second, in order to preserve both the output
capacitors and the LED string.
Caution:
Take care when using this command. The board injects the configured LED current
independently from the LED ratings. The user shall configure a current level not greater than
the maximum current allowed by the LED strings connected.
The correlation from output current and “ll” value is not linear. Table 14 defines the value for
a selected number of output current values correlated with “ll” value:
Table 14. “ll” <-> output current relation
“ll” value
Output current (1 A scale)
Output current (500 mA scale)
0
Off
Off
539
10 mA
5 mA
660
100 mA
50 mA
795
200 mA
100 mA
935
300 mA
150 mA
1070
400 mA
200 mA
1380
500 mA
250 mA
1770
600 mA
300 mA
2175
700 mA
350 mA
2600
800 mA
400 mA
3020
900 mA
450 mA
3450
1000 mA
500 mA
Syntax: ll val
Parameters:
•
val [0,2-4096]: configure the output current level.
–
0: switch off the LED
–
2-4096: set the output current. The STEVAL385LEDPSR supports currents in the
range 539-3450.
Output:
Default: none
Example: ll 539: set the minimum LED current level.
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9.3.2
User interface
st - status
The command reports the actual demonstration board status. This command reports all the
main internal variables, flags and the status of the board. The values are reported as
sampled when the “st” command is executed.
Syntax: st
Parameters:
none
Output:
PSR-ZVS status is 0:2
Vin Vi = 677 Vp = 695 Vmin = 30 Vmax = 695 freq = 99
PFC st = 0x1 Vo = 903 S0 = 51 S3 = 124 maxon = 480 I = 8
HB st = 0x3 Z = 0 S0 = 33 S3 = 445 dt = 30 O0 L = 569 H = 569
PW2 ta = 3450 re = 3446 now = 3450 O1:0 dump = 37 ndump = 0 tz = 0x25
Table 15. Status information
Line Parameter
1
2
3
Description
Unit conversion
/
The first line (PSR-ZVS) reports the last error value
is
“0” in the example is the last error; “2” is last total number of errors
starting from power on or form last reset.
Vin
The second line reports the AC input voltage.
Vi
Actual AC voltage
V = Vi * 0.448 V
Vp
AC peak voltage during the last half wave AC cycle.
V = Vp * 0.448 V
Vmin
Minimum input voltage during the last half wave AC cycle.
V = Vmin * 0.448 V
Vmax
Maximum input voltage during the last half wave AC cycle .
V = Vmax * 0.448 V
freq
Shows the input semi-sinusoidal period in units of 100 μS. In the
example “freq = 99" is equal to 99 * 100 mS = 9.9 mS, i.e. ~100 Hz (or
~50 Hz full-wave).
T = freq * 100 μS
PFC
The third line report the PFC status
st
This parameter is a bit mask and each bit reports several PFC
information:
Bit
Value Description
0
1
0
Running
Disabled
1
1
Overcurrent detected.
5
0
1
IDLE mode not selected.
IDLE mode selected.
Note: during the IDLE mode the serial line is not available
therefore the bit can be read by executing the command
“st” within 200 ms after using command “pf 2".
6
1
Stable PFC output.
7
1
PFC ready but generic error condition detected.
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Table 15. Status information (continued)
Line Parameter
4
5
6
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Description
Unit conversion
Vo
Output voltage. The value is update every 1.25 ms.
V = Vo * 0.448
S0
The actual Toff time.
T = S0 * 10.4 ns
S3
The actual Ton time.
T = S3 * 10.4 ns
Maxon
Maximum on-time. Depends on the AC input voltage. It is used also
during the startup phase to limit the input current.
T = Maxon * 10.4 ns
I
Overcurrent protection threshold.
A = (I * 0.083) / 0.195
HB
The fourth line reports the HB status
st
This parameter is a bit mask and each bit reports several half bridge
information:
Bit
Value Description
0
1
0
Running
Disabled
1
1
0
Half bridge automatic regulation ON.
Half bridge automatic regulation OFF.
8
1
Half bridge ready but generic error detected.
Z
Reserved
S0
Deadtime
T = S0 * 10.4 ns
S3
Half bridge on-time
T = S3 * 10.4 ns
dt
Delay time, as configured by “dt” command.
