Section 3: Introduction Foreword AVX offers a broad line of solid Tantalum capacitors in a wide range of sizes, styles, and ratings to meet any design needs. This catalog combines into one source AVX’s leaded tantalum capacitor information from its worldwide tantalum operations. The TAP/TEP is rated for use from -55°C to +85°C at rated voltage and up to +125°C with voltage derating. There are three preferred wire forms to choose from which are available on tape and reel, and in bulk for hand insertion. AVX has a complete tantalum applications service available for use by all our customers. With the capability to prototype and mass produce solid tantalum capacitors in special configurations, almost any design need can be fulfilled. And if the customer requirements are outside our standard testing, AVX will work with you to define and implement a test or screening plan. AVX is determined to become the world leader in tantalum capacitor technology and has made, and is continuing to make, significant investments in equipment and research to reach that end. We believe that the investment has paid off with the devices shown on the following pages. Dipped Radial Capacitors SOLID TANTALUM RESIN DIPPED SERIES TAP/TEP The TAP/TEP resin dipped series of miniature tantalum capacitors is available for individual needs in both commercial and professional applications. From computers to automotive to industrial, AVX has a dipped radial for almost any application. Tantalum Graphite Resin encapsulation Tantalum wire Terminal Wire Silver Solder Manganese dioxide Tantalum pentoxide MARCH 2013 ■ 113 Dipped Radial Capacitors Wire Form Outline SOLID TANTALUM RESIN DIPPED TAP/TEP Preferred Wire Forms D Figure 1 D Figure 2 D Figure 3 H H1 + 4 (0.16) max + 2.0(0.08) max H1 + L L S L S S d d 2.0 (0.079) min Wire Form C 2 (0.079) min d Wire Form B Wire Form S Non-Preferred Wire Forms (Not recommended for new designs) Figure 4 Figure 5 D Figure 6 D D H1 max +0.118 (3.0) H + 3.8 (0.15) max + 0.079 (2) min L 1.10 +0.25 -0.10 L L S (0.4 +0.010 -0.004 ) H S d d S Wire Form F Wire Form D Wire Form G DIMENSIONS Wire Form Figure millimeters (inches) Case Size L (see note 1) S d Packaging Suffixes Available* Preferred Wire Forms C Figure 1 A - R* 16.0±4.00 (0.630±0.160) 5.00±1.00 (0.200±0.040) 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) CCS CRW CRS Bulk Tape/Reel Tape/Ammo B Figure 2 A - J* 16.0±4.00 (0.630±0.160) 5.00±1.00 (0.200±0.040) 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) BRW BRS Tape/Reel Tape/Ammo S Figure 3 A - J* 16.0±4.00 (0.630±0.160) 2.50±0.50 (0.100±0.020) 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) SCS SRW SRS Bulk Tape/Reel Tape/Ammo Non-Preferred Wire Forms (Not recommended for new designs) F Figure 4 A-R 3.90±0.75 (0.155±0.030) 5.00±0.50 (0.200±0.020) 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) FCS Bulk D Figure 5 A - H* 16.0±4.00 (0.630±0.160) 2.50±0.75 (0.100±0.020) 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) DCS DTW DTS Bulk Tape/Reel Tape/Ammo G Figure 6 A-J A-R 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) 0.50±0.05 (0.020±0.002) Bulk Similar to Figure 1 3.18±0.50 (0.125±0.020) 6.35±1.00 (0.250±0.040) GSB H 16.0±4.00 (0.630±0.160) 16.0±4.00 (0.630±0.160) HSB Bulk Notes: (1) Lead lengths can be supplied to tolerances other than those above and should be specified in the ordering information. (2) For D, H, and H1 dimensions, refer to individual product on following pages. * For case size availability in tape and reel, please refer to pages 121-122. 114 ■ MARCH 2013 Dipped Radial Capacitors TAP Series SOLID TANTALUM RESIN DIPPED CAPACITORS TAP is a professional grade device manufactured with a flame retardant coating and featuring low leakage current and impedance, very small physical sizes and exceptional temperature stability. It is designed and conditioned to operate to +125°C (see page 151 for voltage derating above 85°C) and is available loose or taped and reeled for auto insertion. The 15 case sizes with wide capacitance and working voltage ranges means the TAP can accommodate almost any application. MAXIMUM CASE DIMENSIONS: millimeters (inches) + D H HOW TO ORDER TAP Type LEAD-FREE COMPATIBLE COMPONENT Wire Case A B C D E F G H J K L M N P R C, F, G, H H 8.50 (0.330) 9.00 (0.350) 10.0 (0.390) 10.5 (0.410) 10.5 (0.410) 11.5 (0.450) 11.5 (0.450) 12.0 (0.470) 13.0 (0.510) 14.0 (0.550) 14.0 (0.550) 14.5 (0.570) 16.0 (0.630) 17.0 (0.670) 18.5 (0.730) B, S, D *H1 7.00 (0.280) 7.50 (0.300) 8.50 (0.330) 9.00 (0.350) 9.00 (0.350) 10.0 (0.390) 10.0 (0.390) 10.5 (0.410) 11.5 (0.450) 12.5 (0.490) 12.5 (0.490) 13.0 (0.510) 4.50 4.50 5.00 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.00 9.00 10.0 10.0 D (0.180) (0.180) (0.200) (0.200) (0.220) (0.240) (0.260) (0.280) (0.310) (0.330) (0.350) (0.350) (0.350) (0.390) (0.390) 475 M 035 SCS Capacitance Code pF code: 1st two digits represent significant figures, 3rd digit represents multiplier (number of zeros to follow) Capacitance Tolerance K = ±10% M = ±20% (For J = ±5% tolerance, please consult factory) Rated DC Voltage Suffix indicating wire form and packaging (see page 114) MARCH 2013 ■ 115 Dipped Radial Capacitors TAP Series TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Technical Data: Capacitance Range: Capacitance Tolerance: Rated Voltage DC (VR ) Category Voltage (VC ) Surge Voltage (VS ) Surge Voltage (VS ) Temperature Range: Environmental Classification: Dissipation Factor: +85°C: +125°C: +85°C: +125°C: Reliability: Qualification: Capacitance Range (letter denotes case size) Capacitance μF Code 6.3V 10V 0.10 104 0.15 154 0.22 224 0.33 0.47 0.68 334 474 684 1.0 1.5 2.2 105 155 225 3.3 4.7 6.8 335 475 685 A A A 10 15 22 106 156 226 33 47 68 All technical data relate to an ambient temperature of +25°C 0.10 μF to 330 μF ±20%; ±10% (±5% consult your AVX representative for details) 6.3 10 16 20 25 35 50 4 6.3 10 13 16 23 33 8 13 20 26 33 46 65 5 9 12 16 21 28 40 -55°C to +125°C 55/125/56 (IEC 68-2) 0.04 for CR 0.1-1.5μF 0.06 for CR 2.2-6.8μF 0.08 for CR 10-68μF 0.10 for CR 100-330μF 1% per 1000 hrs. at 85°C with 0.1Ω/V series impedance, 60% confidence level. CECC 30201 - 032 16V Rated voltage DC (VR ) 20V 25V 35V A A A 50V A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A B C D E A A B A B C B C D B C D C E F F G H B C D C D E D E F E F H E F H F H K J K L 336 476 686 E F G F G H F J L J K N J M N M N 100 150 220 107 157 227 H K M K N P N N R N 330 337 P R Values outside this standard range may be available on request. AVX reserves the right to supply capacitors to a higher voltage rating, in the same case size, than that ordered. MARKING Polarity, capacitance, rated DC voltage, and an "A" (AVX logo) are laser marked on the capacitor body which is made of flame retardant gold epoxy resin with a limiting oxygen index in excess of 30 (ASTM-D-2863). • • • • Polarity Capacitance Voltage AVX logo • Tolerance code: ±20% = Standard (no marking) ±10% = “K” on reverse side of unit ±5% = “J” on reverse side of unit 116 ■ MARCH 2013 +A 10μ 16 Dipped Radial Capacitors TAP Series RATINGS AND PART NUMBER REFERENCE AVX Part No. TAP 335(*)006 TAP 475(*)006 TAP 685(*)006 TAP 106(*)006 TAP 156(*)006 TAP 226(*)006 TAP 336(*)006 TAP 476(*)006 TAP 686(*)006 TAP 107(*)006 TAP 157(*)006 TAP 227(*)006 TAP 337(*)006 TAP 225(*)010 TAP 335(*)010 TAP 475(*)010 TAP 685(*)010 TAP 106(*)010 TAP 156(*)010 TAP 226(*)010 TAP 336(*)010 TAP 476(*)010 TAP 686(*)010 TAP 107(*)010 TAP 157(*)010 TAP 227(*)010 TAP 337(*)010 TAP 155(*)016 TAP 225(*)016 TAP 335(*)016 TAP 475(*)016 TAP 685(*)016 TAP 106(*)016 TAP 156(*)016 TAP 226(*)016 TAP 336(*)016 TAP 476(*)016 TAP 686(*)016 TAP 107(*)016 TAP 157(*)016 TAP 227(*)016 TAP 105(*)020 TAP 155(*)020 TAP 225(*)020 TAP 335(*)020 TAP 475(*)020 TAP 685(*)020 TAP 106(*)020 TAP 156(*)020 TAP 226(*)020 TAP 336(*)020 TAP 476(*)020 TAP 686(*)020 TAP 107(*)020 Case Capacitance Size μF DCL (μA) Max. DF % Max. 6.3 volt @ 85°C (4 volt @ 125°C) A 3.3 0.5 6 A 4.7 0.5 6 A 6.8 0.5 6 B 10 0.5 8 C 15 0.8 8 D 22 1.1 8 E 33 1.7 8 F 47 2.4 8 G 68 3.4 8 H 100 5.0 10 K 150 7.6 10 M 220 11.0 10 P 330 16.6 10 10 volt @ 85°C (6.3 volt @ 125°C) A 2.2 0.5 6 A 3.3 0.5 6 A 4.7 0.5 6 B 6.8 0.5 6 C 10 0.8 8 D 15 1.2 8 E 22 1.7 8 F 33 2.6 8 G 47 3.7 8 H 68 5.4 8 K 100 8.0 10 N 150 12.0 10 P 220 17.6 10 R 330 20.0 10 16 volt @ 85°C (10 volt @ 125°C) A 1.5 0.5 4 A 2.2 0.5 6 A 3.3 0.5 6 B 4.7 0.6 6 C 6.8 0.8 6 D 10 1.2 8 E 15 1.9 8 F 22 2.8 8 F 33 4.2 8 J 47 6.0 8 L 68 8.7 8 N 100 12.8 10 N 150 19.2 10 R 220 20.0 10 20 volt @ 85°C (13 volt @ 125°C) A 1.0 0.5 4 A 1.5 0.5 4 A 2.2 0.5 6 B 3.3 0.5 6 C 4.7 0.7 6 D 6.8 1.0 6 E 10 1.6 8 F 15 2.4 8 H 22 3.5 8 J 33 5.2 8 K 47 7.5 8 N 68 10.8 8 N 100 16.0 10 ESR Max. (Ω) @ 100 kHz 13.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 3.7 3.0 2.0 1.8 1.6 0.9 0.9 0.7 13.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 3.7 2.7 2.1 1.7 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 10.