M TC1221/TC1222 High Frequency Switched Capacitor Voltage Converters with Shutdown in SOT Packages Features General Description • • • • • • • • The TC1221/TC1222 are CMOS “charge-pump” voltage converters in ultra-small 6-Pin SOT-23A packages. They invert and/or double an input voltage which can range from +1.8V to +5.5V. Conversion efficiency is typically 96%. Switching frequency is 125kHz for the TC1221, 750kHz for the TC1222. When the shutdown pin is held at a logic low, the device goes into a very low power mode of operation, consuming less than 1µA of supply current. Charge Pumps in 6-Pin SOT-23A Package 96% Voltage Conversion Efficiency Voltage Inversion and/or Doubling Operates from +1.8V to +5.5V Up to 25mA Output Current Only Two External Capacitors Required Power-Saving Shutdown Mode Fully Compatible with 1.8V Logic Systems For standard voltage inverter applications, the device requires only two external capacitors. With a few additional components a positive doubler can also be built. All other circuitry, including control, oscillator, power MOSFETs are integrated on-chip. Typical supply currents are 290µA (TC1221) and 1800µA (TC1222). Applications • • • • • LCD Panel Bias Cellular Phones Pagers PDAs, Portable Data Loggers Battery-Powered Devices All devices are available in 6-pin SOT-23A surface mount packages. Device Selection Table Part Number Functional Block Diagram Osc. Freq. (kHz) Package Negative Voltage Inverter Operating Temp. Range TC1221ECH 6-Pin SOT-23A 125 -40°C to +85°C TC1222ECH 6-Pin SOT-23A 750 -40°C to +85°C C+ + C1 C– VIN Input TC1221 TC1222 ON SHDN Package Type OFF 6-Pin SOT-23A V– Output OUT C+ SHDN GND 6 5 4 GND C2 + TC1221ECH TC1222ECH 1 2 3 OUT VIN C– NOTE: 6-Pin SOT-23A is equivalent to the EIAJ SC-74 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21367B-page 1 TC1221/TC1222 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* Input Voltage (VIN to GND)....................... +6.0V, -0.3V Output Voltage (OUT to GND).................. -6.0V, +0.3V Current at OUT Pin..............................................50mA Short-Circuit Duration – OUT to GND ............Indefinite Power Dissipation (TA ≤ 70°C) 6-Pin SOT-23A .........................................240mW Operating Temperature Range.............-40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature (Unbiased) .......-65°C to +150°C TC1121 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: TA = -40°C to +85°C, VIN = +5V, C1 = C2 = 1µF, (TC1221), C1 = C2 = 0.22µF (TC1222), Typical values are at TA = +25°C. Symbol Parameter IDD Supply Current Min Typ Max Units — — 290 1800 600 2800 µA Device Test Conditions TC1221 TC1222 ISHDN Shutdown Supply Current — 0.01 1.0 µA SHDN = GND, VIN = 5V (Note 2) VMIN Minimum Supply Voltage 1.8 — — V RLOAD = 1kΩ VMAX Maximum Supply Voltage — — 5.5 V FOSC Oscillator Frequency 81 550 125 750 169 950 kHz VIH SHDN Input Logic High 1.4 — V VIN = VMIN to VMAX VIL SHDN Input Logic Low — — 0.4 V VIN = VMIN to VMAX PEFF Power Efficiency — — 90 70 — — % VEFF Voltage Conversion Efficiency 94 96 — % RLOAD = ∞ ROUT Output Resistance — — 25 65 Ω ILOAD = 0.5mA to 25mA (Note 1) TWK Wake-up Time From Shutdown Mode — — 80 25 — — µsec Note 1: 2: RLOAD = 1kΩ TC1221 TC1222 TC1221 TC1222 TC1221 TC1222 RLOAD = 1kΩ RLOAD = 1kΩ Capacitor contribution is approximately 20% of the output impedance [ESR = 1/ pump frequency x capacitance]. VIN is guaranteed to be disconnected from OUT when the converter is in shutdown.. DS21367B-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin No. (6-Pin SOT-23A) Symbol 1 OUT 2 VIN 3 C– 4 GND 5 SHDN 6 C + 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Description Inverting charge pump output. Positive power supply input. Commutation capacitor negative terminal. Ground. Shutdown input (active low). Commutation capacitor positive terminal. DS21367B-page 3 TC1221/TC1222 