19-3364; Rev 1; 4/09 KIT ATION EVALU LE B A IL A AV 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference The MAX1276/MAX1278 are low-power, high-speed, serial-output, 12-bit, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) that operate at up to 1.8Msps and have an internal reference. These devices feature true-differential inputs, offering better noise immunity, distortion improvements, and a wider dynamic range over single-ended inputs. A standard SPI™/QSPI™/MICROWIRE™ interface provides the clock necessary for conversion. These devices easily interface with standard digital signal processor (DSP) synchronous serial interfaces. The MAX1276/MAX1278 operate from a single +4.75V to +5.25V supply voltage. The MAX1276/MAX1278 include a 4.096V internal reference. The MAX1276 has a unipolar analog input, while the MAX1278 has a bipolar analog input. These devices feature a partial power-down mode and a full power-down mode for use between conversions, which lower the supply current to 2mA (typ) and 1µA (max), respectively. Also featured is a separate power-supply input (VL), which allows direct interfacing to +1.8V to VDD digital logic. The fast conversion speed, low-power dissipation, excellent AC performance, and DC accuracy (±1.25 LSB INL) make the MAX1276/MAX1278 ideal for industrial process control, motor control, and base-station applications. The MAX1276/MAX1278 come in a 12-pin TQFN package, and are available in the extended (-40°C to +85°C) temperature range. Features o 1.8Msps Sampling Rate o Only 55mW (typ) Power Dissipation o Only 1µA (max) Shutdown Current o High-Speed, SPI-Compatible, 3-Wire Serial Interface o 70dB S/(N + D) at 525kHz Input Frequency o Internal True-Differential Track/Hold (T/H) o Internal 4.096V Reference o No Pipeline Delays o Small 12-Pin TQFN Package Ordering Information TEMP RANGE PINPACKAGE MAX1276ETC+T -40°C to +85°C 12 TQFN Unipolar MAX1278ETC+T -40°C to +85°C 12 TQFN Bipolar PART INPUT +Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package. T = Tape and reel. Applications Data Acquisition Communications Bill Validation Portable Instruments Typical Operating Circuit Motor Control Pin Configuration 0.01μF 10μF TOP VIEW AIN- 1 REF 2 RGND AIN+ N.C. SCLK 12 11 10 MAX1276 MAX1278 3 9 CNVST 8 DOUT DIFFERENTIAL + INPUT VOLTAGE - VDD 6 N.C. GND 10μF VL DOUT AIN+ AIN- MAX1276 MAX1278 μC/DSP CNVST SCLK VL REF 4.7μF 5 0.01μF VDD 7 4 +1.8V TO VDD 4.75V TO +5.25V 0.01μF RGND GND TQFN SPI/QSPI are trademarks of Motorola, Inc. MICROWIRE is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corp. ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1 For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. MAX1276/MAX1278 General Description MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VDD to GND ..............................................................-0.3V to +6V VL to GND ................-0.3V to the lower of (VDD + 0.3V) and +6V Digital Inputs to GND .................-0.3V to the lower of (VDD + 0.3V) and +6V Digital Output to GND ....................-0.3V to the lower of (VL + 0.3V) and +6V Analog Inputs and REF to GND..........-0.3V to the lower of (VDD + 0.3V) and +6V RGND to GND .......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V Maximum Current into Any Pin............................................50mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 12-Pin TQFN (derate 16.9mW/°C above +70°C) ......1349mW Operating Temperature Range MAX127_ ETC................................................-40°C to +85°C Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-60°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VDD = +5V ±5%, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, 50% duty cycle, TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DC ACCURACY Resolution 12 Bits Relative Accuracy INL (Notes 1, 2) -1.25 +1.25 LSB Differential Nonlinearity DNL (Notes 1, 3) -1.0 +1.0 LSB ±6.0 LSB Offset Error Offset-Error Temperature Coefficient ppm/°C ±1 Gain Error Offset nulled ±6.0 Gain Temperature Coefficient ±2 LSB ppm/°C DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS (fIN = 525kHz sine wave, VIN = VREF, unless otherwise noted.) Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion SINAD (Note 1) 69 70 dB Total Harmonic Distortion THD Up to the 5th harmonic (Note 1) -80 -76 Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SFDR (Note 1) fIN1 = 250kHz, fIN2 = 300kHz -83 -76 -78 dB Full-Power Bandwidth -3dB point, small-signal method 20 MHz Full-Linear Bandwidth S/(N + D) > 68dB, single ended 2.0 MHz Intermodulation Distortion IMD dB dB CONVERSION RATE Minimum Conversion Time tCONV (Note 4) Maximum Throughput Rate 1.8 Minimum Throughput Rate Track-and-Hold Acquisition Time 0.556 (Note 5) tACQ External Clock Frequency Msps 10 ksps (Note 6) 104 5 ns (Note 7) 30 ps Aperture Delay Aperture Jitter µs fSCLK ns 28.8 MHz ANALOG INPUTS (AIN+, AIN-) Differential Input Voltage Range