a FEATURES COMPUTES True RMS Value Average Rectified Value Absolute Value PROVIDES 200 mV Full-Scale Input Range (Larger Inputs with Input Attenuator) High Input Impedance of 1012 V Low Input Bias Current: 25 pA max High Accuracy: 60.3 mV 60.3% of Reading RMS Conversion with Signal Crest Factors Up to 5 Wide Power Supply Range: +2.8 V, –3.2 V to 616.5 V Low Power: 200 mA max Supply Current Buffered Voltage Output No External Trims Needed for Specified Accuracy AD737—An Unbuffered Voltage Output Version with Chip Power Down Is Also Available PRODUCT DESCRIPTION The AD736 is a low power, precision, monolithic true rms-to-dc converter. It is laser trimmed to provide a maximum error of ± 0.3 mV ± 0.3% of reading with sine-wave inputs. Furthermore, it maintains high accuracy while measuring a wide range of input waveforms, including variable duty cycle pulses and triac (phase) controlled sine waves. The low cost and small physical size of this converter make it suitable for upgrading the performance of non-rms “precision rectifiers” in many applications. Compared to these circuits, the AD736 offers higher accuracy at equal or lower cost. The AD736 can compute the rms value of both ac and dc input voltages. It can also be operated ac coupled by adding one external capacitor. In this mode, the AD736 can resolve input signal levels of 100 µV rms or less, despite variations in temperature or supply voltage. High accuracy is also maintained for input waveforms with crest factors of 1 to 3. In addition, crest factors as high as 5 can be measured (while introducing only 2.5% additional error) at the 200 mV full-scale input level. The AD736 has its own output buffer amplifier, thereby providing a great deal of design flexibility. Requiring only 200 µA of power supply current, the AD736 is optimized for use in portable multimeters and other battery powered applications. The AD736 allows the choice of two signal input terminals: a high impedance (1012 Ω) FET input which will directly interface with high Z input attenuators and a low impedance (8 kΩ) input Low Cost, Low Power, True RMS-to-DC Converter AD736 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM which allows the measurement of 300 mV input levels, while operating from the minimum power supply voltage of +2.8 V, –3.2 V. The two inputs may be used either singly or differentially. The AD736 achieves a 1% of reading error bandwidth exceeding 10 kHz for input amplitudes from 20 mV rms to 200 mV rms while consuming only 1 mW. The AD736 is available in four performance grades. The AD736J and AD736K grades are rated over the commercial temperature range of 0°C to +70°C. The AD736A and AD736B grades are rated over the industrial temperature range of –40°C to +85°C. The AD736 is available in three low-cost, 8-pin packages: plastic mini-DIP, plastic SO and hermetic cerdip. PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS 1. The AD736 is capable of computing the average rectified value, absolute value or true rms value of various input signals. 2. Only one external component, an averaging capacitor, is required for the AD736 to perform true rms measurement. 3. The low power consumption of 1 mW makes the AD736 suitable for many battery powered applications. 4. A high input impedance of 1012 Ω eliminates the need for an external buffer when interfacing with input attenuators. 5. A low impedance input is available for those applications requiring up to 300 mV rms input signal operating from low power supply voltages. REV. C Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 617/329-4700 Fax: 617/326-8703 (@ +258C 65 V supplies, ac coupled with 1 kHz sine-wave input applied unless AD736–SPECIFICATIONS otherwise noted.) Model Conditions Min V OUT = TRANSFER FUNCTION CONVERSION ACCURACY Total Error, Internal Trim1 All Grades AD736J/A Typ 1 kHz Sine Wave ac Coupled Using CC 0–200 mV rms 200 mV–1 V rms TMIN–TMAX A&B Grades @ 200 mV rms J&K Grades @ 200 mV rms vs. Supply Voltage @ 200 mV rms Input VS = ± 5 V to ± 16.5 V @ 200 mV rms Input VS = ± 5 V to ± 3 V dc Reversal Error, dc Coupled @ 600 mV dc Nonlinearity2, 0 mV–200 mV @ 100 mV rms Total Error, External Trim 0–200 mV rms ERROR vs. CREST FACTOR3 Crest Factor 1 to 3 CAV, CF = 100 µF Crest Factor = 5 CAV, CF = 100 µF INPUT CHARACTERISTICS High Impedance Input (Pin 2) Signal Range Continuous rms Level VS = +2.8 V, –3.2 V Continuous rms Level VS = ± 5 V to ± 16.5 V Peak Transient Input VS = +2.8 V, –3.2 V Peak Transient Input VS = ± 5 V Peak Transient Input VS = ± 16.5 V Input Resistance Input Bias Current VS = ± 3 V to ± 16.5 V Low Impedance Input (Pin 1) Signal Range Continuous rms Level VS = +2.8 V, –3.2 V Continuous rms Level VS = ± 5 V to ± 16.5 V Peak Transient Input VS = +2.8 V, –3.2 V Peak Transient Input VS = ± 5 V Peak Transient Input VS = ± 16.5 V Input Resistance Maximum Continuous Nondestructive Input All Supply Voltages Input Offset Voltage4 ac Coupled J&K Grades A&B Grades vs. Temperature vs. Supply VS = ± 5 V to ± 16.5 V vs. Supply VS = ± 5 V to ± 3 V OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS Output Offset Voltage J&K Grades A&B Grades vs.Temperature vs. Supply VS = ± 5 V to ± 16.5 V VS = ± 5 V to ± 3 V Output Voltage Swing 2 kΩ Load VS = +2.8 V, –3.2 V 2 kΩ Load VS = ± 5 V 2 kΩ Load VS = ± 16.5 V No Load VS = ± 16.5 V Output Current Short-Circuit Current Output Resistance @ dc FREQUENCY RESPONSE High Impedance Input (Pin 2) For 1% Additional Error Sine-Wave Input VIN = 1 mV rms VIN = 10 mV rms VIN = 100 mV rms VIN = 200 mV rms Max 2 V OUT = Avg.(V IN ) 0.3/0.3 –1.2 AD736K/B Typ Min 0.5/0.5 62.0 2 0.7/0.7 0 0 0 +0.06 –0.18 1.3 +0.25 0.1/0.5 0 0 0 0.7 2.5 60.9 64.0 6.4 ± 2.7 ± 1.7 ± 3.8 ± 11 8 8 50 80 ± 0.1 1 50 50 0 to +1.6 0 to +3.6 0 to +4 0 to +4 2 +1.7 +3.8 +5 +12 ± mV/± % of Reading % of Reading 0.5/0.5 ± mV/± % of Reading ± % of Reading/°C +0.06 –0.18 1.3 +0.25 0.1/0.3 +0.1 –0.3 2.5 +0.35 %/V %/V % of Reading % of Reading ± mV/± % of Reading 0.7 2.5 200 1 1012 1 0.3/0.3 62.0 0.007 +0.1 –0.3 2.5 +0.35 60.9 64.0 25 300 l Units Avg.(V IN ) 0.2/0.2 –1.2 0.007 Max % Additional Error % Additional Error 200 1 ± 2.7 1012 1 25 9.6 mV rms V rms V V V kΩ ± 12 ± 12 V p-p 63 63 30 150 63 63 30 150 mV mV µV/°C µV/V µV/V 60.3 60.3 20 130 mV mV µV/°C µV/V µV/V 9.6 6.4 ± 1.7 ± 3.8 ± 11 8 8 50 80 ± 0.1 60.5 60.5 20 130 1 50 50 3 0.2 3 0.2 V V V V mA mA Ω 1 6 37 33 1 6 37 33 kHz kHz kHz kHz –2– 0 to +1.6 0 to +3.6 0 to +4 0 to +4 2 +1.7 +3.8 +5 +12 300 l mV rms V rms V V V Ω pA REV. C AD736 Model Conditions ± 3 dB Bandwidth VIN = 1 mV rms VIN = 10 mV rms VIN = 100 mV rms VIN = 200 mV rms Min AD736J/A Typ Min AD736K/B Typ Max Units Sine-Wave Input FREQUENCY RESPONSE Low Impedance Input (Pin 1) For 1% Additional Error Sine-Wave Input VIN = 1 mV rms VIN = 10 mV rms VIN = 100 mV rms VIN = 200 mV rms ± 3 dB Bandwidth Sine-Wave Input VIN = l mV rms VIN = 10 mV rms VIN = 100 mV rms VIN = 200 mV rms POWER SUPPLY OperatingVoltageRange Quiescent Current 200 mV rms, No Load Max Zero Signal Sine-Wave Input 5 55 170 190 5 55 170 190 kHz kHz kHz kHz 1 6 90 90 1 6 90 90 kHz kHz kHz kHz 5 55 350 460 5 55 350 460 kHz kHz kHz kHz +2.8, –3.2 ± 5 160 230 TEMPERATURE RANGE Operating, Rated Performance Commercial (0°C to +70°C) Industrial (–40°C to +85°C) ± 16.5 200 270 AD736J AD736A +2.8, –3.2 ± 5 160 230 ± 16.5 200 270 Volts µA µA AD736K AD736B NOTES l Accuracy is specified with the AD736 connected as shown in Figure 16 with capacitor C C. 2 Nonlinearity is defined as the maximum deviation (in percent error) from a straight line connecting the readings at 0 and 200 mV rms. Output offset voltage is adjusted to zero. 3 Error vs. Crest Factor is specified as additional error for a 200 mV rms signal. C.F. = V PEAK/V rms. 4 DC offset does not limit ac resolution. Specifications are subject to change without notice. Specifications shown in boldface are tested on all production units at final electrical test. Results from those tests are used to calculate outgoing quality levels. ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS 1 Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ± 16.5 V Internal Power Dissipation2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 mW Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ± VS Output Short-Circuit Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite Differential Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +VS and –VS Storage Temperature Range (Q) . . . . . . –65°C to +150°C Storage Temperature Range (N, R) . . . . . –65°C to +125°C Operating Temperature Range AD736J/K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C AD736A/B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –40°C to +85°C Lead Temperature Range (Soldering 60 sec) . . . . . . . . +300°C ESD Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 V NOTES 1 Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability . 2 8-Pin Plastic Package: θJA = 165°C/W 8-Pin Cerdip Package: θJA = 110°C/W 8-Pin Small Outline Package: θJA = 155°C/W ORDERING GUIDE Model Temperature Range Package Description Package Option AD736JN AD736KN AD736JR AD736KR AD736AQ AD736BQ AD736JR-REEL AD736JR-REEL-7 AD736KR-REEL AD736KR-REEL-7 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C –40°C to +85°C –40°C to +85°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C Plastic Mini-DIP Plastic Mini-DIP Plastic SOIC Plastic SOIC Cerdip Cerdip Plastic SOIC Plastic SOIC Plastic SOIC Plastic SOIC N-8 N-8 SO-8 SO-8 Q-8 Q-8 SO-8 SO-8 SO-8 SO-8 REV. C PIN CONFIGURATION 8-Pin Mini-DIP (N-8), 8-Pin SOIC (R-8), 8-Pin Cerdip (Q-8) –3– AD736 –Typical Characteristics Figure 1. Additional Error vs. Supply Voltage Figure 2. Maximum Input Level vs. SupplyVoltage Figure 3. Peak Buffer Output vs. Supply Voltage Figure 4. Frequency Response Driving Pin 1 Figure 5. Frequency Response Driving Pin 2 Figure 6. Additional Error vs. Crest Factor vs. CAV Figure 7. Additional Error vs. Temperature Figure 8. DC Supply Current vs. RMS lnput Level Figure 9. –3 dB Frequency vs. RMS Input Level (Pin2) –4– REV. C Typical Characteristics– AD736 Figure 10. Error vs. RMS Input Voltage (Pin 2), Output Buffer Offset Is Adjusted To Zero Figure 11. CAV vs. Frequency for Specified Averaging Error Figure 13. Pin 2 Input Bias Current vs. Supply Voltage Figure 14. Settling Time vs. RMS Input Level for Various Values of CAV Figure 12. RMS Input Level vs. Frequency for Specified Averaging Error Figure 15. Pin 2 Input Bias Current vs. Temperature CALCULATING SETTLING TIME USING FIGURE 14 The graph of Figure 14 may be used to closely approximate the time required for the AD736 to settle when its input level is reduced in amplitude. The net time required for the rms converter to settle will be the difference between two times extracted from the graph – the initial time minus the final settling time. As an example, consider the following conditions: a 33 µF averaging capacitor, an initial rms input level of 100 mV and a final (reduced) input level of 1 mV. From Figure 14, the initial settling time (where the 100 mV line intersects the 33 µF line) is around 80 ms. REV. C The settling time corresponding to the new or final input level of 1 mV is approximately 8 seconds. Therefore, the net time for the circuit to settle to its new value will be 8 seconds minus 80 ms which is 7.92 seconds. Note that, because of the smooth decay characteristic inherent with a capacitor/diode combination, this is the total settling time to the final value (i.e., not the settling time to 1%, 0.1%, etc., of final value). Also, this graph provides the worst case settling time, since the AD736 will settle very quickly with increasing input levels. –5– AD736 tions: input amplifier, full-wave rectifier, rms core, output amplifier and bias sections. The FET input amplifier allows both a high impedance, buffered input (Pin 2) or a low impedance, wide-dynamic-range input (Pin 1). The high impedance input, with its low input bias current, is well suited for use with high impedance input attenuators. The output of the input amplifier drives a full wave precision rectifier, which in turn, drives the rms core. It is in the core that the essential rms operations of squaring, averaging and square rooting are performed, using an external averaging capacitor, CAV. Without CAV, the rectified input signal travels through the core unprocessed, as is done with the average responding connection (Figure 17). A final subsection, an output amplifier, buffers the output from the core and also allows optional low-pass filtering to be performed via external capacitor, CF, connected across the feedback path of the amplifier. In the average responding connection, this is where all of the averaging is