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.2 2.5 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 10.0 9.0 7.0 5.5 4.5 3.6 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.6 AVX Part No. TAP 105(*)025 TAP 155(*)025 TAP 225(*)025 TAP 335(*)025 TAP 475(*)025 TAP 685(*)025 TAP 106(*)025 TAP 156(*)025 TAP 226(*)025 TAP 336(*)025 TAP 476(*)025 TAP 686(*)025 TAP 104(*)035 TAP 154(*)035 TAP 224(*)035 TAP 334(*)035 TAP 474(*)035 TAP 684(*)035 TAP 105(*)035 TAP 155(*)035 TAP 225(*)035 TAP 335(*)035 TAP 475(*)035 TAP 685(*)035 TAP 106(*)035 TAP 156(*)035 TAP 226(*)035 TAP 336(*)035 TAP 476(*)035 TAP 104(*)050 TAP 154(*)050 TAP 224(*)050 TAP 334(*)050 TAP 474(*)050 TAP 684(*)050 TAP 105(*)050 TAP 155(*)050 TAP 225(*)050 TAP 335(*)050 TAP 475(*)050 TAP 685(*)050 TAP 106(*)050 TAP 156(*)050 TAP 226(*)050 Case Capacitance Size μF DCL (μA) Max. DF % Max. ESR Max. (Ω) @ 100 kHz 25 volt @ 85°C (16 volt @ 125°C) A 1.0 0.5 4 A 1.5 0.5 4 A 2.2 0.5 6 B 3.3 0.6 6 C 4.7 0.9 6 D 6.8 1.3 6 E 10 2.0 8 F 15 3.0 8 H 22 4.4 8 J 33 6.6 8 M 47 9.4 8 N 68 13.6 8 35 volt @ 85°C (23 volt @ 125°C) A 0.1 0.5 4 A 0.15 0.5 4 A 0.22 0.5 4 A 0.33 0.5 4 A 0.47 0.5 4 A 0.68 0.5 4 A 1.0 0.5 4 A 1.5 0.5 4 B 2.2 0.6 6 C 3.3 0.9 6 E 4.7 1.3 6 F 6.8 1.9 6 F 10 2.8 8 H 15 4.2 8 K 22 6.1 8 M 33 9.2 8 N 47 10.0 8 50 volt @ 85°C (33 volt @ 125°C) A 0.1 0.5 4 A 0.15 0.5 4 A 0.22 0.5 4 A 0.33 0.5 4 A 0.47 0.5 4 B 0.68 0.5 4 C 1.0 0.5 4 D 1.5 0.6 4 E 2.2 0.8 6 F 3.3 1.3 6 G 4.7 1.8 6 H 6.8 2.7 6 J 10 4.0 8 K 15 6.0 8 L 22 8.8 8 10.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.1 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 26.0 21.0 17.0 15.0 13.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.8 26.0 21.0 17.0 15.0 13.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 (*) Insert capacitance tolerance code; M for ±20%, K for ±10% and J for ±5% NOTE: Voltage ratings are minimum values. AVX reserves the right to supply higher voltage ratings in the same case size. MARCH 2013 ■ 117 Dipped Radial Capacitors Tape and Reel Packaging SOLID TANTALUM RESIN DIPPED TAP/TEP TAPE AND REEL PACKAGING FOR AUTOMATIC COMPONENT INSERTION TAP/TEP types are all offered on radial tape, in reel or ‘ammo’ pack format for use on high speed radial automatic insertion equipment, or preforming machines. The tape format is compatible with EIA 468A standard for component taping set out by major manufacturers of radial automatic insertion equipment. TAP/TEP – available in three formats. See page 122 for dimensions. ⌬P P2 ⌬h ‘B’ wires for normal automatic insertion on 5mm pitch. BRW suffix for reel BRS suffix for ‘ammo’ pack Available in case sizes A - J H3 W2 d H L H1 W1 S W D P1 T P ⌬P P2 ⌬h ‘C’ wires for preforming. H3 L CRW suffix for reel CRS suffix for ‘ammo’ pack W2 d H H1 W1 S W Available in case sizes A - R D P1 T P ⌬P P2 ⌬h ‘S’ and ‘D’ wire for special applications, automatic insertion on 2.5mm pitch. H3 W2 d H2 L H1 W1 S SRW, DTW suffix for reel SRS, DTS suffix for ‘ammo’ pack Available in case sizes A - J W D T P1 P S wire MARCH 2013 ■ 121 Dipped Radial Capacitors Tape and Reel Packaging SOLID TANTALUM RESIN DIPPED TAP/TEP CASE DIMENSIONS: millimeters (inches) Description Code Dimension Feed hole pitch P 12.7 ± 0.30 (0.500 ± 0.010) Hole center to lead P1 3.85 ± 0.70 (0.150 ± 0.030) to be measured at bottom of clench REEL CONFIGURATION AND DIMENSIONS: millimeters (inches) Diameter 30 (1.18) max. 5.05 ± 1.00 (0.200 ± 0.040) for S wire Hole center to component center P2 6.35 ± 0.40 (0.250 ± 0.020) Change in pitch Δp ± 1.00 (± 0.040) 53 (2.09) max. Lead diameter d 0.50 ± 0.05 (0.020 ± 0.003) Lead spacing S See wire form table Component alignment Δh 0 ± 2.00 (0 ± 0.080) Feed hole diameter D 4.00 ± 0.20 (0.150 ± 0.008) Tape width W 18.0 + 1.00 (0.700 + 0.040) - 0.50 - 0.020) Hold down tape width W1 6.00 (0.240) min. Hold down tape position W2 1.00 (0.040) max. Lead wire clench height H 16.0 ± 0.50 (0.630 ± 0.020) 19.0 ± 1.00 (0.750 ± 0.040) on request Hole position H1 9.00 ± 0.50 (0.350 ± 0.020) Base of component height H2 18.0 (0.700) min. (S wire only) Component height H3 32.25 (1.300) max. Length of snipped lead L 11.0 (0.430) max. Total tape thickness T 0.70 ± 0.20 (0.030 ± 0.001) 45 (1.77) max. 40 (1.57) min. 80 (3.15) 360 (14.17) max. Manufactured from cardboard with plastic hub. cardboard with plastic hub. Holding tape outside Holding tape outside. Positive terminal leading. Carrying card 0.50 ± 0.10 (0.020 ± 0.005) PACKAGING QUANTITIES For Reels Style Case size A TAP TEP For bulk products For ‘Ammo’ pack No. of pieces Style 1500 B, C, D 1250 E, F 1000 G, H, J 750 K, L, M, N, P, R 500 TAP TEP Case size 3000 E, F, G 2500 H, J 2000 K, L, M, N, P, R 1000 AMMO PACK DIMENSIONS millimeters (inches) max. Height 360 (14.17), width 360 (14.17), thickness 60 (2.36) 122 ■ MARCH 2013 No. of pieces A, B, C, D Style TAP TEP Case size No. of pieces A to H 1000 J to L 500 M to R 100 GENERAL NOTES Resin dipped tantalum capacitors are only available taped in the range of case sizes and in the modular quantities by case size as indicated. Packaging quantities on tape may vary by ±1%. TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines SECTION 1: ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND EXPLANATION OF TERMS 1.1 CAPACITANCE 1.1.1 Rated capacitance (CR) This is the nominal rated capacitance. For tantalum capacitors it is measured as the capacitance of the equivalent series circuit at 20°C in a measuring bridge supplied by a 120 Hz source free of harmonics with 2.2V DC bias max. 1.1.2 Temperature dependence on the capacitance The capacitance of a tantalum capacitor varies with temperature. This variation itself is dependent to a small extent on the rated voltage and capacitor size. See graph below for typical capacitance changes with temperature. 