MICROCHIP PIC16F767

PIC16F7X7
28/40/44-Pin, 8-Bit CMOS Flash Microcontrollers with
10-Bit A/D and nanoWatt Technology
Low-Power Features:
Peripheral Features:
• Power-Managed modes:
- Primary Run (XT, RC oscillator, 76 A,
1 MHz, 2V)
- RC_RUN (7 A, 31.25 kHz, 2V)
- SEC_RUN (9 A, 32 kHz, 2V)
- Sleep (0.1 A, 2V)
• Timer1 Oscillator (1.8 A, 32 kHz, 2V)
• Watchdog Timer (0.7 A, 2V)
• Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up
• High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA
• Two 8-bit Timers with Prescaler
• Timer1/RTC module:
- 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler
- Can be incremented during Sleep via
external 32 kHz watch crystal
• Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) with
3-wire SPI and I2CTM (Master and Slave) modes
• Addressable Universal Synchronous
Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (AUSART)
• Three Capture, Compare, PWM modules:
- Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns
- Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns
- PWM max. resolution is 10 bits
• Parallel Slave Port (PSP) – 40/44-pin devices only
Oscillators:
• Three Crystal modes:
- LP, XT, HS (up to 20 MHz)
• Two External RC modes
• One External Clock mode:
- ECIO (up to 20 MHz)
• Internal Oscillator Block:
- 8 user-selectable frequencies (31 kHz,
125 kHz, 250 kHz, 500 kHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz,
4 MHz, 8 MHz)
Special Microcontroller Features:
Analog Features:
Device
Program
Data
Memory
SRAM
(# Single-Word
(Bytes)
Instructions)
I/O
Interrupts
• 10-bit, up to 14-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter:
- Programmable Acquisition Time
- Conversion available during Sleep mode
• Dual Analog Comparators
• Programmable Low-Current Brown-out Reset
(BOR) Circuitry and Programmable Low-Voltage
Detect (LVD)
10-bit
A/D (ch)
Comparators
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor for protecting critical
applications against crystal failure
• Two-Speed Start-up mode for immediate code
execution
• Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer (PWRT)
and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Programmable Code Protection
• Processor Read Access to Program Memory
• Power-Saving Sleep mode
• In-Circuit Serial Programming(ICSP)via
two pins
• MPLAB® In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins
• MCLR pin function replaceable with input only pin
MSSP
CCP
(PWM)
SPI
Timers
I2C™ AUSART 8/16-bit
(Master)
PIC16F737
4096
368
25
16
11
2
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
2/1
PIC16F747
4096
368
36
17
14
2
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
2/1
PIC16F767
8192
368
25
16
11
2
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
2/1
PIC16F777
8192
368
36
17
14
2
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
2/1
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 1
PIC16F7X7
Pin Diagrams
PDIP, SOIC, SSOP (28-pin)
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB4/AN11
RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9
RB2/AN8
RB1/AN10
RB0/INT/AN12
VDD
VSS
RC7/RX/DT
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RA1/AN1
RA0/AN0
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB4/AN11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
PIC16F737/767
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
VSS
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
QFN (28-pin)
28 27 26 25 24 23 22
21
20
PIC16F737 19
18
PIC16F767 17
16
15
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9
RB2/AN8
RB1/AN10
RB0/INT/AN12
VDD
VSS
RC7/RX/DT
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
QFN (44-pin)(1)
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
VSS
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
PIC16F747
PIC16F777
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
VSS
VSS
NC
VDD
RE2/CS/AN7
RE1/WR/AN6
RE0/RD/AN5
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RB3/CCP2(2)/AN9
NC
RB4/AN11
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB6/PGC
RB7/PGD
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RC7/RX/DT
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
VSS
VDD
VDD
RB0/INT/AN12
RB1/AN10
RB2/AN8
Note 1:
2:
For the QFN package, it is recommended that the bottom pad be connected to VSS.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
DS30498D-page 2
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
Pin Diagrams (Continued)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
RB7/PGD
RB6/PGC
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB4/AN11
RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9
RB2/AN8
RB1/AN10
RB0/INT/AN12
VDD
VSS
RD7/PSP7
RD6/PSP6
RD5/PSP5
RD4/PSP4
RC7/RX/DT
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RC6/TX/CK
RC5/SDO
RC4/SDI/SDA
RD3/PSP3
RD2/PSP2
RD1/PSP1
RD0/PSP0
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC2/CCP1
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
NC
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
RE2/CS/AN7
VDD
VSS
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RD0/PSP0
RD1/PSP1
PIC16F747/777
PDIP (40-pin)
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
TQFP (44-pin)
PIC16F747
PIC16F777
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
NC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
VSS
VDD
RE2/CS/AN7
RE1/WR/AN6
RE0/RD/AN5
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
NC
NC
RB4/AN11
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB6/PGC
RB7/PGD
MCLR/VPP/RE3
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RC7/RX/DT
RD4/PSP4
RD5/PSP5
RD6/PSP6
RD7/PSP7
VSS
VDD
RB0/INT/AN12
RB1/AN10
RB2/AN8
RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9
Note 1:
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 3
PIC16F7X7
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................. 15
3.0 Reading Program Memory ......................................................................................................................................................... 31
4.0 Oscillator Configurations ............................................................................................................................................................ 33
5.0 I/O Ports ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
6.0 Timer0 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 73
7.0 Timer1 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 77
8.0 Timer2 Module ........................................................................................................................................................................... 85
9.0 Capture/Compare/PWM Modules .............................................................................................................................................. 87
10.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module ...................................................................................................................... 93
11.0 Addressable Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (AUSART) ........................................................... 133
12.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D) Module ................................................................................................................................ 151
13.0 Comparator Module.................................................................................................................................................................. 161
14.0 Comparator Voltage Reference Module ................................................................................................................................... 167
15.0 Special Features of the CPU .................................................................................................................................................... 169
16.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 193
17.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 201
18.0 Electrical Characteristics .......................................................................................................................................................... 205
19.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Tables ....................................................................................................................... 235
20.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 249
Appendix A: Revision History............................................................................................................................................................. 265
Appendix B: Device Differences......................................................................................................................................................... 265
Appendix C: Conversion Considerations ........................................................................................................................................... 266
The Microchip Web Site ..................................................................................................................................................................... 275
Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 275
Customer Support .............................................................................................................................................................................. 275
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 276
PIC16F7X7 Product Identification System ......................................................................................................................................... 277
TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS
It is our intention to provide our valued customers with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip
products. To this end, we will continue to improve our publications to better suit your needs. Our publications will be refined and
enhanced as new volumes and updates are introduced.
If you have any questions or comments regarding this publication, please contact the Marketing Communications Department via
E-mail at [email protected] or fax the Reader Response Form in the back of this data sheet to (480) 792-4150. We
welcome your feedback.
Most Current Data Sheet
To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please register at our Worldwide Web site at:
http://www.microchip.com
You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page.
The last character of the literature number is the version number, (e.g., DS30000A is version A of document DS30000).
Errata
An errata sheet, describing minor operational differences from the data sheet and recommended workarounds, may exist for current
devices. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the revision
of silicon and revision of document to which it applies.
To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following:
• Microchip’s Worldwide Web site; http://www.microchip.com
• Your local Microchip sales office (see last page)
When contacting a sales office, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are
using.
Customer Notification System
Register on our web site at www.microchip.com to receive the most current information on all of our products.
DS30498D-page 4
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
This document contains device specific information
about the following devices:
• PIC16F737
• PIC16F747
• PIC16F767
• PIC16F777
PIC16F737/767 devices are available only in 28-pin
packages, while PIC16F747/777 devices are available
in 40-pin and 44-pin packages. All devices in the
PIC16F7X7 family share common architecture with the
following differences:
• The PIC16F737 and PIC16F767 have one-half of
the total on-chip memory of the PIC16F747 and
PIC16F777.