T = dt * 10.4 ns
O
Reserved
PW2
High precision reference status
ta
Target current value as expressed by the user via the “ll: command,
DALI or 0 - 10 V interface.
See Table 14.
re
The actual reference voltage.
V = re * 305 μV
now
Actual current value, expressed as a value of the “ll: command'.
See Table 14.
O
Reserved
dump
Reserved
ndump
Reserved
TZ_flags
Reserved
Z10
The sixth line is shown only if the 0 - 10 V interface is enabled and
shows the 0 - 10 V interface status. The line looks like the
following: Z10:765 is 1357, tr = 0 V14 = 845 V3 = 938
Z10:xxx
Actual voltage acquired from the ADC line 4 (765 on example). See
Table 16 to retrieve the current value associated.
V = Z10 * 1.22 mV
is yyyy
The equivalent “ll” value corresponding to the actual 0 - 10 voltage.
See Table 14.
tr
Difference between the actual and nominal 14 V input.
V = tr * 16.5 mV
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User interface
Table 15. Status information (continued)
Line Parameter
Description
Unit conversion
V14
ADC value corresponding to the 14 V input.
V = V14 * 16.5 mV
V3
ADC value corresponding to the 3.3 V input.
V = V3 * 3.462 mV
Default:
Example: “st”:
9.3.3
gp - get PFC status
The “gp” command is used to retrieve the PFC status.
Syntax: gp
Parameters: none
Output:
PFC
f=0x0 S0=51 S3=70 e=1 Vo=27 ta=912 S0n=20 pw=0 is=1 lp=0
Mon=70:70 Moff=51:51 on=70:70 off=51:51 s_t=3
L0=:2:1:1:1:2:1
Table 16. PFC status information
Line
Parameter
Description
Unit
1
PFC
2
f
Reserved
S0
Actual variable on-time
T = S0 * 10.4 ns
S3
Actual variable on-time
T = S3 * 10.4 ns
e
Filter gain (see Section 3 on page 11)
Vo
Output voltage
V = Vo * 0.448 V
ta
Target output voltage
V = ta * 0.448 V
S0n
Reserved
pw
Reserved
is
Reserved
lp
Reserved
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Table 16. PFC status information (continued)
Line
3
4
Parameter
Description
Unit
Mon = xx : yy
The minimum (xx) and maximum (yy) value of on-time recorded from the
last “gp” command execution.
T = xx * 10.4 ns
T = yy * 10.4 ns
Moff = xx : yy
The minimum (xx) and maximum (yy) value of off-time recorded from the
last “gp” command execution.
T = xx * 10.4 ns
T = yy * 10.4 ns
on = xx : yy
The minimum (xx) and maximum (yy) value of on-time recorded during the T = xx * 10.4 ns
last AC half-cycle.
T = yy * 10.4 ns
off = xx : yy
The minimum (xx) and maximum (yy) value of off-time recorded during the T = xx * 10.4 ns
last AC half-cycle.
T = yy * 10.4 ns
s_t
Reserved
L0
Reserved
Default: none
Example: gp
9.3.4
gh - get half bridge status
Retrieves the half bridge resonant status.
Syntax: gh
Parameters: none
Output:
HB st=0x80 fl=0x0 - s3=61 d0=0 d1=0 Con=65535:0 Ron=61:61
Table 17. Half bridge status information
Line
1
Parameter
Description
Value
HB
st
Is the HB internal status - see “st” command to understand.
fl
Reserved
s3
Actual on-time (without LEB time)
d0
Reserved
d1
Reserved
Con
Reserved
Ron
Reserved
T = s3 * 10.4 ns
Reports the HB status where:
Note:
All the dump value (d0, d1, Con and Ron field) is correct only if the HB loop is active.
Default: none
Example: gh
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9.3.5
User interface
ad - get last ADC samples
Command used to retrieve the value of the last analog to digital conversion in all ADC
channels. The output value is the digital value acquired directly from the ADC registers.
