fax id: 3512 1I CD20 51 ICD2051 Dual Programmable Clock Generator Features Functional Description • Two independent clock outputs ranging from 320 kHz to 100 MHz • Individually programmable PLLs use 22-bit serial word • Low-skew ÷1,÷2, and ÷4 CLKA outputs • Phase-locked loop oscillator input derived from external low-frequency reference clock (1 MHz - 25 MHz) or external crystal (2 MHz - 24 MHz) • Sophisticated internal loop-filter requires no external components or manufacturing tweaks as commonly required with external filters • Three-state control disables outputs for test purposes (optional) • 5V operation • Low-power, high-speed CMOS technology • Available in 16-pin SOIC package The ICD2051 Programmable Clock Generator offers two fully user-programmable phase-locked loops in a single package. The outputs may be changed “on the fly” to any desired frequency value between 320 kHz and 100 MHz. The ICD2051 is ideally suited for any design where one or more multiple or varying frequencies are required, thus replacing more expensive metal can oscillators. The capability to dynamically change the output frequency adds a whole new degree of freedom for the electrical engineer. Some examples of the uses for this device include: laptop computers, in which slowing the speed of operation can mean less power consumption or speeding it up can mean faster operation; graphics board dot clocks to allow dynamic synchronization with different brands of monitors or display formats; and on-board test strategies where the ability to skew a system’s desired frequency (for example ±10%) allows worst case evaluations. Logic Block Diagram f(REF) XTALIN ÷q Phase Detector Charge Pump 7 XTALOUT µCode Decode VCO Internal Loop Filter 7 3 ÷2p post-VCO divider select VCO range select 4 Phase-Locked Loop Oscillator Section A MUX CLKA MUXREFA ÷2 CLKA/2 ÷4 CLKA/4 XBUF SCLKA DATA GND VDD 22 Serial Rcvr A SCLKB CLKB MUX PLL SectionB OEA 22 Serial Rcvr B OEB MUXREFB Cypress Semiconductor Corporation ICD2051–1 • 3901 North First Street • San Jose • CA 95134 • 408-943-2600 January 1995 – Revised April 1995 ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 Pin Configuration SOIC Top View SCLKB 1 16 DATA MUXREFB 2 15 MUXREFA OEB 3 14 OEA GND 4 13 VDD f(REF)/XTALIN 5 12 SCLKA XTALOUT 6 11 CLKA/4 XBUF 7 10 CLKA/2 CLKB 8 9 CLKA ICD2051–2 Pin Summary Name Number Description SCLKB 1 Serial clock input line for CLKB MUXREFB 2 MUXREFB = 0, CLKB equals input reference frequency MUXREFB = 1, CLKB equals programmed frequency This is used if glitch-free frequency changes are required. OEB 3 Three-states CLKB outputs when pulled LOW. (Internal pull-up allows for no-connect if three-state operation is not needed.) GND 4 Ground fREF/ XTALIN 5 Reference Oscillator input for all internal phase-locked loops XTALOUT 6 Oscillator output to a reference crystal. XBUF 7 Buffered Crystal Oscillator Output CLKB 8 CLKB Programmable Output CLKA 9 CLKA Programmable Output CLKA/2 10 CLKA divided by 2 (low skew) CLKA/4 11 CLKA divided by 4 SCLKA 12 Serial clock input line for CLKA. VDD 13 +5V OEA 14 Three-states CLKA outputs when pulled LOW. (Internal pull-up allows for no-connect if three-state operation is not needed.) MUXREFA 15 MUXREFA = 0, CLKA equals input reference frequency MUXREFA = 1, CLKA equals programmed frequency This is used if glitch-free frequency changes are required. DATA 16 Serial data input line for both programmable PLLs Note: 1. For best accuracy, use a parallel-resonant crystal, assume CLOAD = 17 pF. 2 ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 General Considerations Table 3. Index Field (I) Programming the ICD2051 The desired output frequency is defined via a serial interface, with a 22-bin number shifted in. The ICD2051 has two programmable PLLs (CLKA and CLKB), requiring a 22-bit programming word (W) to be loaded into each channel