• The 28-pin devices have 3 I/O ports, while the
40/44-pin devices have 5.
• The 28-pin devices have 16 interrupts, while the
40/44-pin devices have 17.
• The 28-pin devices have 11 A/D input channels,
while the 40/44-pin devices have 14.
• The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on
the 40/44-pin devices.
• Low-Power modes: RC_RUN allows the core and
peripherals to be clocked from the INTRC, while
SEC_RUN allows the core and peripherals to be
clocked from the low-power Timer1. Refer to
Section 4.7 “Power-Managed Modes” for
further details.
• Internal RC oscillator with eight selectable
frequencies, including 31.25 kHz, 125 kHz,
250 kHz, 500 kHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz and
8 MHz. The INTRC can be configured as a primary
or secondary clock source. Refer to Section 4.5
“Internal Oscillator Block” for further details.
TABLE 1-1:
• The Timer1 module current consumption has
been greatly reduced from 20 A (previous PIC16
devices) to 1.8 A typical (32 kHz at 2V), which is
ideal for real-time clock applications. Refer to
Section 7.0 “Timer1 Module” for further details.
• Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT) that can have a
programmable period from 1 ms to 268s. The WDT
has its own 16-bit prescaler. Refer to Section 15.17
“Watchdog Timer (WDT)” for further details.
• Two-Speed Start-up: When the oscillator is
configured for LP, XT or HS, this feature will clock
the device from the INTRC while the oscillator is
warming up. This, in turn, will enable almost
immediate code execution. Refer to
Section 15.17.3 “Two-Speed Clock Start-up
Mode” for further details.
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: This feature will allow the
device to continue operation if the primary or
secondary clock source fails by switching over to
the INTRC.
The available features are summarized in Table 1-1.
Block diagrams of the PIC16F737/767 and
PIC16F747/777 devices are provided in Figure 1-1 and
Figure 1-2, respectively. The pinouts for these device
families are listed in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3.
Additional information may be found in the “PIC® MidRange MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023)
which may be obtained from your local Microchip Sales
Representative or downloaded from the Microchip web
site. The Reference Manual should be considered a
complementary document to this data sheet and is
highly recommended reading for a better understanding of the device architecture and operation of the
peripheral modules.
PIC16F7X7 DEVICE FEATURES
Key Features
PIC16F737
PIC16F747
PIC16F767
PIC16F777
Operating Frequency
DC – 20 MHz
DC – 20 MHz
DC – 20 MHz
DC – 20 MHz
Resets (and Delays)
POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST)
POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST)
POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST)
POR, BOR
(PWRT, OST)
Flash Program Memory (14-bit words)
4K
4K
8K
8K
Data Memory (bytes)
368
368
368
368
Interrupts
16
17
16
17
I/O Ports
Ports A, B, C
Ports A, B, C, D, E
Ports A, B, C
Ports A, B, C, D, E
Timers
3
3
3
3
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
3
3
3
3
MSSP, AUSART
MSSP, AUSART
MSSP, AUSART
MSSP, AUSART
—
PSP
—
PSP
11 Input Channels
14 Input Channels
11 Input Channels
14 Input Channels
35 Instructions
35 Instructions
35 Instructions
35 Instructions
28-pin PDIP
28-pin SOIC
28-pin SSOP
28-pin QFN
40-pin PDIP
44-pin QFN
44-pin TQFP
28-pin PDIP
28-pin SOIC
28-pin SSOP
28-pin QFN
40-pin PDIP
44-pin QFN
44-pin TQFP
Master Serial Communications
Parallel Communications
10-bit Analog-to-Digital Module
Instruction Set
Packaging
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 5
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 1-1:
PIC16F737 AND PIC16F767 BLOCK DIAGRAM
PORTA
13
Standard
Flash
Program
Memory
4K/8K x 14
Program
Bus
Data Bus
Program Counter
RAM
File
Registers
368 x 8
8-Level Stack
(13-bit)
14
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/
SS/C2OUT
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
8
RAM Addr(1)
PORTB
9
RB0/INT/AN12
RB1/AN10
RB2/AN8
RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9
RB4/AN11
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB7/PGD:RB6/PGC
Addr MUX
Instruction Register
Direct Addr
7
8
Indirect
Addr
FSR reg
Status reg
8
PORTC
3
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX/DT
MUX
ALU
8
WREG
PORTE
VDD, VSS
MCLR/VPP/RE3
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
10-bit A/D
Comparators
CCP1, 2, 3
MSSP
Addressable
USART
BOR/LVD
Note 1: Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
DS30498D-page 6
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 1-2:
PIC16F747 AND PIC16F777 BLOCK DIAGRAM
PORTA
13
Standard
Flash
Program
Memory
4K/8K x 14
Program
Bus
RAM
File
Registers
368 x 8
8-Level Stack
(13-bit)
14
RA0/AN0
RA1/AN1
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/
SS/C2OUT
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
RAM Addr(1)
PORTB
9
RB0/INT/AN12
RB1/AN10
RB2/AN8
RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9
RB4/AN11
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB7/PGD:RB6/PGC
Addr MUX
Instruction Register
Direct Addr
7
8
Indirect
Addr
FSR reg
Status reg
8
3
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Timing
Generation
OSC1/CLKI
OSC2/CLKO
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
PORTC
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2(1)
RC2/CCP1
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC5/SDO
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX/DT
MUX
ALU
8
PORTD
WREG
RD7/PSP7:RD0/PSP0
Parallel Slave Port
VDD, VSS
PORTE
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
10-bit A/D
RE2/CS/AN7
MCLR/VPP/RE3
Comparators
CCP1, 2, 3
MSSP
Addressable
USART
BOR/LVD
Note 1: Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 7
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16F737 AND PIC16F767 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Pin Name
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC1
PDIP
SOIC
SSOP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
9
6
I/O/P
Type
I
CLKI
I
RA7
I/O
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC2
10
7
—
O
RA6
I/O
1
26
ST
ST
I
P
I
VPP
RE3
Description
ST/CMOS(3) Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. ST
buffer when configured in RC mode; otherwise CMOS.
External clock source input. Always associated with pin
function OSC1 (see OSC1/CLKI, OSC2/CLKO pins).
ST
Digital I/O.
O
CLKO
MCLR/VPP/RE3
MCLR
Buffer
Type
ST
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output.
Connects to crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator
mode.
In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has 1/4 the
frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate.
Digital I/O.
Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (output).
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active-low
Reset to the device.
Programming voltage input.
Digital input only pin.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/AN0
RA0
AN0
2
RA1/AN1
RA1
AN1
3
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA2
AN2
VREFCVREF
4
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
5
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA4
T0CKI
C1OUT
6
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
RA5
AN4
LVDIN
SS
C2OUT
7
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
27
TTL
I/O
I
28
Digital I/O.
Analog input 0.
TTL
I/O
I
1
Digital I/O.
Analog input 1.
TTL
I/O
I
I
0
2
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage input (low).
Comparator voltage reference output.
TTL
I/O
I
I
3
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage input (high).
ST
I/O
I
O
4
Digital I/O – Open-drain when configured as output.
Timer0 external clock input.
Comparator 1 output bit.
TTL
I/O
I
I/O
I
O
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
Low-Voltage Detect input.
SPI slave select input.
Comparator 2 output bit.
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
DS30498D-page 8
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-2:
Pin Name
PIC16F737 AND PIC16F767 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
PDIP
SOIC
SSOP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0/INT/AN12
RB0
INT
AN12
21
RB1/AN10
RB1
AN10
22
RB2/AN8
RB2
AN8
23
RB3/CCP2/AN9
RB3
CCP2(4)
AN9
24
RB4/AN11
RB4
AN11
25
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB5
AN13
CCP3
26
RB6/PGC
RB6
PGC
27
RB7/PGD
RB7
PGD
28
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
TTL/ST(1)
18
Digital I/O.