Absolute Input Voltage Range 2 VIN AIN+ - AIN-, MAX1276 0 VREF AIN+ - AIN-, MAX1278 -VREF / 2 +VREF / 2 0 VDD _______________________________________________________________________________________ V V 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference (VDD = +5V ±5%, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, 50% duty cycle, TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP DC Leakage Current MAX ±1 UNITS µA Input Capacitance Per input pin 16 pF Input Current (Average) Time averaged at maximum throughput rate 75 µA REFERENCE OUTPUT (REF) REF Output Voltage Range Static, TA = +25°C 4.086 Voltage Temperature Coefficient 4.096 4.106 ±50 Load Regulation Line Regulation ISOURCE = 0 to 2mA 0.3 ISINK = 0 to 200µA 0.5 VDD = 4.75V to 5.25V, static 0.5 V ppm/°C mV/mA mV/V DIGITAL INPUTS (SCLK, CNVST) Input Voltage Low VIL Input Voltage High VIH IIL Input Leakage Current 0.3 x VL 0.7 x VL Output high impedance V V ±0.2 ±10 µA 5.25 V VDD V POWER REQUIREMENTS Analog Supply Voltage VDD Digital Supply Voltage VL Analog Supply Current, Normal Mode IDD Analog Supply Current, Partial Power-Down Mode IDD Analog Supply Current, Full Power-Down Mode IDD 4.75 1.8 Static, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 8 11 Static, no SCLK 5 7 Operational, 1.8Msps 10 13 fSCLK = 28.8MHz 2 No SCLK 2 fSCLK = 28.8MHz 0.3 1 1 2.5 Static, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 0.4 1 Partial/full power-down mode, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 0.2 0.5 Operational, full-scale input at 1.8Msps Digital Supply Current (Note 8) Static, no SCLK, all modes Positive-Supply Rejection mA 1 No SCLK PSR VDD = 5V ±5%, full-scale input COUT mA µA mA 0.1 1 µA ±0.2 ±3.0 mV DIGITAL OUTPUT (DOUT) Output Load Capacitance For stated timing performance 30 pF Output Voltage Low VOL ISINK = 5mA, VL ≥ 1.8V 0.4 V Output Voltage High VOH ISOURCE = 1mA, VL ≤ 1.8V Output Leakage Current IOL Output high impedance VL - 0.5V V ±0.2 ±10 µA _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX1276/MAX1278 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (VDD = +5V ±5%, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, 50% duty cycle, TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS SCLK Pulse-Width High tCH VL = 1.8V to VDD 15.6 ns SCLK Pulse-Width Low tCL VL = 1.8V to VDD 15.6 ns SCLK Rise to DOUT Transition tDOUT CL = 30pF, VL = 4.75V to VDD 14 CL = 30pF, VL = 2.7V to VDD 17 CL = 30pF, VL = 1.8V to VDD 24 ns DOUT Remains Valid After SCLK tDHOLD VL = 1.8V to VDD 4 ns CNVST Fall to SCLK Fall tSETUP VL = 1.8V to VDD 10 ns tCSW VL = 1.8V to VDD 20 ns CNVST Pulse Width Power-Up Time; Full Power-Down tPWR-UP 2 ms Restart Time; Partial Power-Down tRCV 16 Cycles Note 1: -40°C performance is guaranteed by design. Note 2: Relative accuracy is the deviation of the analog value at any code from its theoretical value after the gain error and the offset error have been nulled. Note 3: No missing codes over temperature. Note 4: Conversion time is defined as the number of clock cycles (16) multiplied by the clock period. Note 5: At sample rates below 10ksps, the input full-linear bandwidth is reduced to 5kHz. Note 6: The listed value of three SCLK cycles is given for full-speed continuous conversions. Acquisition time begins on the 14th rising edge of SCLK and terminates on the next falling edge of CNVST. The IC idles in acquisition mode between conversions. Note 7: Undersampling at the maximum signal bandwidth requires the minimum jitter spec for SINAD performance. Note 8: Digital supply current is measured with the VIH level equal to VL, and the VIL level equal to GND. VL CNVST tCSW tSETUP tCL tCH SCLK DOUT tDHOLD tDOUT 6kΩ DOUT DOUT 6kΩ 4 GND GND a) HIGH-Z TO VOH, VOL TO VOH, AND VOH TO HIGH-Z Figure 1. Detailed Serial-Interface Timing CL CL b) HIGH-Z TO VOL, VOH TO VOL, AND VOL TO HIGH-Z Figure 2. Load Circuits for Enable/Disable Times _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE (MAX1278) 0.50 1.00 MAX1276/78 toc02 0.75 0.8 0.6 0.75 0.50 0.4 0 -0.25 0.2 DNL (LSB) 0.25 INL (LSB) INL (LSB) 1.0 MAX1276/78 toc01 1.00 DIFFERENTIAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE (MAX1276) 0 -0.2 MAX1276/78 toc03 INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE (MAX1276) 0.25 0 -0.25 -0.4 -0.50 -0.75 -0.75 -0.8 -1.0 -2048 -1.00 0 1024 2048 3072 4096 -1.00 -1024 0 1024 2048 0 2048 3072 DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE DIFFERENTIAL NONLINEARITY vs. DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE (MAX1278) OFFSET ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE (MAX1276) OFFSET ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE (MAX1278) 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 0.2 0.75 OFFSET ERROR (LSB) 0.4 0.1 0 -0.1 0 1024 -0.75 -15 10 35 60 85 -40 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) GAIN ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE (MAX1276) GAIN ERROR