Syntax: ad
Parameters: none
Output:
CH0=28 CH1=287 CH2=0 CH3=0 CH4=0 CH5=855 CH6=933 CH7=0
Default: none
Example: ad
Table 18. ADC samples
Channel
Monitor signal
(on schematic)
Target value
result
Target value
unit
Value
CH0
PFC_OUT
408 V
912
V = CH0 * 0.448 V
CH1
CN_CNT
Variable
Variable
V = CH1 * 1.2219 mV
CH2
Vf (D_CH0)
Variable
Variable
V = CH2 * 0.11845 on J4 (total Vf on led strings)
CH3
V_IN -rectified Vac
Variable
Variable
V = CH3 * 0.448 V
CH4
A - 0 - 10 V
Variable
Variable
V = CH4 * 1.22189 mV
CH5
VD_14
14 V
849
V = CH5 * 16.5 mV
CH6
VCC
3.3 V
953
V = CH6 * 3.462 mV
CH7
Not used
9.3.6
ti - time since power-on
The command shows the STLUX385A device up time. The output is composed of two parts,
separated by the comma sign. The first part shows the number of seconds elapsed since
power-on or reset. The second part represents the microseconds within the second.
Syntax: ti
Parameters: none
Output:
Default: none
Example: ti
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9.3.7
AN4382
co - clear error
Clears any system errors and switches off the FAULT LED. The command does not clear
the error counter tracked by the “st” command. The FAULT LED may turn ON again after the
“co” command should the error still be present.
Syntax: co
Parameters: none
Output:
Default: none
Example: co
Warning:
9.3.8
The following command changes the behavior of the
demonstration board and an incorrect configuration could
damage the board.
in - enabled/disable features
Define which feature of the demonstration board are enabled or disabled at startup. With
this command is possible to enable or disable the PFC, the half bridge, the DALI I/F or the 0
- 10 V interface. The configuration is stored into EEPROM and applied during the startup or
reset. The command uses two parameters: the first identify the feature, the second defines
the value.
Syntax: in
Parameters: [parameter] [Value]
Table 19. Startup configuration
First Param.
param. range
Definition
Shows the value of all configurable parameters stored in EEPROM.
0
0
1 - PFC = 1 2 - HB = 1 3 - DALI = 1 5 - HB_max = 650 6 - HB_l = 1 7 Deb = 0 8 - 10 V = 0
9 - PFC_op = 2000 10 -PFC_lp = 1 11 - PFC_dv = 25 12 - PFC_cs = 1
Each parameter is identified by its correct “first parameter” as used by the “in” command.
0, 1
0: PFC disabled
1: PFC enabled (default)
2
0, 1
0: HB enabled
1: H disabled (default)
If the PFC is disabled and HB is enabled, the output current is not regulated correctly since the
HB stage is automatically halted.
3
0, 1
0: DALI disabled
1: DALI enabled (default)
1
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Table 19. Startup configuration (continued)
First Param.
param. range
Definition
5
Configures the maximum HB on-time (i.e. minimum frequency), excluding LEB time. The value is
calculated as maximum_On_time / 10.4 ns.
The default value 650 represents the maximum output power (more than 1A).
6
0, 1
0: disable HB compensation loop.
1: enable HB compensation loop (default).
If the compensation loop is disabled, the HB works with a fixed frequency.
0, 1
0: enable normal startup procedure (default on new evaluation boards).
1: enable debug mode (default on new firmware upgrades).
When debug mode is selected, all STLUX385A outputs are disabled with the exception of the
serial line. Only the command interpreter is enabled.
8
0, 1
0: 0 - 10 V interface disabled (default)
1: 0 - 10 V interface enabled
The 0 - 10 V and DALI are mutually exclusive. To enable the 0 - 10 V interfaces, first disable the
DALI interface, enable the 0 - 10 V interface and reset the board.
10
0, 1
Reserved
7
11
12
Reserved
0, 1
Reserved
Output:
Default: none
Example: “in 2 1"; enable the half bridge operation
9.3.9
hf - configure half bridge deadtime
The command changes the deadtime applied to the half bridge resonant stage. The
minimum configurable deadtime is 250 ns (val = 24) while the maximum is 2 μs (val = 192).
Val can be calculated as:
Equation 19
val = deadtime * (2 μs - 250 ns) / (192-24) = deadtime * 1750 ns / 168 = deadtime * 10.42
Syntax: hf [val]
Parameters:
val [24-192]: the new deadtime. 24 = 250 ns; 192 = 2 μs. Val = deadtime * 10.42.
Output: none
Default: 243 ns.
Example: “hf 24": set deadtime to 250 ns.