carried out. In the rms circuit, this additional filtering stage helps reduce any output ripple which was not removed by the averaging capacitor, CAV. TYPES OF AC MEASUREMENT The AD736 is capable of measuring ac signals by operating as either an average responding or a true rms-to-dc converter. As its name implies, an average responding converter computes the average absolute value of an ac (or ac and dc) voltage or current by full wave rectifying and low-pass filtering the input signal; this will approximate the average. The resulting output, a dc “average” level, is then scaled by adding (or reducing) gain; this scale factor converts the dc average reading to an rms equivalent value for the waveform being measured. For example, the average absolute value of a sine-wave voltage is 0.636 that of VPEAK; the corresponding rms value is 0.707 times VPEAK. Therefore, for sine-wave voltages, the required scale factor is 1.11 (0.707 divided by 0.636). In contrast to measuring the “average” value, true rms measurement is a “universal language” among waveforms, allowing the magnitudes of all types of voltage (or current) waveforms to be compared to one another and to dc. RMS is a direct measure of the power or heating value of an ac voltage compared to that of dc: an ac signal of 1 volt rms will produce the same amount of heat in a resistor as a 1 volt dc signal. Mathematically, the rms value of a voltage is defined (using a simplified equation) as: V rms = Avg.(V 2 ) This involves squaring the signal, taking the average, and then obtaining the square root. True rms converters are “smart rectifiers”: they provide an accurate rms reading regardless of the type of waveform being measured. However, average responding converters can exhibit very high errors when their input signals deviate from their precalibrated waveform; the magnitude of the error will depend upon the type of waveform being measured. As an example, if an average responding converter is calibrated to measure the rms value of sine-wave voltages, and then is used to measure either symmetrical square waves or dc voltages, the converter will have a computational error 11% (of reading) higher than the true rms value (see Table I). AD736 THEORY OF OPERATION As shown by Figure 16, the AD736 has five functional subsec- Figure 16. AD736 True RMS Circuit Table I. Error Introduced by an Average Responding Circuit When Measuring Common Waveforms Waveform Type 1 Volt Peak Amplitude Crest Factor (VPEAK/V rms) True rms Value Average Responding Circuit Calibrated to Read rms Value of Sine Waves Will Read % of Reading Error* Using Average Responding Circuit Undistorted Sine Wave 1.414 0.707 V 0.707 V 0% Symmetrical Square Wave 1.00 1.00 V 1.11 V +11.0% Undistorted Triangle Wave 1.73 0.577 V 0.555 V –3.8% Gaussian Noise (98% of Peaks <1 V) 3 0.333 V 0.295 V –11.4% Rectangular Pulse Train 2 10 0.5 V 0.1 V 0.278 V 0.011 V –44% –89% SCR Waveforms 50% Duty Cycle 25% Duty Cycle 2 4.7 0.495 V 0.212 V 0.354 V 0.150 V –28% –30% *%of Reading Error = Average Responding Value – True rmsValue × 100% True rmsValue –6– REV. C AD736 RMS MEASUREMENT – CHOOSING THE OPTIMUM VALUE FOR CAV Since the external averaging capacitor, CAV, “holds” the rectified input signal during rms computation, its value directly affects the accuracy of the rms measurement, especially at low frequencies. Furthermore, because the averaging capacitor appears across a diode in the rms core, the averaging time constant will increase exponentially as the input signal is reduced. This means that as the input level decreases, errors due to nonideal averaging will reduce while the time it takes for the circuit to settle to the new rms level will increase. Therefore, lower input levels allow the circuit to perform better (due to increased averaging) but increase the waiting time between measurements. Obviously, when selecting CAV, a trade-off between computational accuracy and settling time is required. As shown, the dc error is the difference between the average of the output signal (when all the ripple in the output has been removed by external filtering) and the ideal dc output. The dc error component is therefore set solely by the value of averaging capacitor used-no amount