vs. TEMPERATURE (MAX1278) DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE vs. INPUT FREQUENCY (MAX1276) -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 85 -3.0 -40 MAX1276/78 toc09 -1.0 GAIN ERROR (LSB) -1.0 72.0 DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE (dB) MAX1276/78 toc07 -0.5 85 60 DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE -0.5 -3.0 -40 -1.00 -40 2048 0 -0.25 -0.3 -0.4 -1024 0.25 -0.50 MAX1276/78 toc08 -1.0 -2048 0.50 -0.2 -0.6 -0.8 MAX1276/78 toc06 0.3 OFFSET ERROR (LSB) 0.6 4096 1.00 MAX1276/78 toc05 0.4 MAX1276/78 toc04 0.8 GAIN ERROR (LSB) 1024 DIGITAL OUTPUT CODE 1.0 DNL (LSB) -0.50 -0.6 SNR 71.5 71.0 SINAD 70.5 70.0 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 85 100 200 300 400 500 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX1276/MAX1278 Typical Operating Characteristics (VDD = +5V, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, fSAMPLE = 1.8Msps, TA = -40°C to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are meas- ured at TA = +25°C.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = +5V, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, fSAMPLE = 1.8Msps, TA = -40°C to +85°C unless otherwise noted. Typical values are meas- ured at TA = +25°C.) DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE vs. INPUT FREQUENCY (MAX1278) THD vs. INPUT FREQUENCY 71.75 MAX1276/78 toc11 -86 MAX1276/78 toc10 -88 MAX1276 SNR THD (dB) DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE (dB) 72.00 71.50 MAX1278 -90 -92 71.25 -94 SINAD -96 71.00 200 300 100 500 400 200 SFDR vs. INPUT FREQUENCY 93 500 91 89 fIN = 500kHz SINAD = 71.0dB SNR = 71.1dB THD = -87.1dB SFDR = 90.2dB -20 AMPLITUDE (dB) MAX1276 SFDR (dB) 400 FFT PLOT (MAX1276) 0 MAX1276/78 toc12 95 300 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) MAX1276/78 toc13 100 -40 -60 -80 -100 87 MAX1278 -120 85 -140 100 200 300 400 500 300 450 600 750 FFT PLOT (MAX1278) TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION vs. SOURCE IMPEDANCE 900 MAX1276/78 toc15 -50 -60 fIN = 500kHz THD (dB) -40 150 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) fIN = 500kHz SINAD = 71.2dB SNR = 71.3dB THD = -95.5dB SFDR = 90.5dB -20 0 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) MAX1276/78 toc14 0 AMPLITUDE (dB) MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference -60 -80 -70 -80 -100 -90 -120 -140 -100 0 150 300 450 600 750 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) 6 fIN = 100kHz 900 10 100 1000 SOURCE IMPEDANCE (Ω) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference fIN1 fIN2 -60 -80 fIN2 -80 -120 -120 -140 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) ANALOG INPUT FREQUENCY (kHz) VDD/VL FULL POWER-DOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE VL PARTIAL/FULL POWER-DOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE VDD, NO SCLK VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 0.4 VL, NO SCLK 0.2 0 MAX1276/78 toc19 0.8 200 VL SUPPLY CURRENT (μA) MAX1276/78 toc18 1.0 150 VL = 5V, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 100 VL = 3V, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 50 0 -15 10 35 60 85 -40 -15 10 35 60 TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) VDD SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE VDD SUPPLY CURRENT vs. CONVERSION RATE MAX1276/78 toc20 12 9 CONVERSION, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 6 PARTIAL POWER-DOWN 3 12 VDD SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) -40 85 MAX1276/78 toc21 VDD/VL SUPPLY CURRENT (μA) fIN1 -60 -100 -140 VDD SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) -40 -100 0.6 fSAMPLE = 2Msps fIN1 = 250.039kHz fIN2 = 300.059kHz IMD = -81.8dB -20 AMPLITUDE (dB) -40 MAX1276/78 toc16 fSAMPLE = 2Msps fIN1 = 250.039kHz fIN2 = 300.059kHz IMD = -84.2dB -20 AMPLITUDE (dB) TWO-TONE IMD PLOT (MAX1278) 0 MAX1276/78 toc17 TWO-TONE IMD PLOT (MAX1276) 0 9 6 3 0 0 -40 -15 10 35 TEMPERATURE (°C) 60 85 0 500 1000 1500 2000 fSAMPLE (kHz) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX1276/MAX1278 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = +5V, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, fSAMPLE = 1.8Msps, TA = -40°C to +85°C unless otherwise noted. Typical values are meas- ured at TA = +25°C.) Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = +5V, VL = VDD, fSCLK = 28.8MHz, fSAMPLE = 1.8Msps, TA = -40°C to +85°C unless otherwise noted. Typical values are meas- ured at TA = +25°C.) VL SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE VL SUPPLY CURRENT vs. CONVERSION RATE VL SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 0.8 CONVERSION, fSCLK = 28.8MHz 0.6 0.4 FULL/PARTIAL POWER-DOWN, fCLK = 28.8MHz 0.2 MAX1276/78 toc23 1.0 MAX1276/78 toc22 0.8 VL = 5V 0.6 VL = 3V 0.4 VL = 1.8V 0.2 0 0 -40 -15 10 35 60 85 0 500 1000 1500 TEMPERATURE (°C) fSAMPLE (kHz) REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. LOAD CURRENT (SOURCE) 4.10 REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V) MAX1276/78 toc24 4.12 4.10 4.08 4.06 2000 MAX1276/78 toc25 VL SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 1.0 REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V) 4.09 4.08 4.07 4.06 -40 -15 10 35 60 85 0 2 TEMPERATURE (°C) 4 6 8 10 LOAD CURRENT (mA) REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. LOAD CURRENT (SINK) MAX1276/78 toc26 4.12 REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V) MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference 4.11 4.10 4.09 4.08 0 100 200 300 400 500 LOAD CURRENT (μA) 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference PIN NAME 1 AIN- Negative Analog Input FUNCTION 2 REF Reference Voltage Output. Internal 4.096V reference output. Bypass REF with a 0.01µF capacitor and a 4.7µF capacitor to RGND. 3 RGND 4 VDD Positive Analog Supply Voltage (+4.75V to +5.25V). Bypass VDD with a 0.01µF capacitor and a 10µF capacitor to GND. 5, 11 N.C. No Connection 6 GND Ground. GND is internally connected to EP. 7 VL 8 DOUT Serial Data Output. Data is clocked out on the rising edge of SCLK. 9 CNVST Convert Start. Forcing CNVST high prepares the part for a conversion. Conversion begins on the falling edge of CNVST. The sampling instant is defined by the falling edge of CNVST. 10 SCLK Serial Clock Input. Clocks data out of the serial interface. SCLK also sets the conversion speed. 12 AIN+ Positive Analog Input — EP Reference Ground. Connect RGND to GND. Positive Logic Supply Voltage (1.8V to VDD). Bypass VL with a 0.01µF capacitor and a 10µF capacitor to GND. Exposed Paddle. EP is internally connected to GND. VDD CAPACITIVE DAC VL CIN+ REF REF 4.096V RIN+ AIN+ AIN + 12-BIT SAR ADC TRACK AND HOLD AIN - OUTPUT BUFFER VAZ DOUT COMP CONTROL LOGIC AINCIN- CONTROL LOGIC AND TIMING RGND RIN- ACQUISITION MODE CNVST SCLK MAX1276 MAX1278 CAPACITIVE DAC CIN+ RIN+ AIN+ GND VAZ COMP CONTROL LOGIC Figure 3. Functional Diagram Detailed Description The MAX1276/MAX1278 use an input T/H and successive-approximation register (SAR) circuitry to convert an analog input signal to a digital 12-bit output. The serial interface requires only three digital lines (SCLK, CNVST, and DOUT) and provides easy interfacing to microprocessors (µPs) and DSPs. Figure 3 shows the simplified internal structure for the MAX1276/MAX1278. AINCIN- RINHOLD/CONVERSION MODE Figure 4. Equivalent Input Circuit _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX1276/MAX1278 Pin Description MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference True-Differential Analog Input T/H signal bandwidth, making it possible to digitize highspeed transient events and measure periodic signals with bandwidths exceeding the ADC’s sampling rate by using undersampling techniques. To avoid high-frequency signals being aliased into the frequency band of interest, anti-alias filtering is recommended. The equivalent circuit of Figure 4 shows the input architecture of the MAX1276/MAX1278, which is composed of a T/H, a comparator, and a switched-capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The T/H enters its tracking mode on the 14th SCLK rising edge of the previous conversion. Upon power-up, the T/H enters its tracking mode immediately. The positive input capacitor is connected to AIN+. The negative input capacitor is connected to AIN-. The T/H enters its hold mode on the falling edge of CNVST and the difference between the sampled positive and negative input voltages is converted. The time required for the T/H to acquire an input signal is determined by how quickly its input capacitance is charged. If the input signal’s source impedance is high, the acquisition time lengthens. The acquisition time, tACQ, is the minimum time needed for the signal to be acquired. It is calculated by the following equation: tACQ ≥ 9 × (RS + RIN) × 16pF where RIN = 200Ω, and RS is the source impedance of the input signal. Note: tACQ is never less than 104ns and any source impedance below 12Ω does not significantly affect the ADC’s AC performance. Analog Input Protection Internal protection diodes that clamp the analog input to VDD and GND allow the analog input pins to swing from GND - 0.3V to VDD + 0.3V without damage. Both inputs must not exceed VDD or be lower than GND for accurate conversions. Serial Interface Initialization After Power-Up and Starting a Conversion Upon initial power-up, the MAX1276/MAX1278 require a complete conversion cycle to initialize the internal calibration. Following this initial conversion, the part is ready for normal operation. This initialization is only required after a hardware power-up sequence and is not required after exiting partial or full power-down mode. To start a conversion, pull CNVST low. At CNVST’s falling edge, the T/H enters its hold mode and a conversion is initiated. SCLK runs the conversion and the data can then be shifted out serially on DOUT. Input