External interrupt.
Analog input channel 12.
I/O
I
I
19
TTL
I/O
I
20
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 10.
TTL
I/O
I
21
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 8.
TTL
I/O
I/O
I
22
Digital I/O.
CCP2 capture input, compare output, PWM output.
Analog input channel 9.
TTL
I/O
I
23
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 11.
TTL
I/O
I
I/O
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 13.
CCP3 capture input, compare output, PWM output.
TTL/ST(2)
24
Digital I/O.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP™ programming clock.
I/O
I/O
TTL/ST(2)
25
I/O
I/O
Digital I/O.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data.
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 9
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16F737 AND PIC16F767 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
PDIP
SOIC
SSOP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T1CKI
11
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC1
T1OSI
CCP2(4)
12
RC2/CCP1
RC2
CCP1
13
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC3
SCK
SCL
14
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC4
SDI
SDA
15
RC5/SDO
RC5
SDO
16
RC6/TX/CK
RC6
TX
CK
17
RC7/RX/DT
RC7
RX
DT
18
8
ST
I/O
O
I
9
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1 external clock input.
ST
I/O
I
I/O
10
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture2 input, Compare2 output, PWM2 output.
ST
I/O
I/O
11
Digital I/O.
Capture1 input, Compare1 output, PWM1 output.
ST
I/O
I/O
I/O
12
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C™ mode.
ST
I/O
I
I/O
13
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
ST
I/O
O
14
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
ST
I/O
O
I/O
15
Digital I/O.
AUSART asynchronous transmit.
AUSART synchronous clock.
ST
I/O
I
I/O
Digital I/O.
AUSART asynchronous receive.
AUSART synchronous data.
VSS
8, 19
5, 16
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
20
17
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
DS30498D-page 10
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-3:
PIC16F747 AND PIC16F777 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Pin Name
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
OSC1
PDIP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
TQFP
Pin #
13
32
30
I/O/P
Type
I
CLKI
I
RA7
I/O
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
OSC2
14
33
31
—
O
RA6
I/O
1
18
18
ST
ST
I
P
I
VPP
RE3
Description
ST/CMOS(4) Oscillator crystal or external clock input.
Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input.
ST buffer when configured in RC mode; otherwise
CMOS.
External clock source input. Always associated with
pin function OSC1 (see OSC1/CLKI, OSC2/CLKO
pins).
ST
Bidirectional I/O pin.
O
CLKO
MCLR/VPP/RE3
MCLR
Buffer
Type
ST
Oscillator crystal or clock output.
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or
resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode.
In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO which has
1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the
instruction cycle rate.
Bidirectional I/O pin.
Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (output).
Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an
active-low Reset to the device.
Programming voltage input.
Digital input only pin.
PORTA is a bidirectional I/O port.
RA0/AN0
RA0
AN0
2
RA1/AN1
RA1
AN1
3
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
RA2
AN2
VREFCVREF
4
RA3/AN3/VREF+
RA3
AN3
VREF+
5
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
RA4
T0CKI
C1OUT
6
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
RA5
AN4
LVDIN
SS
C2OUT
7
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
19
19
TTL
I/O
I
20
20
Digital I/O.
Analog input 0.
TTL
I/O
I
21
21
Digital I/O.
Analog input 1.
TTL
I/O
I
I
I
22
Digital I/O.
Analog input 2.
A/D reference voltage input (low).
Comparator voltage reference output.
TTL
22
I/O
I
I
23
23
Digital I/O.
Analog input 3.
A/D reference voltage input (high).
ST
I/O
I
O
24
24
Digital I/O – Open-drain when configured as output.
Timer0 external clock input.
Comparator 1 output.
TTL
I/O
I
I
I
I
Digital I/O.
Analog input 4.
Low-Voltage Detect input.
SPI slave select input.
Comparator 2 output.
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as a general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 11
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-3:
Pin Name
PIC16F747 AND PIC16F777 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
PDIP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
TQFP
Pin #
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTB is a bidirectional I/O port. PORTB can be
software programmed for internal weak pull-up on all
inputs.
RB0/INT/AN12
RB0
INT
AN12
33
RB1/AN10
RB1
AN10
34
RB2/AN8
RB2
AN8
35
RB3/CCP2/AN9
RB3
CCP2(5)
AN9
36
RB4/AN11
RB4
AN11
37
RB5/AN13/CCP3
RB5
AN13
CCP3
38
RB6/PGC
RB6
PGC
39
RB7/PGD
RB7
PGD
40
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
9
TTL/ST(1)
8
I/O
I
I
10
9
Digital I/O.
External interrupt.
Analog input channel 12.
TTL
I/O
I
11
10
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 10.
TTL
I/O
I
12
11
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 8.
TTL
I/O
I/O
I
14
14
Digital I/O.
CCP2 capture input, compare output, PWM output.
Analog input channel 9.
TTL
I/O
I
15
15
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 11
TTL
I/O
I
I
16
Digital I/O.
Analog input channel 13.
CCP3 capture input, compare output, PWM output.
TTL/ST(2)
16
Digital I/O.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP™ programming
clock.
I/O
I/O
17
TTL/ST(2)
17
I/O
I/O
Digital I/O.
In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming
data.
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as a general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
DS30498D-page 12
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-3:
PIC16F747 AND PIC16F777 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Pin Name
PDIP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
TQFP
Pin #
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTC is a bidirectional I/O port.
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
RC0
T1OSO
T1CKI
15
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
RC1
T1OSI
CCP2(5)
16
RC2/CCP1
RC2
CCP1
17
RC3/SCK/SCL
RC3
SCK
18
34
32
35
35
36
36
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator input.
Capture 2 input, Compare 2 output, PWM 2 output.
ST
37
37
Digital I/O.
Capture 1 input, Compare 1 output, PWM 1 output.
ST
I/O
I/O
Digital I/O.
Synchronous serial clock input/output
for SPI mode.
Synchronous serial clock input/output
for I2C™ mode.
I/O
23
RC5/SDO
RC5
SDO
24
RC6/TX/CK
RC6
TX
CK
25
RC7/RX/DT
RC7
RX
DT
26
4:
5:
ST
I/O
I/O
RC4/SDI/SDA
RC4
SDI
SDA
Note 1:
2:
3:
Digital I/O.
Timer1 oscillator output.
Timer1 external clock input.
I/O
I
I/O
SCL
Legend:
ST
I/O
O
I
42
42
ST
I/O
I
I/O
43
43
Digital I/O.
SPI data in.
I2C data I/O.
ST
I/O
O
44
44
Digital I/O.
SPI data out.
ST
I/O
O
I/O
1
1
Digital I/O.
AUSART asynchronous transmit.
AUSART synchronous clock.
ST
I/O
I
I/O
Digital I/O.
AUSART asynchronous receive.
AUSART synchronous data.
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as a general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 13
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 1-3:
Pin Name
PIC16F747 AND PIC16F777 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
PDIP
Pin #
QFN
Pin #
TQFP
Pin #
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
Description
PORTD is a bidirectional I/O port or Parallel Slave Port
when interfacing to a microprocessor bus.
RD0/PSP0
RD0
PSP0
19
RD1/PSP1
RD1
PSP1
20
RD2/PSP2
RD2
PSP2
21
RD3/PSP3
RD3
PSP3
22
RD4/PSP4
RD4
PSP4
27
RD5/PSP5
RD5
PSP5
28
RD6/PSP6
RD6
PSP6
29
RD7/PSP7
RD7
PSP7
30
RE0/RD/AN5
RE0
RD
AN5
8
RE1/WR/AN6
RE1
WR
AN6
9
RE2/CS/AN7
RE2
CS
AN7
10
38
ST/TTL(3)
38
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
39
ST/TTL(3)
39
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
40
ST/TTL(3)
40
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
41
ST/TTL(3)
41
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
2
ST/TTL(3)
2
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
3
ST/TTL(3)
3
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
4
ST/TTL(3)
4
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
5
ST/TTL(3)
5
Digital I/O.