1.1.3 Capacitance tolerance This is the permissible variation of the actual value of the capacitance from the rated value. 1.1.4 Frequency dependence of the capacitance The effective capacitance decreases as frequency increases. Beyond 100 kHz the capacitance continues to drop until resonance is reached (typically between 0.5-5 MHz depending on the rating). Beyond this the device becomes inductive. Typical Curve Capacitance vs. Frequency Typical Capacitance vs. Temperature 1.4 15 1.2 5 CAP (F) % Capacitance 10 0 -5 1.0 1.0F 35V 0.8 -10 0.6 -15 0.4 100Hz -55 -25 0 25 50 75 100 1kHz 100kHz 10kHz Frequency 125 Temperature (°C) 1.2 VOLTAGE 150 ■ MARCH 2013 Category Voltage vs. Temperature 100 Percent of 85°C RVDC1 (VR) 1.2.1 Rated DC voltage (VR) This is the rated DC voltage for continuous operation up to +85°C. 1.2.2 Category voltage (VC) This is the maximum voltage that may be applied continuously to a capacitor. It is equal to the rated voltage up to +85°C, beyond which it is subject to a linear derating, to 2/3 VR at 125°C. 1.2.3 Surge voltage (VS) This is the highest voltage that may be applied to a capacitor for short periods of time. The surge voltage may be applied up to 10 times in an hour for periods of up to 30 seconds at a time. The surge voltage must not be used as a parameter in the design of circuits in which, in the normal course of operation, the capacitor is periodically charged and discharged. 90 80 70 60 50 75 85 95 105 Temperature °C 115 125 TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines 85°C Rated Voltage (V DC) 2 3 4 6.3 10 16 20 25 35 50 125°C Surge Voltage (V DC) 2.6 4 5.2 8 13 20 26 33 46 65 Category Voltage (V DC) 1.3 2 2.6 4 6.3 10 13 16 23 33 Surge Voltage (V DC) 1.7 2.6 3.4 5 9 12 16 21 28 40 1.2.4 Effect of surges The solid Tantalum capacitor has a limited ability to withstand surges (15% to 30% of rated voltage). This is in common with all other electrolytic capacitors and is due to the fact that they operate under very high electrical stress within the oxide layer. In the case of ‘solid’ electrolytic capacitors this is further complicated by the limited self healing ability of the manganese dioxide semiconductor. It is important to ensure that the voltage across the terminals of the capacitor does not exceed the surge voltage rating at any time. This is particularly so in low impedance circuits where the capacitor is likely to be subjected to the full impact of surges, especially in low inductance applications. Even an extremely short duration spike is likely to cause damage. In such situations it will be necessary to use a higher voltage rating. 1.2.5 Reverse voltage and non-polar operation The reverse voltage ratings are designed to cover exceptional conditions of small level excursions into incorrect polarity. The values quoted are not intended to cover continuous reverse operation. The peak reverse voltage applied to the capacitor must not exceed: 10% of rated DC working voltage to a maximum of 1V at 25°C 3% of rated DC working voltage to a maximum of 0.5V at 85°C 1% of category DC working voltage to a maximum of 0.1V at 125°C 1.2.6 Non-polar operation If the higher reverse voltages are essential, then two capacitors, each of twice the required capacitance and of equal tolerance and rated voltage, should be connected in a back-to-back configuration, i.e., both anodes or both cathodes joined together. This is necessary in order to avoid a reduction in life expectancy. 1.2.7 Superimposed AC voltage (Vrms) - Ripple Voltage This is the maximum RMS alternating voltage, superimposed on a DC voltage, that may be applied to a capacitor. The sum of the DC voltage and the surge value of the superimposed AC voltage must not exceed the category voltage, Vc. Full details are given in Section 2. 1.2.8 Voltage derating Refer to section 3.2 (pages 155-157) for the effect of voltage derating on reliability. 1.3 DISSIPATION FACTOR AND TANGENT OF LOSS ANGLE (TAN D) 1.3.3 Frequency dependence of dissipation factor Dissipation Factor increases with frequency as shown in the typical curves below. Typical Curve-Dissipation Factor vs. Frequency 100 V 50 3 10 V F 10 3. F 25 V 20 DF% 1.3.1 Dissipation factor (DF) Dissipation factor is the measurement of the tangent of the loss angle (Tan ␦) expressed as a percentage. The measurement of DF is carried out at +25°C and 120 Hz with 2.2V DC bias max. with an AC voltage free of harmonics. The value of DF is temperature and frequency dependent. 