independently. This word contains 5 fields: Table 1. Programming Word Bit Fields # of bits Notes Index (I) 4 MSB (Most Significant Bits) P Counter value (P’) 7 Reserved (R) 1 Mux (M) 3 Q Counter value (Q’) 7 Field normally set to logic 1 LSB (Least Significant Bits) The frequency of the programmable oscillator f(VCO) is determined by these fields as follows: P’=P−3 Q’=Q−2 f(VCO)=2 x f(REF) x P/Q where f(REF)=Reference frequency (between 1 MHz − 25 MHz) 000 1 001 2 010 4 011 8 100 16 101 32 110 64 111 128 40.0 − 42.5 0001 42.5 − 47l.5 0010 47.5 − 53.5 0011 53.5 − 58.5 0100 58.5 − 62.5 0101 62.5 − 68.5 0110 68.5 − 69.0 0111 69.0 − 82.0 1000 82.0 − 87.0 1001 87.0 − 92.0 1010 92.0 − 92.1 1011 92.1 − 105.0 1100 105.0 − 115.0 1101 115.0 − 120.0 1110 115.0 − 120.0 1111 115.0 − 120.0 To assist with these calculations, Cypress/IC Designs provides BitCalc (Part #ICD/BCALC), a Windows™ program which automatically generates the appropriate programming words from the user’s reference input and desired output frequencies. The software also assembles the program words for control and power-down registers. Contact your local Cypress representative for more information. Table 2. Mux Field (M) Divisor f(VCO) (MHz) If the desired VCO frequency lies on a boundary in the table (if it is exactly the upper limit of one entry and the lower limit of the next) then either index value may be used (since both limits are tested), but we recommend using the higher one. The value of f(VCO) must remain between 40 MHz and 120 MHz. Therefore, for output frequencies below 40 MHz, f(VCO) must be multiplied up into the required range. To accomplish this, a post-VCO Divisor is selected by setting the values of the Mux field (M) as follows: M I 0000 Programming Constraints There are five primary programming constraints the user must be aware of: Table 4. Programming Constraints Parameter The Index field (I) is used to preset the VCO to an appropriate range. The value for this field should be should be chosen from Table 3. (Note that this table is referenced to the VCO frequency f(VCO), rather than to the desired output frequency.) Minimum Maximum f(REF) 1 MHz 25 MHz f(REF)/Q 200 kHz 1 MHz f(VCO) 40 MHz 120 MHz Q 3 129 P 4 130 The constraints have to do with trade-offs between optimum speed and lowest noise, VCO stability and factors affecting the loop equation. The factors are listed for completeness sake; however, by using the BitCalc program all of these constraints become transparent. ICD2051 Programming Example The following is an example of the calculations BitCalc performs: 3 ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 glitch-free. (See Serial Programming Timing in the Switching Waveforms section of this datasheet.) Derive the proper programming word for a 39.5 MHz output frequency, using 14.31818 MHz as the reference frequency: Since 39.5 MHz<40 MHz, double it to 79.0 MHz. Set M to 001. Set I to 0111. The result: Skew-Controlled ÷2 on CLKA The CLKA output is available concurrently as ÷1, ÷2, and ÷4 values of the desired output. The ÷1 and ÷2 outputs are also closely matched in order to minimize the phase differences between the two outputs. Typical phase coherence is less than 2 ns of skew between the two outputs, with 1 ns or less available as an order option. f(VCO)=79.0=(2 x 14.31818 x P/Q) P/Q=2.7857 Several choices of P and Q are available: Table 5. P and Q Value Candidates P Q f(VCO) (MHz) Error (PPM) Output Frequency Accuracy 69 25 79.0363 460 80 29 78.9969 40 91 33 78.9669 419 The accuracy of the ICD2051 output frequencies depends on the target output frequency. As stated previously, the output frequencies of the ICD2051 are integrally related to the input reference frequency: f(OUT)=2 x f(REF) x P/Q Choose (P, Q)=(80,29) for best accuracy (40 ppm). Only certain output frequencies are possible for a particular reference frequency. However, the