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9.3.10
AN4382
hb - configure half bridge frequency and status
This command lets the user activate/deactivate the resonant stage and manually configure
the half bridge operating frequency. To manually activate the half bridge use “hb 1", to
deactivate use “hb 0" or select the half bridge on-time use “hb 46-650”.
The total half bridge switching period is given by Equation 20:
Equation 20
Switching period = 2* (val + LEB time + deadtime) + 52 ns
where:
val = configured via “hb”
LEB time = 250 ns
deadtime = configured via “hf”
Syntax: hf [val]
Parameters:
•
val [0,1,46-650]: the new switching frequency or resonant status.
–
0: switches off the half bridge
–
1: enables the half bridge
–
46 - 640: Select the on-time. The on-time value is calculated as val * 10.4 ns.
–
Output: none
Default: At startup the on-time value is set to 635 ns (val = 61), the deadtime is 344 ns and
the LEB time is 250 ns. Therefore, the initial switching frequency is ~400 KHz.
Example: “hf 0": switches off the resonant stage.
9.3.11
pf - configure PFC voltage and status
The command is used to activate (“pf 1"), deactivate (“pf 0") the PFC or change the PFC
output voltage. The output voltage can be configured between 390 V (val = 875) and 410 V
(val = 920) and. The default value is 920 (410 V).
If the PFC is disabled (“pf 0") and resonant is enabled then the output current is not correctly
regulated.
Caution:
It is strongly suggested to avoid manually switching off the PFC stage while the HB is
operating.
Command “pf 2" puts the STLUX into the IDLE mode (only if the resonant stage is off: use
“hb 0"). Normal operations can be restored only by pushing the DALI button (SW2) or when
the board receives a DALI command.
Syntax: pf [val]
Parameters:
•
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val [0,1,2,875-920]:
–
–
–
0: switch off the PFC
1: enable the PFC
2: enter IDLE mode
–
875-920: configure desired PFC output voltage (875 = 390 V, 920 = 410 V)
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User interface
Output: none
Default: 920
Example: “val 0": switches off the PFC stage
9.3.12
dt -delay time compensation
This parameter is used to compensate the propagation delay from the falling edge of the
PWM of the low-side MOSFET to the internal STLux385A timestamp captured during HB
current regulation. See Section 4.1.3 on page 20 for more details.
The default value is 312.5 nS. The dt value shall include an internal 50 ns delay (comparator
delay).
Note that the new value is not stored into the EEPROM area and is defaulted during the
startup.
Syntax: dt [val]
Parameters:
val [0,100]: the delay time expressed as: val * 10.4 ns
Output: none
Default: 312.5 ns
Example: “dt 30": set the delay time to 312.5 ns.
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9.4
AN4382
Error codes
The STLUX385A firmware performs several system checks during its execution. When an
error is found:
1. The red FAULT LED is triggered.
2. The error counter is incremented.
3.
The error code is stored in an internal variable. The last error code is reported by the
status command (“st”).
The FAULT LED can only be reset via the “co” command. The “co” command also clears the
error code. The error counter is reset only during power on.
Table 20. Error code
Code
Mnemonic
0
ERR_NO_ERR
1
ERR_DALI
2
ERR_RESET
3
Meaning
No error
Nothing
DALI failure
No action
The STLUX385A device rebooted without
No action
any external reset
ERR_PFC_OCD PFC overcurrent
Stop HB and PFC.
4
ERR_UVLO
Undervoltage condition detected
5
ERR_OCP_0
Not used
6
ERR_OCP_1
Not used
7
ERR_OVP_CH0 No load error
8
ERR_OVP_CH1 Not used
9
ERR_OVP_CH2 Not used
10
11
ERR_PFC_OT
Action
Stop PFC and HB, automatically restart if AC
input voltage returns into correct zone
Stop HB and PFC, automatically check and
restart every 4 second
Error during PFC startup
ERR_HB_DUMP Error during HB timestamping
Restart PFC every 4 second
Output current is not regulated
12
SERV_EE_e
Error during EEPROM write operation
The startup value is not restored due to a
write error check
13
ERR_FLASH
Error during EEPROM write operation
generated by a DALI operation
Some DALI default initializations are missing
14
ERR_HB_NOL
No load protection: no load detected on
the HB
Restart HB every 1 second
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9.5
User interface
0 - 10 V interface
The 0 - 10 V interfaces can be enabled using the “in” command described in Section 9.3 on
page 46. By default, the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board is shipped with the
0 - 10 V interface disabled. The 0 - 10 V and DALI interfaces are mutually exclusive.