1.3.2 Tangent of loss angle (Tan ␦) This is a measure of the energy loss in the capacitor. It is expressed as Tan ␦ and is the power loss of the capacitor divided by its reactive power at a sinusoidal voltage of specified frequency. (Terms also used are power factor, loss factor and dielectric loss, Cos (90 - ␦) is the true power factor.) The measurement of Tan ␦ is carried out at +20°C and 120 Hz with 2.2V DC bias max. with an AC voltage free of harmonics. F 35 0 1. 10 5 2 1 100Hz 10kHz 1kHz 100kHz Frequency MARCH 2013 ■ 151 TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines 1.3.4 Temperature dependence of dissipation factor Typical Curves-Dissipation Factor vs. Temperature Dissipation factor varies with temperature as the typical curves show to the right. For maximum limits please refer to ratings tables. 10 DF % 100F/6V 5 1F/35V 0 -55 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 125 Temperature C 1.4 IMPEDANCE, (Z) AND EQUIVALENT SERIES RESISTANCE (ESR) 152 ■ MARCH 2013 1.4.3 Frequency dependence of impedance and ESR ESR and impedance both increase with decreasing frequency. At lower frequencies the values diverge as the extra contributions to impedance (resistance of the semiconducting layer, etc.) become more significant. Beyond 1 MHz (and beyond the resonant point of the capacitor) impedance again increases due to induction. Frequency Dependence of Impedance and ESR 1k 100 0.1 μF 10 ESR (␦) 1.4.1 Impedance, Z This is the ratio of voltage to current at a specified frequency. Three factors contribute to the impedance of a tantalum capacitor; the resistance of the semiconducting layer, the capacitance, and the inductance of the electrodes and leads. At high frequencies the inductance of the leads becomes a limiting factor. The temperature and frequency behavior of these three factors of impedance determine the behavior of the impedance Z. The impedance is measured at 25°C and 100 kHz. 1.4.2 Equivalent series resistance, ESR Resistance losses occur in all practical forms of capacitors. These are made up from several different mechanisms, including resistance in components and contacts, viscous forces within the dielectric, and defects producing bypass current paths. To express the effect of these losses they are considered as the ESR of the capacitor. The ESR is frequency dependent. The ESR can be found by using the relationship: ESR = Tan ␦ 2πfC where f is the frequency in Hz, and C is the capacitance in farads. The ESR is measured at 25°C and 100 kHz. ESR is one of the contributing factors to impedance, and at high frequencies (100 kHz and above) is the dominant factor, so that ESR and impedance become almost identical, impedance being marginally higher. 0.33 μF 1 μF 1 10 μF 0.1 33 μF 100 μF 0.01 100 10k Frequency f (Hz) Impedance (Z) ESR 1k 100k 330 μF 1M TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines Temperature Dependence of the Impedance and ESR 100 ESR/Impedance Z (⍀) 1.4.4 Temperature dependence of the impedance and ESR At 100 kHz, impedance and ESR behave identically and decrease with increasing temperature as the typical curves show. For maximum limits at high and low temperatures, please refer to graph opposite. 1/35 10 10/35 1 47/35 x V volts V max = 1- (T-85) 120 R where T is the required operating temperature. Maximum limits are given in rating tables. 1.5.3 Voltage dependence of the leakage current The leakage current drops rapidly below the value corresponding to the rated voltage VR when reduced voltages are applied. The effect of voltage derating on the leakage current is shown in the graph. This will also give a significant increase in reliability for any application. See Section 3 (pages 155-157) for details. 1.5.4 Ripple current The maximum ripple current allowance can be calculated from the power dissipation limits for a given temperature rise above ambient. Please refer to Section 2 (page 154) for details. 0 -20 +20 +40 +60 Temperature T (C) +80 +100 +125 Temperature Dependence of the Leakage Current for a Typical Component 10 1 0.1 -55 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Temperature °C 80 100 125 Effect of Voltage Derating on Leakage Current 1 Leakage Current Ratio DCL/DCL @ VR 1.5.1 Leakage current (DCL) The leakage current is dependent on the voltage applied, the time, and the capacitor temperature. It is measured at +25°C with the rated voltage applied. A protective resistance of 1000⍀ is connected in series with the capacitor in the measuring circuit. Three minutes after application of the rated voltage the leakage current must not exceed the maximum values indicated in the ratings table. Reforming is unnecessary even after prolonged periods without the application of voltage. 