ICD2051 normally produces an output frequency within 0.1% of the desired output frequency. Specifics regarding accuracy (ppm) are given for any desired output frequency as part of the BitCalc program output. Therefore: P’=P−3=80−3=77=1001101 (4dH) Q’=Q−2=29−2=27=0011011 (1bH) The programming word, W is generated by concatenating I=0111, P’=1001101, R=1, M=001, Q’=0011011 to obtain Three-State Output Operation W=0111100110110010011011 (1e6c9bH) A LOW-to-HIGH transition on SCLKA/SCLKB (depending on appropriate channel) is used to shift the programming word W into DATA as a serial bit stream, LSB first. (See the set-up and hold timing specifications later in this datasheet.) If more than 22 shifts are performed, only the last 22 data bits received will be retained. The OEA or OEB signal, when pulled LOW, will three-state the clock output line (CLKA or CLKB respectively). This supports wired-OR connections between external clock lines, and allows for procedures such as automated testing where the clock must be disabled. The OE signals contain internal pull-ups; they can be left unconnected if three-state operation is not required. Glitch-Free Frequency-Modification Procedure Estimating Total Current Drain When changing to a new frequency, there is a period of time when the output signal will be in transition and may glitch due to changes in the post divider. For applications where it is critical that the output clock not glitch and always maintain some known value, the MUXREFA and MUXREFB inputs must be used. Under normal operation, MUXREF(X) is HIGH and the output clocks are at the programmed value. When MUXREF(X) is brought LOW, the reference clock is now multiplexed to the associated output clock. The output remains at this fixed frequency while the programmed frequency seeks its new value. Actual current drain is a function of frequency and of circuit loading. The operating current of a given output is given by the equation: I=C•V•f, where I=current, C=load capacitance (max. 25 pF), V=output voltage (usually 5V), and f=output frequency (in MHz). To calculate total operating current, sum the following: ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ XBUF CLKA CLKA/2 CLKA/4 CLKB Internal When programming the ICD2051, use the MUXREF inputs in the following manner: 1. Set MUXREF(X) to a LOW state. This will set the output to the reference frequency. The transition is guaranteed to be glitch-free. (See the timing specifications.) C•V•f(REF) C•V•f(CLKA) C•V•f(CLKA/2) C•V•f(CLKA/4) C•V•f(CLKB) 12 mA This gives an approximation of the actual operating current. For unconnected output pins, one can assume 5−10 pF loading, depending on package type. 2. Shift in the desired output frequency value via a 22-bit word (as defined above) using the appropriate SCLK and DATA lines. Typical values: Table 6. Typical Load Current Values 3. After the last bit is shifted in, the VCO will settle to the new state (within .01% of the actual output frequency) within 10 msec. 4. Set MUXREF(X) to a HIGH state. This will set the output to the new programmed frequency. This transition is guaranteed to be 4 Frequency Load Current (mA) low none 15 high none 40 high high 100 ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 Maximum Ratings (Above which the useful life may be impaired. For user guidelines, not tested.) Package power dissipation..................................525 mWatts Supply Voltage to Ground Potential .................−0.5V to +7.0V Operating Range DC Input Voltage ......................................... −0.5V to VDD +0.5V Storage Temperature ....................................... −65°C to +150°C Max soldering temperature (10 sec) ............................ 260°C Ambient Temperature VDD & AVDD 0°C ϖ TAMBIENT ϖ 70°C 5V ± 5% Junction temperature ................................................... 