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION The TC1221/TC1222 charge pump converters invert the voltage applied to the VIN pin. Conversion consists of a two-phase operation (Figure 3-1). During the first phase, switches S2 and S4 are opened and S1 and S3 are closed. During this time, C1 charges to the voltage on VIN and load current is supplied from C2. During the second phase, S2 and S4 are closed, and S1 and S3 are opened. This action connects C1 across C2, restoring charge to C2. FIGURE 3-1: IDEAL SWITCHED CAPACITOR CHARGE PUMP S2 S1 VIN TC1221/1222 C1 C2 S3 S4 VOUT = – (VIN) OSC Phase 1 DS21367B-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 4.0 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION 4.1 Output Voltage Considerations The TC1221/TC1222 perform voltage conversion but do not provide regulation. The output voltage will droop in a linear manner with respect to load current. The value of this equivalent output resistance is approximately 25Ω nominal at +25°C and VIN = +5V. VOUT is approximately -5V at light loads, and droops according to the equation below: EQUATION 4-2: PLOSS(4) = [(0.5)(C1)(VIN2 – VOUT2) + (0.5) (C2)(VRIPPLE2 – 2VOUT VRIPPLE)] x fOSC EQUATION 4-3: VRIPPLE = [ IOUT / 2 x ( fOSC) (C2)] + 2 ( IOUT) (ESRC2) FIGURE 4-1: VDROP = IOUT x ROUT VOUT = – (VIN – VDROP) 4.2 f V+ Charge Pump Efficiency The overall power efficiency of the charge pump is affected by four factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Losses from power consumed by the internal oscillator, switch drive, etc. (which vary with input voltage, temperature and oscillator frequency). I2R losses due to the on-resistance of the MOSFET switches on-board the charge pump. Charge pump capacitor losses due to effective series resistance (ESR). Losses that occur during charge transfer (from the commutation capacitor to the output capacitor) when a voltage difference between the two capacitors exists. Most of the conversion losses are due to factors (2) and (3) above. These losses are given by Equation 4-1(b). EQUATION 4-1: a) PLOSS (2, 3) = IOUT2 x ROUT b) where ROUT = [ 1 / [fOSC(C1) ] + 8RSWITCH + 4ESRC1 + ESRC2] IDEAL SWITCHED CAPACITOR MODEL VOUT C1 FIGURE 4-2: C2 RL EQUIVALENT OUTPUT RESISTANCE REQUIV V+ VOUT REQUIV = 1 f x C1 4.3 C2 RL Capacitor Selection In order to maintain the lowest output resistance and output ripple voltage, it is recommended that low ESR capacitors be used. Additionally, larger values of C1 will lower the output resistance and larger values of C2 will reduce output ripple. (Equation 4-1(b) and Equation 4-3). The 1/(fOSC)(C1) term in Equation 4-1(b) is the effective output resistance of an ideal switched capacitor circuit (Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2). The value of RSWITCH can be approximated at 0.5Ω for the TC1221/TC1222. The remaining losses in the circuit are due to factor (4) above, and are shown in Equation 4-2. The output voltage ripple is given by Equation 4-3. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21367B-page 5 TC1221/TC1222 Table 4-1 shows various values of C1 and the corresponding output resistance values @ +25°C. It assumes a 0.1Ω ESRC1 and 2Ω RSWITCH. Table 4-2 shows the output voltage ripple for various values of C2. The VRIPPLE values assume 10mA output load current and 0.1Ω ESRC2. TABLE 4-1: C1 (µF) TC1221 ROUT(Ω) TC1222 ROUT(Ω) 0.22 52.9 22.6 0.33 40.8 20.5 0.47 33.5 19.4 1.0 25 17.8 TABLE 4-2: 4.4 OUTPUT RESISTANCE VS. C1 (ESR = 0.1Ω) Shutdown Input The TC1221/TC1222 is enabled when SHDN is high, and disabled when SHDN is low. This input cannot be allowed to float. The SHDN input should be limited to 0.5V above VIN to avoid significant current flows. 