The 0 - 10 V reference signal can be generated via a 0 - 10 V generator. Alternatively, it is
possible to simulate the signal using a potentiometer. The correct value of this
potentiometer is 110 KΩ, which can be obtained using two potentiometers in series: 10 KΩ
plus 100 KΩ. The 100 KΩ potentiometer shall be used when the output voltage is over 5 V,
while the 10 KΩ potentiometer can be used when the output voltage is below 5 V.
The power necessary to read the input voltage is automatically generated by the
STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board. This solution provides excellent insulation and
all the features of the demonstration board. The maximum 0 - 10 V interface input voltage
accepted on this is 15 V.
The on/off transaction is regulated via a hysteresis mechanism. LEDs are switched off when
the 0 - 10 V interface reaches V < 1 V. LEDs are switched on when V > 1.25 V.
The relationship between the voltage applied to the 0 - 10 V interfaces and the LED output
current is defined in Table 21.
Table 21. 0 - 10 V voltage to output current
Voltage applied to connector J9
Output current (1 A scale)
Output current (500 mA scale)
More than 10 V and less then 15 V
1A
500 mA
10 V
1A
500 mA
9V
900 mA
450 mA
8V
800 mA
400 mA
7V
700 mA
350 mA
6V
600 mA
300 mA
5V
500 mA
250 mA
4V
400 mA
200 mA
3V
300 mA
150 mA
2V
200 mA
100 mA
1V
100 mA
50 mA
Below 1 V
Off
Off
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10
AN4382
Measurements
Section 10.1 reports several measurement results which validate the STEVAL385PSR-ZVS
demonstration board performance.
The test environment is composed by:
•
“Yokogawa WT210 Digital Power Meter” to measure the input parameters (Vac, Iac,
power, power factor, current distortion %)
•
Digital oscilloscope “Tektronix DPO7104C 1Ghz - 20GS/s“ to acquire every waveform
show into this document
•
Current probe “Tektronix TCP0033” to acquired input/output current when is acquired
by the digital oscilloscope.
•
Multimeter “Keithley 2000” when a secondary voltage or other internal AC or DC
voltage is acquired.
•
The nominal output load is normally composed by an appropriate numbers of “LCW
CQAR.EC-MQMS-5YC8-1” OSLON LEDs by OSRAM Opto Semiconductors with a
power dissipation.
•
Electronic load “Chroma 6312" with “Chroma 63105 module” used only during PFC
tests.
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Output current precision
The first result is to demonstrate the correct current regulation at different Vf and at different
output current (imposed by the DALI stack in the linear mode). The DALI working point is
1%, 25%, 50% 75% and 100% of the nominal output power.
Table 22. Output current precision
Nominal output
current
Vf = 30 V
Vf = 45 V
Vf = 60 V
Vf = 75 V
Vf = 90 V
DALI
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
1%
10
15
13
11
10
8.5
25%
250
314
303
291
273
250
50%
500
574
551
532
516
500
75%
750
793
777
764
754
752
100%
1000
1030
1014
1003
998
998
Figure 21. Output current precision
7DUJHW FXUUHQW
10.1
Measurements
9I
9
9I
9
9I
9
9I
9
2XWSXW FXUUHQW
$0
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10.2
AN4382
Output current regulation
This section shows the current transaction from minimum to maximum power and from
maximum to minimum power. The output current level is generated using the “recall max
level” and “recall min level” DALI commands, each command is sent every 4 second. The
output is captured with the current probe acquired on Vf = 90 V. The total transaction (up or
down) is completed into 3 seconds.
Figure 22. Output current ramp-up and down
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10.3
Measurements
Efficiency
Figure 23 shows the efficiency of the demonstration board at different input AC voltage and
at different output power. The output power is applied via DALI commands and the output
current is 10 mA, 250 mA, 500 mA, 750 mA and 1 A. The output voltage of this test is fixed
at 90 V. The board efficiency peaks at 92% for high loads. When the entire input voltage
range is considered, the maximum efficiency at high load is more than 90%.