Parallel Slave Port data.
I/O
I/O
PORTE is a bidirectional I/O port.
25
ST/TTL(3)
25
I/O
I
I
26
Digital I/O.
Read control for Parallel Slave Port.
Analog input 5.
ST/TTL(3)
26
Digital I/O.
Write control for Parallel Slave Port.
Analog input 6.
I/O
I
I
27
ST/TTL(3)
27
Digital I/O.
Chip select control for Parallel Slave Port.
Analog input 7.
I/O
I
I
VSS
—
31
—
P
—
Analog ground reference.
VSS
12, 31
6, 30
6, 29
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
—
8
—
P
—
Analog positive supply.
VDD
11, 32
7, 28
7, 28
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
NC
—
—
—
These pins are not internally connected. These pins
should be left unconnected.
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
13, 29 12, 13,
33, 34
I = input
O = output
I/O = input/output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as an external interrupt.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as a general purpose I/O and a TTL input when used in the Parallel
Slave Port mode (for interfacing to a microprocessor bus).
This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
DS30498D-page 14
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
2.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
2.2
There are two memory blocks in each of these PIC®
MCUs. The program memory and data memory have
separate buses so that concurrent access can occur
and is detailed in this section. The program memory
can be read internally by user code (see Section 3.0
“Reading Program Memory”).
Data Memory Organization
The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks
which contain the General Purpose Registers and the
Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 (Status<6>) and
RP0 (Status<5>) are the bank select bits:
RP1:RP0
Bank
Additional information on device memory may be found
in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023).
00
0
01
1
10
2
2.1
11
3
Program Memory Organization
Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower
locations of each bank are reserved for the Special
Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as
static RAM. All implemented banks contain Special
Function Registers. Some frequently used Special
Function Registers from one bank may be mirrored in
another bank for code reduction and quicker access.
The PIC16F7X7 devices have a 13-bit program counter
capable of addressing an 8K word x 14-bit program
memory space. The PIC16F767/777 devices have
8K words of Flash program memory and the
PIC16F737/747 devices have 4K words. The program
memory maps for PIC16F7X7 devices are shown in
Figure 2-1. Accessing a location above the physically
implemented address will cause a wraparound.
2.2.1
The Reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
GENERAL PURPOSE
REGISTER FILE
The register file (shown in Figure 2-2 and Figure 2-3)
can be accessed either directly, or indirectly, through
the File Select Register (FSR).
FIGURE 2-1:
PROGRAM MEMORY MAPS AND STACKS FOR PIC16F7X7 DEVICES
PC<12:0>
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
13
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 2
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
Page 0
Page 1
On-Chip
Program
Memory
Page2
07FFh
0800h
Memory available on all
PIC16F7X7.
0FFFh
1000h
17FFh
1800h
Page 3
Memory available on PIC16F767
and PIC16F777. The memory
wraps to 000h through 0FFFh on
the PIC16F737 and PIC16F747.
1FFFh
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 15
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 2-2:
DATA MEMORY MAP FOR PIC16F737 AND THE PIC16F767
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTE
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
PIR2
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
RCSTA
TXREG
RCREG
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
ADRESH
ADCON0
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
20h
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*)
OPTION_REG
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
TRISE
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
PIE2
PCON
OSCCON
OSCTUNE
SSPCON2
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
CCPR3L
CCPR3H
CCP3CON
TXSTA
SPBRG
ADCON2
CMCON
CVRCON
ADRESL
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*)
A0h
PMDATH
PMADRH
7Fh
FFh
Bank 1
Indirect addr.(*)
OPTION_REG
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISB
PCLATH
INTCON
PMCON1
19Fh
1A0h
11Fh
120h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
16Fh
170h
1EFh
1F0h
Accesses
70h-7Fh
17Fh
Bank 2
180h
181h
182h
183h
184h
185h
186h
187h
188h
189h
18Ah
18Bh
18Ch
18Dh
18Eh
18Fh
190h
General
Purpose
Register
16 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
16 Bytes
Accesses
70h-7Fh
Accesses
70h-7Fh
*
LVDCON
PCLATH
INTCON
PMDATA
PMADR
EFh
F0h
96 Bytes
Bank 0
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
WDTCON
PORTB
100h
101h
102h
103h
104h
105h
106h
107h
108h
109h
10Ah
10Bh
10Ch
10Dh
10Eh
10Fh
110h
File
Address
1FFh
Bank 3
Unimplemented data memory locations read as ‘0’.
Not a physical register.
DS30498D-page 16
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 2-3:
DATA MEMORY MAP FOR PIC16F747 AND THE PIC16F777
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*)
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD
PORTE
PCLATH
INTCON
PIR1
PIR2
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
TMR2
T2CON
SSPBUF
SSPCON
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
RCSTA
TXREG
RCREG
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
ADRESH
ADCON0
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh
1Fh
20h
File
Address
Indirect addr.(*)
OPTION_REG
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
TRISD
TRISE
PCLATH
INTCON
PIE1
PIE2
PCON
OSCCON
OSCTUNE
SSPCON2
PR2
SSPADD
SSPSTAT
CCPR3L
CCPR3H
CCP3CON
TXSTA
SPBRG
ADCON2
CMCON
CVRCON
ADRESL
ADCON1
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80h
81h
82h
83h
84h
85h
86h
87h
88h
89h
8Ah
8Bh
8Ch
8Dh
8Eh
8Fh
90h
91h
92h
93h
94h
95h
96h
97h
98h
99h
9Ah
9Bh
9Ch
9Dh
9Eh
9Fh
Indirect addr.(*)
A0h
LVDCON
PCLATH
INTCON
PMDATA
PMADR
PMDATH
PMADRH
7Fh
Bank 0
100h
101h
102h
103h
104h
105h
106h
107h
108h
109h
10Ah
10Bh
10Ch
10Dh
10Eh
10Fh
110h
FFh
Bank 1
Indirect addr.(*)
OPTION_REG
PCL
STATUS
FSR
TRISB
PCLATH
INTCON
PMCON1
19Fh
1A0h
11Fh
120h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
16Fh
170h
1EFh
1F0h
Accesses
70h-7Fh
17Fh
Bank 2
180h
181h
182h
183h
184h
185h
186h
187h
188h
189h
18Ah
18Bh
18Ch
18Dh
18Eh
18Fh
190h
General
Purpose
Register
16 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
16 Bytes
Accesses
70h-7Fh
Accesses
70h-7Fh
*
TMR0
PCL
STATUS
FSR
WDTCON
PORTB
EFh
F0h
96 Bytes
File
Address
File
Address
1FFh
Bank 3
Unimplemented data memory locations read as ‘0’.
Not a physical register.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 17
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers can be classified into
two sets: core (CPU) and peripheral. Those registers
associated with the core functions are described in
detail in this section. Those related to the operation of
the peripheral features are described in detail in the
peripheral feature section.
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the CPU and peripheral modules for controlling the
desired operation of the device. These registers are
implemented as static RAM. A list of these registers is
given in Table 2-1.