of post filtering (i.e., using a very large CF) will allow the output voltage to equal its ideal value. The ac error component, an output ripple, may be easily removed by using a large enough post filtering capacitor, CF. In most cases, the combined magnitudes of both the dc and ac error components need to be considered when selecting appropriate values for capacitors CAV and CF. This combined error, representing the maximum uncertainty of the measurement is termed the “averaging error” and is equal to the peak value of the output ripple plus the dc error. As the input frequency increases, both error components decrease rapidly: if the input frequency doubles, the dc error and ripple reduce to 1/4 and 1/2 their original values, respectively, and rapidly become insignificant. AC MEASUREMENT ACCURACY AND CREST FACTOR The crest factor of the input waveform is often overlooked when determining the accuracy of an ac measurement. Crest factor is defined as the ratio of the peak signal amplitude to the rms amplitude (C.F. = VPEAK/V rms). Many common waveforms, such as sine and triangle waves, have relatively low crest factors (≤2). Other waveforms, such as low duty cycle pulse trains and SCR waveforms, have high crest factors. These types of waveforms require a long averaging time constant (to average out the long time periods between pulses). Figure 6 shows the additional error vs. crest factor of the AD736 for various values of CAV. SELECTING PRACTICAL VALUES FOR INPUT COUPLING (CC), AVERAGING (CAV) AND FILTERING (CF) CAPACITORS Table II provides practical values of CAV and CF for several common applications. Figure 17. AD736 Average Responding Circuit Table II. AD737 Capacitor Selection Chart Application RAPID SETTLING TIMES VIA THE AVERAGE RESPONDING CONNECTION (FIGURE 17) rms Input Level Because the average responding connection does not use the CAV averaging capacitor, its settling time does not vary with input signal level; it is determined solely by the RC time constant of CF and the internal 8 kΩ resistor in the output amplifier’s feedback path. General Purpose 0–1 V rms Computation DC ERROR, OUTPUT RIPPLE, AND AVERAGING ERROR General Purpose Average Responding Figure 18 shows the typical output waveform of the AD736 with a sine-wave input applied. As with all real-world devices, the ideal output of VOUT = VIN is never exactly achieved; instead, the output contains both a dc and an ac error component. Low Max CAV Frequency Crest Cutoff Factor (–3dB) CF Settling Time* to 1% 20 Hz 200 Hz 5 5 150 µF 10 µF 360 ms 15 µF 1 µF 36 ms 0–200 mV 20 Hz 200 Hz 5 5 33 µF 10 µF 360 ms 3.3 µF 1 µF 36 ms 20 Hz 200 Hz None None 33 µF 1.2 sec 3.3 µF 120 ms 0–200 mV 20 Hz 200 Hz None None 33 µF 1.2 sec 3.3 µF 120 ms 0–1 V 0–200 mV 50 Hz 60 Hz 5 5 100 µF 33 µF 1.2 sec 82 µF 27 µF 1.0 sec 0–100 mV 50 Hz 60 Hz 5 5 50 µF 47 µF Speech 0–200 mV 300 Hz 3 1.5 µF 0.5 µF 18 ms Music 0–100 mV 20 Hz 10 100 µF 68 µF 2.4 sec SCR Waveform Measurement 33 µF 1.2 sec 27 µF 1.0 sec Audio Applications *Settling time is specified over the stated rms input level with the input signal increasing from zero. Settling times will be greater for decreasing amplitude input signals. Figure 18. Output Waveform for Sine-Wave Input Voltage REV. C –7– AD736 Note that at FL, the amplitude error will be approximately –30% (–3 dB) of reading. To reduce this error to 0.5% of reading, choose a value of CC that sets FL at one tenth the lowest frequency to be measured. In addition, if the input voltage has more than 100 mV of dc offset, than the ac coupling network shown in Figure 21 should be used in addition to capacitor CC. Applications Circuits C1174a–10–9/88 The input coupling capacitor, CC, in conjunction with the 8 kΩ internal input scaling resistor, determine the –3 dB low frequency rolloff. This frequency, FL, is equal to: 1 FL = 2π(8,000)(TheValue of CC in Farads ) Figure 22. Battery Powered Option Figure 19. AD736 with a High Impedance Input Attenuator Figure 23. Low Z, AC Coupled Input Connection OUTLINE DIMENSIONS Dimensions shown in inches and (mm). PRINTED IN U.S.A. Figure 20. Differential Input Connection Figure 21. External Output VOS Adjustment –8– REV. C

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