1.5.2 Temperature dependence of the leakage current The leakage current increases with higher temperatures, typical values are shown in the graph. For operation between 85°C and 125°C, the maximum working voltage must be derated and can be found from the following formula. 0.1 -55 -40 Leakage Current DCLT/DCL 25°C 1.5 DC LEAKAGE CURRENT (DCL) E NG L CA PI TY RA 0.1 0.01 0 20 40 60 80 100 % of Rated Voltage (VR) MARCH 2013 ■ 153 TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines SECTION 2: AC OPERATION — RIPPLE VOLTAGE AND RIPPLE CURRENT 2.1 RIPPLE RATINGS (AC) In an AC application heat is generated within the capacitor by both the AC component of the signal (which will depend upon signal form, amplitude and frequency), and by the DC leakage. For practical purposes the second factor is insignificant. The actual power dissipated in the capacitor is calculated using the formula: 2 R P = I2 R = E 2 Z I = rms ripple current, amperes R = equivalent series resistance, ohms E = rms ripple voltage, volts P = power dissipated, watts Z = impedance, ohms, at frequency under consideration Using this formula it is possible to calculate the maximum AC ripple current and voltage permissible for a particular application. 2.2 MAXIMUM AC RIPPLE VOLTAGE (EMAX) From the previous equation: E (max) = Z P max R where Pmax is the maximum permissible ripple voltage as listed for the product under consideration (see table). However, care must be taken to ensure that: 1. The DC working voltage of the capacitor must not be exceeded by the sum of the positive peak of the applied AC voltage and the DC bias voltage. 2. The sum of the applied DC bias voltage and the negative peak of the AC voltage must not allow a voltage reversal in excess of that defined in the sector, ‘Reverse Voltage’. 2.3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE POWER DISSIPATION (WATTS) @ 25°C The maximum power dissipation at 25°C has been calculated for the various series and are shown in Section 2.4, together with temperature derating factors up to 125°C. For leaded components the values are calculated for parts supported in air by their leads (free space dissipation). The ripple ratings are set by defining the maximum temperature rise to be allowed under worst case conditions, i.e., with resistive losses at their maximum limit. This differential is normally 10°C at room temperature dropping to 2°C at 125°C. In application circuit layout, thermal management, available ventilation, and signal waveform may significantly 154 ■ MARCH 2013 affect the values quoted below. It is recommended that temperature measurements are made on devices during operating conditions to ensure that the temperature differential between the device and the ambient temperature is less than 10°C up to 85°C and less than 2°C between 85°C and 125°C. Derating factors for temperatures above 25°C are also shown below. The maximum permissible proven dissipation should be multiplied by the appropriate derating factor. For certain applications, e.g., power supply filtering, it may be desirable to obtain a screened level of ESR to enable higher ripple currents to be handled. Please contact our applications desk for information. 2.4 POWER DISSIPATION RATINGS (IN FREE AIR) TAR – Molded Axial Case size Q R S W Max. power dissipation (W) 0.065 0.075 0.09 0.105 Temperature derating factors Temp. °C Factor +25 1.0 +85 0.6 +125 0.4 TAA – Hermetically Sealed Axial Case size A B C D Max. power dissipation (W) 0.09 0.10 0.125 0.18 Temperature derating factors Temp. °C Factor +20 1.0 +85 0.9 +125 0.4 TAP/TEP – Resin Dipped Radial Case size Max. power dissipation (W) A B C D E F G H J K L M/N P R 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.075 0.08 0.085 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 Temperature derating factors Temp. °C Factor +25 1.0 +85 0.4 +125 0.09 TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines SECTION 3: RELIABILITY AND CALCULATION OF FAILURE RATE 3.1 STEADY-STATE Infant Mortalities Voltage Correction Factor 1.0000 Correction Factor Tantalum Dielectric has essentially no wear out mechanism and in certain circumstances is capable of limited self healing, random failures can occur in operation. The failure rate of Tantalum capacitors will decrease with time and not increase as with other electrolytic capacitors and other electronic components. 