Bandwidth The ADC’s input-tracking circuitry has a 20MHz small- CNVST tSETUP tACQUIRE CONTINUOUS-CONVERSION SELECTION WINDOW 16 POWER-MODE SELECTION WINDOW 1 SCLK 2 3 4 HIGH IMPEDANCE 8 D11 DOUT D10 D9 D8 14 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Figure 5. Interface-Timing Sequence CNVST MUST GO HIGH AFTER THE 3RD BUT BEFORE THE 14TH SCLK RISING EDGE CNVST ONE 8-BIT TRANSFER SCLK DOUT GOES HIGH IMPEDANCE ONCE CNVST GOES HIGH 1ST SCLK RISING EDGE DOUT MODE 0 0 0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 NORMAL REF PPD ENABLED (4.096V) Figure 6. SPI Interface—Partial Power-Down Mode 10 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference Full power-down mode is ideal for infrequent data sampling and very low supply current applications. The MAX1276/MAX1278 have to be in partial power-down mode in order to enter full power-down mode. Perform the SCLK/CNVST sequence described above to enter partial power-down mode. Then repeat the same sequence to enter full power-down mode (see Figure 7). Drive CNVST low, and allow at least 14 SCLK cycles to elapse before driving CNVST high to exit full powerdown mode. While in full power-down mode, the reference is disabled to minimize power consumption. Be sure to allow at least 2ms recovery time after exiting full power-down mode for the reference to settle. In partial/full power-down mode, maintain a logic low or a logic high on SCLK to minimize power consumption. SCLK begins shifting out the data after the 4th rising edge of SCLK. DOUT transitions t DOUT after each SCLK’s rising edge and remains valid 4ns (tDHOLD) after the next rising edge. The 4th rising clock edge produces the MSB of the conversion at DOUT, and the MSB remains valid 4ns after the 5th rising edge. Since there are 12 data bits and 3 leading zeros, at least 16 rising clock edges are needed to shift out these bits. For continuous operation, pull CNVST high between the 14th and the 16th SCLK rising edges. If CNVST stays low after the falling edge of the 16th SCLK cycle, the DOUT line goes to a high-impedance state on either CNVST’s rising edge or the next SCLK’s rising edge. Transfer Function Figure 8 shows the unipolar transfer function for the MAX1276. Figure 9 shows the bipolar transfer function for the MAX1278. The MAX1276 output is straight binary, while the MAX1278 output is two’s complement. Applications Information Internal Reference The MAX1276/MAX1278 have an on-chip voltage reference trimmed to 4.096V. The internal reference output is connected to REF and also drives the internal capacitive DAC. The output can be used as a reference voltage source for other components and can source up to 2mA Bypass REF with a 0.01µF capacitor and a 4.7µF capacitor to RGND. The internal reference is continuously powered up during both normal and partial power-down modes. In full power-down mode, the internal reference is disabled. Be sure to allow at least 2ms recovery time after hardware power-up or exiting full power-down mode for the reference to reach its intended value. Partial Power-Down and Full Power-Down Modes Power consumption can be reduced significantly by placing the MAX1276/MAX1278 in either partial power-down mode or full power-down mode. Partial power-down mode is ideal for infrequent data sampling and fast wakeup time applications. Pull CNVST high after the 3rd SCLK rising edge and before the 14th SCLK rising edge to enter and stay in partial power-down mode (see Figure 6). This reduces the supply current to 2mA. While in partial power-down mode, the reference remains enabled to allow valid conversions once the IC is returned to normal mode. Drive CNVST low and allow at least 14 SCLK cycles to elapse before driving CNVST high to exit partial power-down mode. EXECUTE PARTIAL POWER-DOWN TWICE CNVST FIRST 8-BIT TRANSFER SECOND 8-BIT TRANSFER SCLK 1ST SCLK RISING EDGE DOUT MODE 0 0 0 DOUT ENTERS TRI-STATE ONCE CNVST GOES HIGH 1ST SCLK RISING EDGE D11 D10 NORMAL D9 D8 0 D7 PPD 0 0 0 0 RECOVERY 0 0 0 FPD DISABLED REF ENABLED (4.096V) Figure 7. SPI Interface—Full Power-Down Mode ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX1276/MAX1278 Timing and Control Conversion-start and data-read operations are controlled by the CNVST and SCLK digital inputs. Figures 1 and 5 show timing diagrams, which outline the serialinterface operation. A CNVST falling edge initiates a conversion sequence; the T/H stage holds the input voltage, the ADC begins to convert, and DOUT changes from high impedance to logic low. SCLK is used to drive the conversion process, and it shifts data out as each bit of the conversion is determined. 