TABLE 2-1:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Details
on page
Bank 0
00h(4)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000
30, 180
01h
TMR0
Timer0 Module Register
76, 180
02h(4)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
03h(4)
STATUS
IRP
RP1
xxxx xxxx
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000
29, 180
0001 1xxx
21, 180
04h(4)
FSR
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
xxxx xxxx
30, 180
05h
PORTA
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
xx0x 0000
55, 180
06h
PORTB
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xx00 0000
64, 180
07h
PORTC
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx
66, 180
08h(5)
PORTD
PORTD Data Latch when written: PORTD pins when read
xxxx xxxx
67, 180
09h(5)
PORTE
---- x000
68, 180
---0 0000
29, 180
0Ah(1,4) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
RE3
RE2
RE1
RE0
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
23, 180
PSPIF(3)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
25, 180
OSFIF
CMIF
LVDIF
—
BCLIF
—
CCP3IF
CCP2IF
0Bh(4)
INTCON
0Ch
PIR1
0Dh
PIR2
000- 0-00
27, 180
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
83, 180
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx
83, 180
10h
T1CON
11h
TMR2
12h
T2CON
13h
SSPBUF
14h
SSPCON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx
90, 180
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx
90, 180
17h
CCP1CON
CCP1M0 --00 0000
88, 180
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG
AUSART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000 139, 180
1Ah
RCREG
AUSART Receive Data Register
0000 0000 141, 180
1Bh
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx
92, 180
1Ch
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx
92, 180
1Dh
CCP2CON
CCP2M0 --00 0000
88, 180
1Eh
ADRESH
1Fh
ADCON0
—
T1RUN
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN T1SYNC
TMR1CS TMR1ON -000 0000
83, 180
0000 0000
86, 180
TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000
86, 180
Timer2 Module Register
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2
TOUTPS1
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
xxxx xxxx 101, 180
SSPM2
SSPM1
—
—
CCP1X
CCP1Y
CCP1M3
CCP1M2
CCP1M1
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
—
—
CCP2X
CCP2Y
CCP2M3
CCP2M2
CCP2M1
SSPM0
RX9D
A/D Result Register High Byte
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS2
0000 0000 101, 180
0000 000x 134, 180
xxxx xxxx 160, 180
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
CHS3
ADON
0000 0000 152, 180
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> bits, whose contents
are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter during branches (CALL or GOTO).
2: Other (non Power-up) Resets include external Reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
5: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD and TRISE are not physically implemented on the 28-pin devices (except for RE3), read as ‘0’.
6: This bit always reads as a ‘1’.
7: OSCCON<OSTS> bit resets to ‘0’ with dual-speed start-up and LP, HS or HS-PLL selected as the oscillator.
8: RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
DS30498D-page 18
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 2-1:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Details
on page
Bank 1
80h(4)
INDF
81h
OPTION_REG
82h(4)
PCL
83h(4)
STATUS
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
0000 0000
29, 180
PD
Z
DC
C
0001 1xxx
21, 180
Program Counter’s (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
30, 180
PSA
22, 180
84h(4)
FSR
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
xxxx xxxx
30, 180
85h
TRISA
PORTA Data Direction Register
1111 1111
55, 181
86h
TRISB
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111
64, 181
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111
66, 181
88h(5)
TRISD
PORTD Data Direction Register
89h(5)
TRISE
8Ah(1,4) PCLATH
IBF(5)
OBF(5)
IBOV(5)
PSPMODE(5)
—(8)
PORTE Data Direction bits
67, 181
69, 181
---0 0000
23, 180
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
25, 180
PIE1
PSPIE(3)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000
24, 181
26, 181
8Bh(4)
INTCON
8Ch
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
1111 1111
0000 1111
8Dh
PIE2
OSFIE
CMIE
LVDIE
—
BCLIE
—
CCP3IE
CCP2IE
000- 0-00
8Eh
PCON
—
—
—
—
—
SBOREN
POR
BOR
---- -1qq
28, 181
8Fh
OSCCON
—
IRCF2
IRCF1
IRCF0
OSTS(7)
IOFS
SCS1
SCS0
-000 1000
38, 181
90h
OSCTUNE
—
—
TUN5
TUN4
TUN3
TUN2
TUN1
TUN0
--00 0000
36, 181
91h
SSPCON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
0000 0000
105
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
1111 1111
86, 181
93h
SSPADD
Synchronous Serial Port (I2C™ mode) Address Register
94h
SSPSTAT
95h
CCPR3L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx
92
96h
CCPR3H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx
92
97h
CCP3CON
CCP3M0 --00 0000
92
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
9Ah
—
9Bh
ADCON2
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
0000 0000 101, 181
R/W
UA
—
—
CCP3X
CCP3Y
CCP3M3
CCP3M2
CCP3M1
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
BF
TX9D
Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 -010 145, 181
0000 0000 145, 181
Unimplemented
—
0000 0000 101, 181
—
ACQT2
ACQT1
ACQT0
—
—
—
—
—
--00 0---
154
9Ch
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0111
55, 161
9Dh
CVRCON
CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
—
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
000- 0000
55, 167
9Eh
ADRESL
xxxx xxxx
180
9Fh
ADCON1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
A/D Result Register Low Byte
ADFM
ADCS2
VCFG1
0000 0000 153, 181
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> bits, whose contents
are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter during branches (CALL or GOTO).
2: Other (non Power-up) Resets include external Reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
5: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD and TRISE are not physically implemented on the 28-pin devices (except for RE3), read as ‘0’.
6: This bit always reads as a ‘1’.
7: OSCCON<OSTS> bit resets to ‘0’ with dual-speed start-up and LP, HS or HS-PLL selected as the oscillator.
8: RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 19
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 2-1:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Details
on page
Bank 2
100h(4)
INDF
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000
30, 180
101h
TMR0
Timer0 Module Register
76, 180
102h(4)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
103h(4)
STATUS
104h(4)
FSR
105h
WDTCON
106h
PORTB
107h
—
108h
—
109h
IRP
xxxx xxxx
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
LVDCON
10Ah(1,4) PCLATH
10Bh(4)
INTCON
10Ch
PMDATA
—
—
—
WDTPS3
0000 0000
29, 180
0001 1xxx
21, 180
xxxx xxxx
30, 180
WDTPS2 WDTPS1 WDTPS0 SWDTEN ---0 1000
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
187
xxxx xxxx
64, 180
Unimplemented
—
—
Unimplemented
—
—
--00 0101
176
---0 0000
23, 180
—
—
IRVST
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
LVDEN
LVDL3
LVDL2
LVDL1
LVDL0
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
0000 000x
25, 180
EEPROM Data Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
32, 181
EEPROM Address Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx
32, 181
10Dh
PMADR
10Eh
PMDATH
—
—
10Fh
PMADRH
—
—
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
EEPROM Data Register High Byte
—
—
EEPROM Address Register High Byte
--xx xxxx
32, 181
---- xxxx
32, 181
Bank 3
180h(4)
INDF
181h
OPTION_REG
182h(4)
PCL
183h(4)
STATUS
184h(4)
FSR
185h
186h
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register) 0000 0000
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
0000 0000
29, 180
PD
Z
DC
C
0001 1xxx
21, 180
xxxx xxxx
30, 180
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer
—
TRISB
30, 180
PSA
Unimplemented
PORTB Data Direction Register
22, 180
—
—
1111 1111
64, 181
187h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
188h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
189h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
---0 0000
23, 180
18Ah(1,4) PCLATH
—
—
—
Write Buffer for the upper 5 bits of the Program Counter
18Bh(4)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
25, 180
18Ch
PMCON1
r(6)
—
—
—
—
—
—
RD
1--- ---0
32, 181
18Dh
—
Reserved, maintain clear
—
—
18Eh
—
Reserved, maintain clear
—
—
18Fh
—
Reserved, maintain clear
—
—
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<12:8> bits, whose contents
are transferred to the upper byte of the program counter during branches (CALL or GOTO).
2: Other (non Power-up) Resets include external Reset through MCLR and Watchdog Timer Reset.
3: Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
4: These registers can be addressed from any bank.
5: PORTD, PORTE, TRISD and TRISE are not physically implemented on the 28-pin devices (except for RE3), read as ‘0’.
6: This bit always reads as a ‘1’.
7: OSCCON<OSTS> bit resets to ‘0’ with dual-speed start-up and LP, HS or HS-PLL selected as the oscillator.