125°C Operating Conditions Parameter Description VDD Supply Voltage TA Ambient Operating Temperature CL Load Capacitance Min. Max. Unit 4.75 5.25 V 0 70 °C 25 pF Electrical Characteristics Over the Operating Range Parameter Description Test Conditions VOH Output HIGH Voltage IOH = −4.0mA VOL Output LOW Voltage IOL = 4.0 mA VIH Input HIGH Voltage Except XTALIN pins VIL Input LOW Voltage Except XTALIN pins IIH Input HIGH Current IIL Input LOW Current IOZ Output Leakage Current Three-state outputs IDD Power Supply Current VDD = VDD max., 100 MHz, VIN = VDD or 0V Min. Max. 2.4 Unit V 0.4 2.0 V V 0.8 V VIN = 5.25V 150 µA VIN = 0V −250 µA 5 15 10 µA 100 mA ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 Switching Characteristics Over the Operating Range Parameter Name Description Output Frequency Min. Max. Unit 0.320 100 MHz 1 25 MHz 40 1000 ns 40% 60% f(REF) Reference Frequency Reference Oscillator nominal value t(REF) Reference Clock Period t(REF) = 1/f(REF) Duty Cycle Duty cycle for the output oscillators defined as t1A ÷ t1B t2 Output Rise Time Rise time for the outputs into a 25-pF load 3 ns t3 Output Fall Time Fall time for the outputs into a 25-pF load 3 ns t4 CLKA/2/4 skew Skew delay between the CLKA output and the CLKA/2 and CLKA/4 outputs 2 ns t5 MUXREF Set-Up Time Delay required after MUXREF goes LOW prior to starting the SCLK clock line t6 SCLK Cycle Time t6H t6L tfreq1 ns Minimum cycle time for the SCLK clock 2*t(REF) ns SCLK HIGH Time Minimum HIGH time for the SCLK clock t(REF) ns SCLK LOW Time Minimum LOW time for the SCLK clock t(REF) ns t7 Output Clock Stable Time Time required for CLKA or CLKB output to become valid after last SCLK clock t8 Data Set-Up Time Time required for the data to be valid prior to the rising edge of SCLK 10 ns t9 Data Hold Time Time required for the data to remain valid after the rising edge of SCLK 5 ns t10 Transition Time Time for CLKA or CLKB to go HIGH after assertion of MUXREF 0 tfreq1 ns t11 Transition Time Delay of CLKA or CLKB prior to valid t(REF) signal at output t(REF)/2 3(t(REF)/2) ns t12 Transition Time Time for CLKA or CLKB to go HIGH after release of MUXREF 0 t(REF) ns t13 Transition Time Delay of CLKA or CLKB prior to valid new frequency at output tfreq2/2 3(tfreq2/2) ns t14 Output Disable Time Time for the outputs to go into three-state mode after OE signal assertion 12 ns t15 Output Enable Time Time for the outputs to recover from three-state mode after OE signal goes HIGH 12 ns Note: 2. Input capacitance is typically 10 pF, except for the crystal pads. Switching Waveforms Duty Cycle Timing t1B t1A 1.5V 1.5V 1.5V ICD2051–3 6 10 msec ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 Switching Waveforms (continued) Rise and Fall Times f(REF) ALL INPUT AND OUTPUT CLOCKS t2 t3 90% 90% 10% 10% t4 CLKA/2 CLKA/4 ICD2051–4 Serial Programming Timing MUXREFA MUXREFB t5 22 CLOCKS REQUIRED FOR DATA t6 t7 SCLKA SCLKB t6H t6L t9 t8 DATA VALID DATA t10 t12 t11 t13 CLKA CLKB tfreq1 ORIGINAL FREQUENCY t(REF) tfreq2 REFERENCE FREQUENCY NEW FREQUENCY ICD2051–5 Three-State Timing OEA OEB t14 CLKA CLKB t15 THREE–STATE OUTPUT ICD2051–6 7 ICD2051:1/95 Revision: April 11, 1995 ICD2051 Test Circuit DEVICE UNDER TEST VDD VDD 0.1 µF CLK out CLOAD GND Ordering Information Ordering Code ICD2051 Package Name S1 Package Type 16−Pin SOIC Operating Range Commercial Note: 3. 0°C to +70°C Document #: 38−00402 Package Diagram 16-Lead Molded SOIC S1 © Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 1996. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress Semiconductor product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress Semiconductor does not authorize its products for use as critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress Semiconductor products in life-support systems application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress Semiconductor against all charges.