Figure 23. Demonstration board efficiency
3RXW
$0
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10.4
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IDLE and minimum power
In Table 23 and Figure 24 is shown the power required from the demonstration board when
the DALI sent the power-off command (no current on output LEDs string) and put the
demonstration board into the standby mode. The input power required during standby is
shown in Table 23. Also, Table 23 shows the minimum input power when the output current
during is the lowest (~10 mA).
Table 23. Board standby and minimum power
AC input voltage
IDLE (W)
Active - min. power (W)
90
0.078
1.30
110
0.083
1.35
130
0.089
1.36
160
0.104
1.28
180
0.107
1.20
220
0.129
1.15
264
0.154
1.15
Figure 24. Standby power vs AC input voltage
6WDQGE\SRZHUP:
,QSXWYROWDJH9DF
$0
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10.5
Measurements
Demonstration board power factor and THD
Figure 25 is showing the power factor and the THD distortions of the STEVAL385LEDPSR
demonstration board. The value is shown at different input AC voltage and at different load
condition.
Figure 25. Demonstration board power factor
3)
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Figure 26. Demonstration board current distorsion
7+'
$0
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10.6
AN4382
PFC startup phases
Figure 27 and Figure 28 illustrate the startup signals generated by the PFC stages as
different Vac input voltages are applied to the demonstration board. The maximum PFC
startup time is around 500 mS. In Figure 27 and Figure 28, figure the magenta line
represents the PFC output voltage while the green line is the AC input current. The half
bridge stage is forced to minimum power and there is a low load on the PFC stage.
Figure 27. PFC startup at 110 Vac
Figure 28. PFC startup at 220 Vac
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11
Firmware download procedure
Firmware download procedure
Danger:
Caution:
High voltage is present on the PSR-ZVS demonstration
board.
Users must take care about relevant safety procedure before handling the board, even
before initiating a firmware upgrade.
The firmware upgrade procedure requires the STM8_pgm.exe program provided by
Raisonance. The user shall install the Raisonance RIDE 7 tool. Please refer to
www.raisonance.com.
The new firmware is normally provided into a zipped file containing:
•
Firmware (stlux385_PSR_ZVS_V3Rxx.hex file, where the final “xx” refers to the
release number)
•
Batch file (program.bat)
The batch file instruments the “STM8_pgm.exe” program to erase and program the new
firmware to the STLUX385A. The batch file also verifies that the download was successful.
The following steps shall be performed:
1. Modify the “program.bat” batch file to map the current STM8_pgm.exe location.
2. Use an isolated power supply and apply 14 V (+/- 0.5 V) via TP31 (+14 V) and TP25
(GND) without any other power voltage (especially on the AC power line). This
condition guarantees the safest firmware upload condition for both the user and the
board.
3. Use the “program.bat” procedure. The result of this action is shown in Figure 29:
Figure 29. Program.bat screenshot
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The user should verify that the output values for each step are marked.
4. Connect the serial interface to the computer.
5.
After a correct download the STLUX385A starts and shows the version/release of new
firmware, as illustrated in Figure 30:
Figure 30. Power-up message after a firmware update
EVAL STLUX385-PSR-ZVS V3R20
Build Jul
1 2013 16:01:26 core is 385A
HALT - Debug Mode Activated
6.
7.
After a firmware upgrade, the application starts in a safety mode. All the output PWMs
are kept to low levels and both PFC and half bridge stages are disabled. This mode is
identified by the string “HALT - Debug Mode Activated” shown on screen. Also the
green status LED toggles (1 second on and 1 second off) on the green LED (RUN).
To enable the board operation, the users have to use the “in” command on the serial
line, using the proper parameters as described in Section 9.3. The command used to
enable the full functionality is “in 7 0". Only after a new power-on or a reset the new
configurations are applied and the STEVAL385LEDPSR demonstration board starts
with full functionality and the startup message is changed into:
Figure 31. Power-up message of a fully enabled board
EVAL STLUX385-PSR-ZVS V3R20
Build Jul
1 2013 16:01:26 core is 385A
Option PFC HB Dali enabled
Ready
As an example, in the screen capture, the PFC is active, the half bridge is active and the
DALI interfaces is enable. Note the “Ready” message; it states that the
STEVAL385LEDPSR board is ready to receive a new serial line command.
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Revision history
Revision history
Table 24. Document revision history
Date
Revision
04-Feb-2014
1
Changes
Initial release.
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