8: RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
DS30498D-page 20
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.1
Status Register
The Status register contains the arithmetic status of the
ALU, the Reset status and the bank select bits for data
memory.
The Status register can be the destination for any
instruction, as with any other register. If the Status
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable, therefore, the result of an instruction with the
Status register as destination may be different than
intended.
REGISTER 2-1:
For example, CLRF STATUS, will clear the upper three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the Status register as
000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
Status register because these instructions do not affect
the Z, C or DC bits from the Status register. For other
instructions not affecting any Status bits, see
Section 16.0 “Instruction Set Summary”.
Note 1: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow
and digit borrow bit, respectively, in
subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
STATUS: ARITHMETIC STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h, 103h, 183h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-1
R-1
R/W-x
R/W-x
R/W-x
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
1 = Bank 2, 3 (100h-1FFh)
0 = Bank 0, 1 (00h-FFh)
bit 6-5
RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
11 = Bank 3 (180h-1FFh)
10 = Bank 2 (100h-17Fh)
01 = Bank 1 (80h-FFh)
00 = Bank 0 (00h-7Fh)
Each bank is 128 bytes.
bit 4
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3
PD: Power-Down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1
DC: Digit Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW, SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result
bit 0
C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW, SUBWF instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
Note:
For borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the
two’s complement of the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this
bit is loaded with either the high or low-order bit of the source register.
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 21
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.2
OPTION_REG Register
Note:
The OPTION_REG register is a readable and writable
register which contains various control bits to configure
the TMR0 prescaler/WDT postscaler (single assignable register also known as the prescaler), the external
INT interrupt, TMR0 and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
REGISTER 2-2:
To achieve a 1:1 prescaler assignment for
the TMR0 register, assign the prescaler to
the Watchdog Timer.
OPTION_REG: OPTION CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h, 181h)
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled by individual port latch values
bit 6
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKO)
bit 4
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0
PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value
TMR0 Rate WDT Rate
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
Legend:
DS30498D-page 22
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.3
INTCON Register
Note:
The INTCON register is a readable and writable register which contains various enable and flag bits for the
TMR0 register overflow, RB port change and external
RB0/INT pin interrupts.
REGISTER 2-3:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).
User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh, 10Bh, 18Bh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-x
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5
TMR0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4
INT0IE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt
bit 3
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2
TMR0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1
INT0IF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch
condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 23
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.4
PIE1 Register
Note:
Bit PEIE (INTCON<6>) must be set to
enable any peripheral interrupt.
The PIE1 register contains the individual enable bits for
the peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-4:
PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 8Ch)
R/W-0
(1)
PSPIE
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
bit 7
bit 7
bit 0
PSPIE: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit(1)
1 = Enables the PSP read/write interrupt
0 = Disables the PSP read/write interrupt
Note 1: PSPIE is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear.
bit 6
ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the A/D converter interrupt
0 = Disables the A/D converter interrupt
bit 5
RCIE: AUSART Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the AUSART receive interrupt
0 = Disables the AUSART receive interrupt
bit 4
TXIE: AUSART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the AUSART transmit interrupt
0 = Disables the AUSART transmit interrupt
bit 3
SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the SSP interrupt
0 = Disables the SSP interrupt
bit 2
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0
TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt
Legend:
DS30498D-page 24
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.5
PIR1 Register
The PIR1 register contains the individual flag bits for
the peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-5:
Note: Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of its
corresponding enable bit or the Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>). User
software should ensure the appropriate interrupt bits are clear prior to enabling an interrupt.
PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 0Ch)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
bit 0
bit 7
bit 7
PSPIF: Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit(1)
1 = A read or a write operation has taken place (must be cleared in software)
0 = No read or write has occurred
Note:
PSPIF is reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain this bit clear.
bit 6
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = An A/D conversion is completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The A/D conversion is not complete
RCIF: AUSART Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The AUSART receive buffer is full
0 = The AUSART receive buffer is empty
TXIF: AUSART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The AUSART transmit buffer is empty
0 = The AUSART transmit buffer is full
SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The SSP interrupt condition has occurred and must be cleared in software before returning
from the Interrupt Service Routine. The conditions that will set this bit are:
SPI:
A transmission/reception has taken place.
I2 C Slave:
A transmission/reception has taken place.
I2 C Master:
A transmission/reception has taken place. The initiated Start condition was completed by
the SSP module. The initiated Stop condition was completed by the SSP module. The
initiated Restart condition was completed by the SSP module.The initiated Acknowledge
condition was completed by the SSP module. A Start condition occurred while the SSP
module was Idle (multi-master system). A Stop condition occurred while the SSP module
was Idle (multi-master system).
0 = No SSP interrupt condition has occurred
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred
TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR1 register did not overflow
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
-n = Value at POR
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
W = Writable bit
‘1’ = Bit is set
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 25
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.6
PIE2 Register
The PIE2 register contains the individual enable bits for
the CCP2 and CCP3 peripheral interrupts.
REGISTER 2-6:
PIE2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 2 (ADDRESS 8Dh)
R/W-0
OSFIE
R/W-0
CMIE
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
LVDIE
—
BCLIE
—
CCP3IE
CCP2IE
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
OSFIE: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 6
CMIE: Comparator Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
bit 5
LVDIE: Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Enable bit
1 = LVD interrupt is enabled
0 = LVD interrupt is disabled
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
BCLIE: Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enable bus collision interrupt in the SSP when configured for I2C Master mode
0 = Disable bus collision interrupt in the SSP when configured for I2C Master mode
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
CCP3IE: CCP3 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP3 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP3 interrupt
bit 0
CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP2 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP2 interrupt
Legend:
DS30498D-page 26
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.7
PIR2 Register
Note:
The PIR2 register contains the flag bits for the CCP2
interrupt.
REGISTER 2-7:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).
User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
PIR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST (FLAG) REGISTER 2 (ADDRESS 0Dh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
OSFIF
CMIF
LVDIF
—
BCLIF
—
CCP3IF
CCP2IF
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
OSFIF: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Flag bit
1 = System oscillator failed, clock input has changed to INTRC (must be cleared in software)
0 = System clock operating
bit 6
CMIF: Comparator Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Comparator input has changed (must be cleared in software)
0 = Comparator input has not changed
bit 5
LVDIF: Low-Voltage Detect Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The supply voltage has fallen below the specified LVD voltage (must be cleared in software)
0 = The supply voltage is greater then the specified LVD voltage
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
BCLIF: Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit
1 = A bus collision has occurred in the SSP when configured for I2C Master mode
0 = No bus collision has occurred
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
CCP3IF: CCP3 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 0
CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit
Capture mode:
1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred
Compare mode:
1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred (must be cleared in software)
0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred
PWM mode:
Unused.
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 27
PIC16F7X7
2.2.2.8
PCON Register
Note:
The Power Control (PCON) register contains flag bits
to allow differentiation between a Power-on Reset
(POR), a Brown-out Reset (BOR), a Watchdog Reset
(WDT) and an external MCLR Reset.
REGISTER 2-8:
BOR is unknown on POR. It must be set
by the user and checked on subsequent
Resets to see if BOR is clear, indicating a
brown-out has occurred. The BOR status
bit is not predictable if the brown-out circuit
is disabled (by clearing the BOREN bit in
the Configuration Word register).
PCON: POWER CONTROL/STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Eh)
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-1
—
—
—
—
—
SBOREN
POR
BOR
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
SBOREN: Software Brown-out Reset Enable bit
If BORSEN in Configuration Word 2 is a ‘1’ and BOREN in Configuration Word 1 is ‘0’:
1 = BOR enabled
0 = BOR disabled
bit 1
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Brown-out Reset occurs)
Legend:
DS30498D-page 28
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
2.3
PCL and PCLATH
The Program Counter (PC) is 13 bits wide. The low
byte comes from the PCL register which is a readable
and writable register. The upper bits (PC<12:8>) are
not readable but are indirectly writable through the
PCLATH register. On any Reset, the upper bits of the
PC will be cleared. Figure 2-4 shows the two situations
for the loading of the PC. The upper example in the
figure shows how the PC is loaded on a write to PCL
(PCLATH<4:0>  PCH). The lower example in the
figure shows how the PC is loaded during a CALL or
GOTO instruction (PCLATH<4:3>  PCH).