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference MAX1276/MAX1278 How to Start a Conversion OUTPUT CODE FULL-SCALE TRANSITION 111...111 111...110 111...101 FS = VREF ZS = 0 V 1 LSB = REF 4096 000...011 000...010 An analog-to-digital conversion is initiated by CNVST, clocked by SCLK, and the resulting data is clocked out on DOUT by SCLK. With SCLK idling high or low, a falling edge on CNVST begins a conversion. This causes the analog input stage to transition from track to hold mode, and for DOUT to transition from high impedance to being actively driven low. A total of 16 SCLK cycles are required to complete a normal conversion. If CNVST is low during the 16th falling SCLK edge, DOUT returns to high impedance on the next rising edge of CNVST or SCLK, enabling the serial interface to be shared by multiple devices. If CNVST returns high after the 14th, but before the 16th SCLK rising edge, DOUT remains active so continuous conversions can be sustained. The highest throughput is achieved when performing continuous conversions. Figure 10 illustrates a conversion using a typical serial interface. Connection to Standard Interfaces 000...001 000...000 0 1 2 3 FS DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB) FS - 3/2 LSB Figure 8. Unipolar Transfer Function (MAX1276 Only) The MAX1276/MAX1278 serial interface is fully compatible with SPI/QSPI and MICROWIRE (see Figure 11). If a serial interface is available, set the CPU’s serial interface in master mode so the CPU generates the serial clock. Choose a clock frequency up to 28.8MHz. SPI and MICROWIRE OUTPUT CODE FULL-SCALE TRANSITION V FS = REF 2 ZS = 0 -V - FS = REF 2 V 1 LSB = REF 4096 011...111 011...110 000...010 000...001 000...000 111...111 111...110 111...101 When using SPI or MICROWIRE, the MAX1276/ MAX1278 are compatible with all four modes programmed with the CPHA and CPOL bits in the SPI or MICROWIRE control register. Conversion begins with a CNVST falling edge. DOUT goes low, indicating a conversion is in progress. Two consecutive 1-byte reads are required to get the full 12 bits from the ADC. DOUT transitions on SCLK rising edges. DOUT is guaranteed to be valid tDOUT later and remains valid until tDHOLD after the following SCLK rising edge. When using CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 0, or CPOL = 1 and CPHA = 1, the data is clocked into the µP on the following rising edge. When using CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 1, or CPOL = 1 and CPHA = 0, the data is clocked into the µP on the next falling edge. See Figure 11 for connections and Figures 12 and 13 for timing. See the Timing Characteristics section to determine the best mode to use. 100...001 QSPI 100...000 -FS 0 DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB) FS FS - 3/2 LSB Figure 9. Bipolar Transfer Function (MAX1278 Only) 12 Unlike SPI, which requires two 1-byte reads to acquire the 12 bits of data from the ADC, QSPI allows the minimum number of clock cycles necessary to clock in the data. The MAX1276/MAX1278 require 16 clock cycles from the µP to clock out the 12 bits of data. Figure 14 shows a transfer using CPOL = 1 and CPHA = 1. The conversion result contains three zeros, followed by the 12 data bits, ______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference MAX1276/MAX1278 CNVST SCLK 1 14 16 1 DOUT 0 0 0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0 0 Figure 10. Continuous Conversion with Burst/Continuous Clock I/O SCK MISO +3V TO +5V CNVST SCLK DOUT MAX1276 MAX1278 SS A) SPI CS SCK MISO +3V TO +5V CNVST SCLK DOUT MAX1276 MAX1278 SS B) QSPI I/O SK SI CNVST SCLK DOUT MAX1276 MAX1278 C) MICROWIRE Figure 11. Common Serial-Interface Connections to the MAX1276/MAX1278 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference CNVST 8 1 9 16 SCLK DOUT HIGH-Z D11 D10 D7 D8 D9 D6 D5 D4 D3 D1 D2 HIGH-Z D0 Figure 12. SPI/MICROWIRE Serial-Interface Timing—Single Conversion (CPOL = CPHA = 0), (CPOL = CPHA = 1) CNVST SCLK 14 1 0 DOUT 0 0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 16 D1 D0 1 0 0 Figure 13. SPI/MICROWIRE Serial-Interface Timing—Continuous Conversion (CPOL = CPHA = 0), (CPOL = CPHA = 1) CNVST DOUT 16 2 SCLK HIGH-Z HIGH-Z D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Figure 14. QSPI Serial-Interface Timing—Single Conversion (CPOL = 1, CPHA = 1) and a trailing zero with the data in MSB-first format. DSP Interface to the TMS320C54_ The MAX1276/MAX1278 can be directly connected to the TMS320C54_ family of DSPs from Texas Instruments, Inc. Set the DSP to generate its own clocks or use external clock signals. Use either the standard or buffered serial port. Figure 15 shows the simplest interface between the MAX1276/MAX1278 and the TMS320C54_, where the transmit serial clock (CLKX) drives the receive serial clock (CLKR) and SCLK, and the transmit frame sync (FSX) drives the receive frame sync (FSR) and CNVST. 