4.6 Voltage Inverter The most common application for charge pump devices is the inverter (Figure 4-3). This application uses two external capacitors: C1 and C2 (plus a power supply bypass capacitor, if necessary). The output is equal to -VIN plus any voltage drops due to loading. Refer to Table 4-1 and Table 4-2 for capacitor selection. FIGURE 4-3: VOLTAGE INVERTER TEST CIRCUIT OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE VS. C2 (ESR = 0.1Ω) IOUT 10mA C2 (µF) TC1221 VRIPPLE (mV) TC1222 VRIPPLE (mV) 0.22 184 32 0.33 123 22 0.47 87 16 1.0 42 9 Input Supply Bypassing The VIN input should be capacitively bypassed to reduce AC impedance and minimize noise effects due to the internal switching of the device. The recommended capacitor depends on the configuration of the TC1221/TC1222. DS21367B-page 6 4.5 C3 VIN + VOUT 1 2 OUT 6 C1+ + TC1221 IN TC1220 3 C1– 5 SHDN Device TC1221 TC1222 GND + C2 C1 RL 4 C1 1µF 0.22µF C2 1µF 0.22µF C3 1µF 0.22µF 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 4.7 Cascading Devices 4.8 Two or more TC1221/TC1222 can be cascaded to increase output voltage (Figure 4-4). If the output is lightly loaded, it will be close to (-2 x VIN) but will droop at least by ROUT of the first device multiplied by the IQ of the second. It can be seen that the output resistance rises rapidly for multiple cascaded devices. FIGURE 4-4: Paralleling Devices To reduce the value of ROUT, multiple TC1221/ TC1222’s can be connected in parallel (Figure 4-5). The output resistance will be reduced by a factor of N where N is the number of TC1221/TC1222. Each device will require its own pump capacitor (C1), but all devices may share one reservoir capacitor (C2). However, to preserve ripple performance the value of C2 should be scaled according to the number of paralleled TC1221/TC1222. CASCADING MULTIPLE DEVICES TO INCREASE OUTPUT VOLTAGE ... VIN 2 2 3 3 4 C1 TC1221 TC1222 C1 4 TC1221 TC1222 6 5 "n" + + 6 5 VIN 1 "1" ... SHDN 1 VOUT SHDN C2 C2 + + VOUT = -nVIN FIGURE 4-5: PARALLELING MULTIPLE DEVICES TO REDUCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE ROUT = ROUT OF SINGLE DEVICE NUMBER OF DEVICES ... VIN VIN 2 2 3 3 4 C1 TC1221 TC1222 4 C1 TC1221 TC1222 + + 6 5 "1" 1 6 "n" 5 SHDN SHDN 1 VOUT ... VOUT = -VIN Shutdown Control 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. + C2 DS21367B-page 7 TC1221/TC1222 4.9 Voltage Doubler/Inverter 4.10 Another common application of the TC1221/TC1222 is shown in Figure 4-6. This circuit performs two functions in combination. C1 and C2 form the standard inverter circuit described above. C3 and C4 plus the two diodes form the voltage doubler circuit. C1 and C3 are the pump capacitors and C2 and C4 are the reservoir capacitors. Because both sub-circuits rely on the same switches if either output is loaded, both will droop toward GND. Make sure that the total current drawn from both the outputs does not total more than 40mA. FIGURE 4-6: Diode Protection for Heavy Loads When heavy loads require the OUT pin to sink large currents being delivered by a positive source, diode protection may be needed. The OUT pin should not be allowed to be pulled above ground. This is accomplished by connecting a Schottky diode (1N5817) as shown in Figure 4-7. 4.11 Layout Considerations As with any switching power supply circuit, good layout practice is recommended. Mount components as close together as possible to minimize stray inductance and capacitance. Noise leakage into other circuitry can be minimized with the use of a large ground plane. COMBINED DOUBLER AND INVERTER VIN 2 3 C1 + 4 TC1221 TC1222 6 D1, D2 = 1N4148 D1 1 VOUT = -VIN 5 C2 + D2 VOUT = (2VIN) – (VFD1) – (VFD2) + C3 + C4 Shutdown Control FIGURE 4-7: HIGH V– LOAD CURRENT GND 4 TC1221 TC1222 OUT DS21367B-page 8 1 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 5.0 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. Circuit of Figure 4-3, VIN = +5V, C1 = C2 = C3, TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted. TC1221 Supply Current vs. Supply Voltage TC1221 Output