FIGURE 2-4:
LOADING OF PC IN
DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
PCH
PCL
12
8
7
0
PC
8
PCLATH<4:0>
5
Instruction with
PCL as
Destination
ALU
PCLATH
PCH
12
11 10
PCL
8
0
7
PC
GOTO,CALL
2
PCLATH<4:3>
11
Opcode <10:0>
PCLATH
2.3.1
Note 1: There are no Status bits to indicate stack
overflow or stack underflow conditions.
2: There are no instructions/mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the
CALL, RETURN, RETLW and RETFIE
instructions or the vectoring to an
interrupt address.
2.4
Program Memory Paging
PIC16F7X7 devices are capable of addressing a continuous 8K word block of program memory. The CALL
and GOTO instructions provide only 11 bits of address to
allow branching within any 2K program memory page.
When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction, the upper
2 bits of the address are provided by PCLATH<4:3>.
When doing a CALL or GOTO instruction, the user must
ensure that the page select bits are programmed so
that the desired program memory page is addressed. If
a return from a CALL instruction (or interrupt) is
executed, the entire 13-bit PC is POPed off the stack.
Therefore, manipulation of the PCLATH<4:3> bits is
not required for the RETURN instructions (which POPs
the address from the stack).
Note:
The contents of the PCLATH are
unchanged after a RETURN or RETFIE
instruction is executed. The user must set
up the PCLATH for any subsequent CALLs
or GOTOs.
COMPUTED GOTO
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset
to the program counter (ADDWF PCL). When doing a
table read using a computed GOTO method, care
should be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL
memory boundary (each 256-byte block). Refer to the
Application Note, AN556 “Implementing a Table Read”
(DS00556).
2.3.2
The stack operates as a circular buffer. This means that
after the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on).
Example 2-1 shows the calling of a subroutine in
page 1 of the program memory. This example assumes
that PCLATH is saved and restored by the Interrupt
Service Routine (if interrupts are used).
EXAMPLE 2-1:
STACK
The PIC16F7X7 family has an 8-level deep x 13-bit
wide hardware stack. The stack space is not part of
either program or data space and the stack pointer is
not readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the
stack when a CALL instruction is executed or an
interrupt causes a branch. The stack is POPed in the
event of a RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction
execution. PCLATH is not affected by a PUSH or POP
operation.
ORG
BCF
BSF
0x500
PCLATH, 4
PCLATH, 3 ;Select page 1
;(800h-FFFh)
CALL SUB1_P1
;Call subroutine in
:
;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
:
ORG
0x900
;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
SUB1_P1
:
:
:
RETURN
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
CALL OF A SUBROUTINE
IN PAGE 1 FROM PAGE 0
;called subroutine
;page 1 (800h-FFFh)
;return to Call
;subroutine in page 0
;(000h-7FFh)
DS30498D-page 29
PIC16F7X7
2.5
EXAMPLE 2-2:
Indirect Addressing, INDF and
FSR Registers
MOVLW
MOVWF
NEXT
CLRF
INCF
BTFSS
GOTO
CONTINUE
:
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing
the INDF register will cause indirect addressing.
Indirect addressing is possible by using the INDF
register. Any instruction using the INDF register
actually accesses the register pointed to by the File
Select Register, FSR. Reading the INDF register itself
indirectly (FSR = 0) will read 00h. Writing to the INDF
register indirectly results in a no operation (although
Status bits may be affected). An effective 9-bit address
is obtained by concatenating the 8-bit FSR register and
the IRP bit (Status<7>) as shown in Figure 2-5.
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
0x20
;initialize pointer
FSR
;to RAM
INDF
;clear INDF register
FSR, F ;inc pointer
FSR, 4 ;all done?
NEXT
;no clear next
;yes continue
A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-2.
FIGURE 2-5:
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
Direct Addressing
RP1:RP0
6
Bank Select
Indirect Addressing
From Opcode
0
IRP
7
Bank Select
Location Select
00
01
10
FSR Register
0
Location Select
11
00h
80h
100h
180h
7Fh
FFh
17Fh
1FFh
Data
Memory(1)
Bank 0
Note 1:
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
For register file map detail, see Figure 2-2.
DS30498D-page 30
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
3.0
READING PROGRAM MEMORY
The Flash program memory is readable during normal
operation over the entire VDD range. It is indirectly
addressed through Special Function Registers (SFR).
Up to 14-bit numbers can be stored in memory for use
as calibration parameters, serial numbers, packed 7-bit
ASCII, etc. Executing a program memory location
containing data that forms an invalid instruction results
in a NOP.
When interfacing to the program memory block, the
PMDATH:PMDATA registers form a two-byte word
which holds the 14-bit data for reads. The
PMADRH:PMADR registers form a two-byte word
which holds the 13-bit address of the Flash location
being accessed. These devices can have up to
8K words of program Flash, with an address range
from 0h to 3FFFh. The unused upper bits in both the
PMDATH and PMADRH registers are not implemented
and read as ‘0’s.
There are five SFRs used to read the program and
memory. These registers are:
3.1
•
•
•
•
•
PMCON1
PMDATA
PMDATH
PMADR
PMADRH
PMADR
The address registers can address up to a maximum of
8K words of program Flash.
The program memory allows word reads. Program
memory access allows for checksum calculation and
reading calibration tables.
When selecting a program address value, the MSB of
the address is written to the PMADRH register and the
LSB is written to the PMADR register. The upper Most
Significant bits of PMADRH must always be clear.
3.2
PMCON1 Register
PMCON1 is the control register for memory accesses.
The control bit, RD, initiates read operations. This bit
cannot be cleared, only set, in software. It is cleared in
hardware at the completion of the read operation.
REGISTER 3-1: PMCON1: PROGRAM MEMORY CONTROL REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 18Ch)
R-1
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-x
U-0
U-0
R/S-0
reserved
—
—
—
—
—
—
RD
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
Reserved: Read as ‘1’
bit 6-1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
RD: Read Control bit
1 = Initiates a Flash read, RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared)
in software.
0 = Flash read completed
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 31
PIC16F7X7
3.3
Reading the Flash Program
Memory
3.4
Flash program memory has its own code-protect
mechanism. External read and write operations by
programmers are disabled if this mechanism is
enabled.
A program memory location may be read by writing two
bytes of the address to the PMADR and PMADRH registers and then setting control bit, RD (PMCON1<0>).
Once the read control bit is set, the microcontroller will
use the next two instruction cycles to read the data. The
data is available in the PMDATA and PMDATH
registers after the second NOP instruction; therefore, it
can be read as two bytes in the following instructions.
The PMDATA and PMDATH registers will hold this
value until the next read operation.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
Required
Sequence
The microcontroller can read and execute instructions
out of the internal Flash program memory, regardless
of the state of the code-protect configuration bits.