14 For continuous conversion, set the serial port to transmit a clock, and pulse the frame sync signal for a clock period before data transmission. The serial-port configuration (SPC) register should be set up with internal frame sync (TXM = 1), CLKX driven by an on-chip clock source (MCM = 1), burst mode (FSM = 1), and 16-bit word length (FO = 0). This setup allows continuous conversions provided that the data-transmit register (DXR) and the data-receive register (DRR) are serviced before the next conversion. Alternatively, autobuffering can be enabled when using the buffered serial port to execute conversions and ______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference VL Figure 16, where serial clock (CLOCK) drives the CLKR, and SCLK and the convert signal (CONVERT) drive the FSR and CNVST. The serial port must be set up to accept an external receive-clock and external receive-frame sync. The SPC register should be written as follows: TXM = 0, external frame sync MCM = 0, CLKX is taken from the CLKX pin FSM = 1, burst mode FO = 0, data transmitted/received as 16-bit words This setup allows continuous conversion, provided that the DRR is serviced before the next conversion. Alternatively, autobuffering can be enabled when using the buffered serial port to read the data without CPU intervention. Connect the VL pin to the TMS320C54_ supply voltage when the MAX1276/MAX1278 are operating with an analog supply voltage higher than the DSP supply voltage. DVDD MAX1276 SCLK MAX1278 CLKX TMS320C54_ CLKR CNVST FSX FSR The MAX1276/MAX1278 can also be connected to the TMS320C54_ by using the data transmit (DX) pin to drive CNVST and the CLKX generated internally to drive SCLK. A pullup resistor is required on the CNVST signal to keep it high when DX goes high impedance and 0001hex should be written to the DXR continuously for continuous conversions. The power-down modes may be entered by writing 00FFhex to the DXR (see Figures 17 and 18). DR DOUT Figure 15. Interfacing to the TMS320C54_ Internal Clocks VL DVDD MAX1276 MAX1278 SCLK CLKR TMS320C54_ CNVST FSR DOUT DR DSP Interface to the ADSP21_ _ _ The MAX1276/MAX1278 can be directly connected to the ADSP21_ _ _ family of DSPs from Analog Devices, Inc. Figure 19 shows the direct connection of the MAX1276/MAX1278 to the ADSP21_ _ _. There are two modes of operation that can be programmed to interface with the MAX1276/MAX1278. For continuous conversions, idle CNVST low and pulse it high for one clock cycle during the LSB of the previous transmitted word. The ADSP21_ _ _ STCTL and SRCTL registers should be CLOCK CONVERT Figure 16. Interfacing to the TMS320C54_ External Clocks CNVST SCLK DOUT 1 D0 0 1 0 0 0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0 0 Figure 17. DSP Interface—Continuous Conversion ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX1276/MAX1278 read the data without CPU intervention. Connect the VL pin to the TMS320C54_ supply voltage when the MAX1276/MAX1278 are operating with an analog supply voltage higher than the DSP supply voltage. The word length can be set to 8 bits with FO = 1 to implement the power-down modes. The CNVST pin must idle high to remain in either power-down state. Another method of connecting the MAX1276/MAX1278 to the TMS320C54_ is to generate the clock signals external to either device. This connection is shown in MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference CNVST SCLK 1 DOUT 1 0 0 0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0 0 0 Figure 18. DSP Interface—Single-Conversion, Continuous/Burst Clock VL ters should be configured for late framing (LAFR = 1) and for an active-low frame (LTFS = 1, LRFS = 1) signal. This is also the best way to enter the power-down modes by setting the word length to 8 bits (SLEN = 1001). Connect the VL pin to the ADSP21_ _ _ supply voltage when the MAX1276/MAX1278 are operating with a supply voltage higher than the DSP supply voltage (see Figures 17 and 18). VDDINT MAX1276 SCLK MAX1278 TCLK ADSP21_ _ _ RCLK CNVST TFS RFS DOUT DR Layout, Grounding, and Bypassing Figure 19. Interfacing to the ADSP21_ _ _ SUPPLIES GND VL 10μF 10μF 0.1μF 0.1μF VDD GND RGND VL MAX1276 MAX1278 DGND VL DIGITAL CIRCUITRY For best performance, use PC boards. Wire-wrap boards are not recommended. Board layout should ensure that digital and analog signal lines are separated from each other. Do not run analog and digital (especially clock) lines parallel to one another, or digital lines underneath the ADC package. Figure 20 shows the recommended system ground connections. Establish a single-point analog ground (star ground point) at GND, separate from the logic ground. Connect all other analog grounds and DGND to this star ground point for further noise reduction. The ground return to the power supply for this ground should be low impedance and as short as possible for noise-free operation. High-frequency noise in the V DD power supply can affect the ADC’s high-speed comparator. Bypass this supply to the single-point analog ground with 0.01µF and 10µF bypass capacitors. Minimize capacitor lead lengths for best supply-noise rejection. Definitions Integral Nonlinearity Figure 20. Power-Supply Grounding Condition configured for early framing (LAFR = 0) and for an active-high frame (LTFS = 0, LRFS = 0) signal. In this mode, the data-independent frame-sync bit (DITFS = 1) can be selected to eliminate the need for writing to the transmit-data register more than once. For single conversions, idle CNVST high and pulse it low for the entire conversion. The ADSP21_ _ _ STCTL and SRCTL regis16 Integral nonlinearity (INL) is the deviation of the values on an actual transfer function from a straight line. This straight line can be either a best-straight-line fit or a line drawn between the end points of the transfer function, once offset and gain errors have been nullified. The static linearity parameters for the MAX1276/MAX1278 are measured using the end-points method. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference Total Harmonic Distortion Total harmonic distortion (THD) is the ratio of the RMS sum of the first five harmonics of the input signal to the fundamental itself. This is expressed as: Aperture Jitter Aperture jitter (tAJ) is the sample-to-sample variation in the time between the samples. Aperture Delay Aperture delay (tAD) is the time defined between the falling edge of CNVST and the instant when an actual sample is taken. Signal-to-Noise Ratio For a waveform perfectly reconstructed from digital samples, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the ratio of the fullscale analog input (RMS value) to the RMS quantization error (residual error). The theoretical minimum analog-todigital noise is caused by quantization error, and results directly from the ADC’s resolution (N bits): SNR = (6.02 x N + 1.76)dB In reality, there are other noise sources besides quantization noise, including thermal noise, reference noise, clock jitter, etc. Therefore, SNR is computed by taking the ratio of the RMS signal to the RMS noise, which includes all spectral components minus the fundamental, the first five harmonics, and the DC offset. Signal-to-Noise Plus Distortion Signal-to-noise plus distortion (SINAD) is the ratio of the fundamental input frequency’s RMS amplitude to the RMS equivalent of all other ADC output signals: SINAD(dB) = 20 x log (SignalRMS / NoiseRMS) Effective Number of Bits Effective number of bits (ENOB) indicates the global accuracy of an ADC at a specific input frequency and sampling rate. An ideal ADC’s error consists of quantization noise only. With an input range equal to the full-scale range of the ADC, calculate the ENOB as follows: ENOB = (SINAD − 1.76) 6.02 ⎛ THD = 20 x log ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ where V 1 is the fundamental amplitude, and V 2 through V5 are the amplitudes of the 2nd- through 5thorder harmonics. Spurious-Free Dynamic Range Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is the ratio of the RMS amplitude of the fundamental (maximum signal component) to the RMS value of the next-largest distortion component. Full-Power Bandwidth Full-power bandwidth is the frequency at which the input signal amplitude attenuates by 3dB for a full-scale input. Full-Linear Bandwidth Full-linear bandwidth is the frequency at which the signal to noise plus distortion (SINAD) is equal to 68dB. Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) Any device with nonlinearities creates distortion products when two sine waves at two different frequencies (f1 and f2) are input into the device. Intermodulation distortion (IMD) is the total power of the IM2 to IM5 intermodulation products to the Nyquist frequency relative to the total input power of the two input tones, f1 and f2. The individual input tone levels are at -7dBFS. The intermodulation products are as follows: • 2nd-order intermodulation products (IM2): f1 + f2, f2 - f 1 • 3rd-order intermodulation products (IM3): 2f1 - f2, 2f2 - f1, 2f1 + f2, 2f2 + f1 • 4th-order intermodulation products (IM4): 3f1 - f2, 3f2 - f1, 3f1 + f2, 3f2 + f1 • 5th-order intermodulation products (IM5): 3f1 - 2f2, 3f2 - 2f1, 3f1 + 2f2, 3f2 + 2f1 Chip Information TRANSISTOR COUNT: 13,016 PROCESS: BiCMOS ⎞ V22 + V32 + V42 + V52 ⎟ ⎟ V1 ⎟ ⎠ Package Information For the latest package outline information and land patterns, go to www.maxim-ic.com/packages. PACKAGE TYPE PACKAGE CODE DOCUMENT NO. 12 TQFN T1244+3 21-0139 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX1276/MAX1278 Differential Nonlinearity Differential nonlinearity (DNL) is the difference between an actual step width and the ideal value of 1 LSB. A DNL error specification of 1 LSB or less guarantees no missing codes and a monotonic transfer function. MAX1276/MAX1278 1.8Msps, Single-Supply, Low-Power, TrueDifferential, 12-Bit ADCs with Internal Reference Revision History REVISION NUMBER REVISION DATE 0 8/04 Initial release 1 4/09 Removed commercial temperature grade parts from data sheet DESCRIPTION PAGES CHANGED — 1–8 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 18 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2009 Maxim Integrated Products Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.