Voltage Droop vs. Capacitance, C1 = C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 1µF, RL = ∞, +25°C 300 600 250 200 150 100 50 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 5.0 5.5 OUTPUT VOLTAGE DROOP (mV) SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 350 VIN = 3.3V, RL = 1K, +25°C VIN = 5.0V, RL = 1K, +25°C 500 400 VIN = 5.0V 300 VIN = 3.3V 200 100 0 0 15 TC1221 Oscillator Frequency vs. Supply Voltage 55 130 50 45 40 35 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 5.0 5.5 TC1221 Output Voltage Ripple vs. Capacitance, C2 OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE (mVp-p) 5 10 CAPACITANCE (µF) C1 = C2 = C3 = 1µF, +25°C 60 300 C1 = C2 = C3 = 1µF, RL = ∞, +25°C 120 110 100 90 1.5 VIN = 3.3V, RL = 1K, +25°C VIN = 5.0V, RL = 1K, +25°C 250 OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ohms) TC1221 Output Resistance vs. Supply Voltage 65 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 200 150 VIN = 5.0V 100 VIN = 3.3V 50 0 0 5 10 CAPACITANCE (µF) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 15 DS21367B-page 9 TC1221/TC1222 5.0 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) TC1222 Output Voltage Droop vs. Capacitance, C1 = C2 TC1222 Supply Current vs. Supply Voltage C1 = C2 = C3 = 0.22µF, RL = ∞, +25°C 1500 500 1250 1000 750 500 250 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) OUTPUT VOLTAGE DROOP (mV) SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 1750 350 300 VIN = 5.0V 250 VIN = 3.3V 200 150 0 1 65 2 3 CAPACITANCE (µF) 5 4 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0.22µF, +25°C 60 55 TC1222 Oscillator Frequency vs. Supply Voltage 50 750 45 40 35 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) TC1222 Output Voltage Ripple vs. Capacitance , C2 160 VIN = 3.3V, RL = 1K, +25°C VIN = 5.0V, RL = 1K, +25°C OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz) OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ohms) 400 100 TC1222 Output Resistance vs. Supply Voltage OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE (mVp-p) VIN = 3.3V, RL = 1K, +25°C VIN = 5.0V, RL = 1K, +25°C 450 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0.22µF, RL = ∞, +25°C 700 650 600 550 500 1.5 120 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) VIN = 5.0V VIN = 3.3V 80 40 0 0 1 DS21367B-page 10 2 3 CAPACITANCE (µF) 4 5 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 6.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 6.1 Package Marking Information 1 & 2 = part number code + temperature range (two-digit code) TC1221/TC1222 TC1221ECH TC1222ECH Code GA GB ex: 1221ECH = G A 1222ECH = G B 3 represents year and 2-month code 4 represents production lot ID code 6.2 Taping Form Component Taping Orientation for 6-Pin SOT-23A (EIAJ SC-74) Devices User Direction of Feed Device Marking PIN 1 Standard Reel Component Orientation For TR Suffix Device (Mark Right Side Up) Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 6-Pin SOT-23A 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 8 mm 4 mm 3000 7 in DS21367B-page 11 TC1221/TC1222 6.3 Package Dimensions SOT-23A-6 .075 (1.90) REF. .069 (1.75) .059 (1.50) .122 (3.10) .098 (2.50) .020 (0.50) .014 (0.35) .037 (0.95) REF. .118 (3.00) .110 (2.80) .057 (1.45) .035 (0.90) .006 (0.15) .000 (0.00) .008 (0.20) .004 (0.09) 10° MAX. .024 (0.60) .004 (0.10) Dimensions: inches (mm) DS21367B-page 12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21367B-page13 TC1221/TC1222 NOTES: DS21367B-page14 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1221/TC1222 Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. 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Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 United Kingdom Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820 03/01/02 ' #$' DS21367B-page 16 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.