0.1000 0.0100 0.0010 0.0001 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Applied Voltage / Rated Voltage Figure 2. Correction factor to failure rate F for voltage derating of a typical component (60% con. level). Useful life reliability can be altered by voltage derating, temperature or series resistance Figure 1. Tantalum reliability curve. The useful life reliability of the Tantalum capacitor is affected by three factors. The equation from which the failure rate can be calculated is: F = FU x FT x FR x FB where FU is a correction factor due to operating voltage/ voltage derating FT is a correction factor due to operating temperature FR is a correction factor due to circuit series resistance FB is the basic failure rate level. For standard leaded Tantalum product this is 1%/1000hours Operating voltage/voltage derating If a capacitor with a higher voltage rating than the maximum line voltage is used, then the operating reliability will be improved. This is known as voltage derating. The graph, Figure 2, shows the relationship between voltage derating (the ratio between applied and rated voltage) and the failure rate. The graph gives the correction factor FU for any operating voltage. Operating temperature If the operating temperature is below the rated temperature for the capacitor then the operating reliability will be improved as shown in Figure 3. This graph gives a correction factor FT for any temperature of operation. Temperature Correction Factor 100.0 Correction Factor Infinite Useful Life 10.0 Tantalum 1.0 0.1 0.0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Temperature (C) Figure 3. Correction factor to failure rate F for ambient temperature T for typical component (60% con. level). MARCH 2013 ■ 155 TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines Circuit Impedance All solid tantalum capacitors require current limiting resistance to protect the dielectric from surges. A series resistor is recommended for this purpose. A lower circuit impedance may cause an increase in failure rate, especially at temperatures higher than 20°C. An inductive low impedance circuit may apply voltage surges to the capacitor and similarly a non-inductive circuit may apply current surges to the capacitor, causing localized over-heating and failure. The recommended impedance is 1Ω per volt. Where this is not feasible, equivalent voltage derating should be used (See MIL HANDBOOK 217E). Table I shows the correction factor, FR, for increasing series resistance. Table I: Circuit Impedance Correction factor to failure rate F for series resistance R on basic failure rate FB for a typical component (60% con. level). Circuit Resistance ohms/volt 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 FR 0.07 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Example calculation Consider a 12 volt power line. The designer needs about 10μF of capacitance to act as a decoupling capacitor near a video bandwidth amplifier. Thus the circuit impedance will be limited only by the output impedance of the boards power unit and the track resistance. Let us assume it to be about 2 Ohms minimum, i.e., 0.167 Ohms/Volt. The operating temperature range is -25°C to +85°C. If a 10μF 16 Volt capacitor was designed-in, the operating failure rate would be as follows: a) FT = 0.8 @ 85°C b) FR = 0.7 @ 0.167 Ohms/Volt c) FU = 0.17 @ applied voltage/rated voltage = 75% Thus FB = 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.17 x 1 = 0.0952%/1000 Hours If the capacitor was changed for a 20 volt capacitor, the operating failure rate will change as shown. FU = 0.05 @ applied voltage/rated voltage = 60% FB = 0.8 x 0.7 x 0.05 x 1 = 0.028%/1000 Hours 156 ■ MARCH 2013 3.2 DYNAMIC As stated in Section 1.2.4 (page 151), the solid Tantalum capacitor has a limited ability to withstand voltage and current surges. Such current surges can cause a capacitor to fail. The expected failure rate cannot be calculated by a simple formula as in the case of steady-state reliability. The two parameters under the control of the circuit design engineer known to reduce the incidence of failures are derating and series resistance.The table below summarizes the results of trials carried out at AVX with a piece of equipment which has very low series resistance and applied no derating. So that the capacitor was tested at its rated voltage. Results of production scale derating experiment Capacitance and Number of units 50% derating No derating Voltage tested applied applied 47μF 16V 1,547,587 0.03% 1.1% 100μF 10V 632,876 0.01% 0.5% 22μF 25V 2,256,258 0.05% 0.3% As can clearly be seen from the results of this experiment, the more derating applied by the user, the less likely the probability of a surge failure occurring. It must be remembered that these results were derived from a highly accelerated surge test machine, and failure rates in the low ppm are more likely with the end customer. TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines A commonly held misconception is that the leakage current of a Tantalum capacitor can predict the number of failures which will be seen on a surge screen. This can be disproved by the results of an experiment carried out at AVX on 47μF 10V surface mount capacitors with different leakage currents. The results are summarized in the table below. Leakage Current vs Number of Surge Failures Standard leakage range 0.1 μA to 1μA Over Catalog limit 5μA to 50μA Classified Short Circuit 50μA to 500μA Number tested 10,000 Number failed surge 25 10,000 26 10,000 25 Again, it must be remembered that these results were derived from a highly accelerated surge test machine, and failure rates in the low ppm are more likely with the end customer. AVX recommended derating table Voltage Rail Working Cap Voltage 3.3 6.3 5 10 10 20 12 25 15 35 ≥24 Series Combinations (11) For further details on surge in Tantalum capacitors refer to J.A. Gill’s paper “Surge in Solid Tantalum Capacitors”, available from AVX offices worldwide. An added bonus of increasing the derating applied in a circuit, to improve the ability of the capacitor to withstand surge conditions, is that the steady-state reliability is improved by up to an order. Consider the example of a 6.3 volt capacitor being used on a 5 volt rail. The steadystate reliability of a Tantalum capacitor is affected by three parameters; temperature, series resistance and voltage derating. Assuming 40°C operation and 0.1Ω/volt of series resistance, the scaling factors for temperature and series resistance will both be 0.05 [see Section 3.1 (page 154)]. The derating factor will be 0.15. The capacitors reliability will therefore be Failure rate = FU x FT x FR x 1%/1000 hours = 0.15 x 0.05 x 1 x 1%/1000 hours = 7.5% x 10-3/hours If a 10 volt capacitor was used instead, the new scaling factor would be 0.017, thus the steady-state reliability would be Failure rate = FU x FT x FR x 1%/1000 hours = 0.017 x 0.05 x 1 x 1%/1000 hours = 8.5% x 10-4/ 1000 hours So there is an order improvement in the capacitors steadystate reliability. 3.3 RELIABILITY TESTING AVX performs extensive life testing on tantalum capacitors. ■ 2,000 hour tests as part of our regular Quality Assurance Program. Test conditions: ■ 85°C/rated voltage/circuit impedance of 3Ω max. ■ 125°C/0.67 x rated voltage/circuit impedance of 3Ω max. 3.4 Mode of Failure This is normally an increase in leakage current which ultimately becomes a short circuit. MARCH 2013 ■ 157 TAP/TEP Technical Summary and Application Guidelines SECTION 4: APPLICATION GUIDELINES FOR TANTALUM CAPACITORS 4.1 SOLDERING CONDITIONS AND BOARD ATTACHMENT 4.2 RECOMMENDED SOLDERING PROFILES The soldering temperature and time should be the minimum for a good connection. A suitable combination for wavesoldering is 230°C - 250°C for 3 - 5 seconds. Small parametric shifts may be noted immediately after wave solder, components should be allowed to stabilize at room temperature prior to electrical testing. AVX leaded tantalum capacitors are designed for wave soldering operations. Recommended wave soldering profile for mounting of tantalum capacitors is shown below. After soldering the assembly should preferably be allowed to cool naturally. In the event that assisted cooling is used, the rate of change in temperature should not exceed that used in reflow. Allowable range of peak temp./time combination for wave soldering 270 260 Dangerous Range 250 Temperature 240 ( o C) 230 Allowable Range with Care 220 Allowable Range with Preheat 210 200 0 2 4 6 8 Soldering Time (secs.) 10 12 *See appropriate product specification SECTION 5: MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES, LEADED CAPACITORS 5.1 ACCELERATION 5.6 SOLDERING CONDITIONS 10 g (981 m/s) Dip soldering permissible provided solder bath temperature ⬉270°C; solder time <3 sec.; circuit board thickness ⭌1.0 mm. 5.2 VIBRATION SEVERITY 10 to 2000 Hz, 0.75 mm or 98 m/s2 5.7 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS 5.3 SHOCK The upper temperature limit (maximum capacitor surface temperature) must not be exceeded even under the most unfavorable conditions when the capacitor is installed. This must be considered particularly when it is positioned near components which radiate heat strongly (e.g., valves and power transistors). Furthermore, care must be taken, when bending the wires, that the bending forces do not strain the capacitor housing. Trapezoidal Pulse 10 g (981 m/s) for 6 ms 5.4 TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONNECTION 10 N for type TAR, 5 N for type TAP/TEP. 5.5 BENDING STRENGTH OF CONNECTIONS 2 bends at 90°C with 50% of the tensile strength test loading. 5.8 INSTALLATION POSITION No restriction. 5.9 SOLDERING INSTRUCTIONS Fluxes containing acids must not be used. 158 ■ MARCH 2013

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