FLASH PROGRAM READ
BSF
BCF
MOVF
MOVWF
MOVF
MOVWF
BSF
STATUS, RP1
STATUS, RP0
ADDRH, W
PMADRH
ADDRL, W
PMADR
STATUS, RP0
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
BSF
NOP
NOP
PMCON1, RD
; EEPROM Read Sequence
; memory is read in the next two cycles after BSF PMCON1,RD
;
BCF
MOVF
MOVF
STATUS, RP0
PMDATA, W
PMDATH, W
; Bank 2
; W = LSByte of Program PMDATA
; W = MSByte of Program PMDATH
TABLE 3-1:
Address
Operation During Code-Protect
Bank 2
MSByte of Program Address to read
LSByte of Program Address to read
Bank 3 Required
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PROGRAM FLASH
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
EEPROM Address Register Low Byte
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
10Dh
PMADR
10Fh
PMADRH
10Ch
PMDATA EEPROM Data Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10Eh
PMDATH
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
18Ch
PMCON1 reserved(1)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
EEPROM Address Register High Byte ---- xxxx ---u uuuu
EEPROM Data Register High Byte
—
—
—
—
—
RD
1--- ---0 1--- ---0
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used during Flash access.
Note 1: This bit always reads as a ‘1’.
DS30498D-page 32
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
4.0
OSCILLATOR
CONFIGURATIONS
4.1
Oscillator Types
TABLE 4-1:
The PIC16F7X7 can be operated in eight different oscillator modes. The user can program three configuration
bits (FOSC2:FOSC0) to select one of these eight modes
(modes 5-8 are new PIC16 oscillator configurations):
1.
2.
3.
4.
LP
XT
HS
RC
Low-Power Crystal
Crystal/Resonator
High-Speed Crystal/Resonator
External Resistor/Capacitor with
FOSC/4 output on RA6
RCIO External Resistor/Capacitor with
I/O on RA6
INTIO1 Internal Oscillator with FOSC/4
output on RA6 and I/O on RA7
INTIO2 Internal Oscillator with I/O on RA6
and RA7
ECIO External Clock with I/O on RA6
5.
6.
7.
8.
4.2
Crystal Oscillator/Ceramic
Resonators
In XT, LP or HS modes, a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1/CLKI and OSC2/CLKO pins
to establish oscillation (see Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2).
The PIC16F7X7 oscillator design requires the use of a
parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give
a frequency out of the crystal manufacturer’s
specifications.
FIGURE 4-1:
CRYSTAL OPERATION
(HS, XT OR LP OSC
CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
PIC16F7X7
C1(1)
XTAL
RF(3)
Sleep
OSC2
C2(1)
Osc Type
LP
XT
HS
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR (FOR
DESIGN GUIDANCE ONLY)
Crystal
Freq
Typical Capacitor Values
Tested:
C1
C2
32 kHz
33 pF
33 pF
200 kHz
15 pF
15 pF
200 kHz
56 pF
56 pF
1 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
4 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
8 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
20 MHz
15 pF
15 pF
Capacitor values are for design guidance only.
These capacitors were tested with the crystals listed
below for basic start-up and operation. These values
were not optimized.
Different capacitor values may be required to produce
acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test
the performance of the oscillator over the expected
VDD and temperature range for the application.
See the notes following this table for additional
information.
Note 1: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of oscillator but also increases the
start-up time.
2: Since each crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the crystal
manufacturer for appropriate values of
external components.
3: Rs may be required in HS mode, as well
as XT mode, to avoid overdriving crystals
with low drive level specification.
4: Always verify oscillator performance over
the VDD and temperature range that is
expected for the application.
RS(2)
To Internal
Logic
Note 1: See Table 4-1 for typical values of C1 and C2.
2: A series resistor (RS) may be required for AT
strip cut crystals.
3: RF varies with the crystal chosen (typically
between 2 M to 10 M.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 33
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 4-2:
CERAMIC RESONATOR
OPERATION (HS OR XT
OSC CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
C1
PIC16F7X7
(1)
RES
RF(3)
Sleep
OSC2
C2(1)
RS(2)
To Internal
Logic
4.3
External Clock Input
The ECIO Oscillator mode requires an external clock
source to be connected to the OSC1 pin. There is no
oscillator start-up time required after a Power-on Reset
or after an exit from Sleep mode.
In the ECIO Oscillator mode, the OSC2 pin becomes
an additional general purpose I/O pin. The I/O pin
becomes bit 6 of PORTA (RA6). Figure 4-3 shows the
pin connections for the ECIO Oscillator mode.
FIGURE 4-3:
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION
(ECIO CONFIGURATION)
Note 1: See Table 4-2 for typical values of C1 and C2.
2: A series resistor (RS) may be required.
3: RF varies with the resonator chosen (typically
between 2 M to 10 M.
OSC1/CLKI
Clock from
Ext. System
PIC16F7X7
RA6
TABLE 4-2:
I/O (OSC2)
CERAMIC RESONATORS (FOR
DESIGN GUIDANCE ONLY)
Typical Capacitor Values Used:
Mode
Freq
OSC1
OSC2
XT
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
56 pF
47 pF
33 pF
56 pF
47 pF
33 pF
HS
8.0 MHz
16.0 MHz
27 pF
22 pF
27 pF
22 pF
Capacitor values are for design guidance only.
These capacitors were tested with the resonators
listed below for basic start-up and operation. These
values were not optimized.
Different capacitor values may be required to produce
acceptable oscillator operation. The user should test
the performance of the oscillator over the expected
VDD and temperature range for the application.
See the notes following this table for additional
information.
Note:
When using resonators with frequencies
above 3.5 MHz, the use of HS mode rather
than XT mode is recommended. HS mode
may be used at any VDD for which the
controller is rated. If HS is selected, it is
possible that the gain of the oscillator will
overdrive the resonator. Therefore, a
series resistor should be placed between
the OSC2 pin and the resonator. As a
good starting point, the recommended
value of RS is 330
DS30498D-page 34
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
4.4
RC Oscillator
4.5
For timing insensitive applications, the “RC” and “RCIO”
device options offer additional cost savings. The RC
oscillator frequency is a function of the supply voltage,
the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values and the
operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator
frequency will vary from unit to unit due to normal
manufacturing variation. Furthermore, the difference in
lead frame capacitance between package types will also
affect the oscillation frequency, especially for low CEXT
values. The user also needs to take into account variation due to tolerance of external R and C components
used. Figure 4-4 shows how the R/C combination is
connected.
In the RC Oscillator mode, the oscillator frequency
divided by 4 is available on the OSC2 pin. This signal may
be used for test purposes or to synchronize other logic.
FIGURE 4-4:
RC OSCILLATOR MODE
VDD
REXT
OSC1
Internal
Clock
CEXT
PIC16F7X7
VSS
FOSC/4
Recommended values: 3 k  REXT  100 k
CEXT > 20 pF
The RCIO Oscillator mode (Figure 4-5) functions like
the RC mode, except that the OSC2 pin becomes an
additional general purpose I/O pin. The I/O pin
becomes bit 6 of PORTA (RA6).
FIGURE 4-5:
The PIC16F7X7 devices include an internal oscillator
block which generates two different clock signals;
either can be used as the system’s clock source. This
can eliminate the need for external oscillator circuits on
the OSC1 and/or OSC2 pins.
The main output (INTOSC) is an 8 MHz clock source
which can be used to directly drive the system clock. It
also drives the INTOSC postscaler which can provide a
range of six clock frequencies, from 125 kHz to 4 MHz.
The other clock source is the internal RC oscillator
(INTRC) which provides a 31.25 kHz (32 s nominal
period) output. The INTRC oscillator is enabled by
selecting the INTRC as the system clock source or
when any of the following are enabled:
•
•
•
•
Power-up Timer
Watchdog Timer
Two-Speed Start-up
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
These features are discussed in greater detail in
Section 15.0 “Special Features of the CPU”.
The clock source frequency (INTOSC direct, INTRC
direct or INTOSC postscaler) is selected by configuring
the IRCF bits of the OSCCON register (page 38).
Note:
OSC2/CLKO
Internal Oscillator Block
Throughout this data sheet, when referring
specifically to a generic clock source, the
term “INTRC” may also be used to refer to
the clock modes using the internal
oscillator block. This is regardless of
whether the actual frequency used is
INTOSC (8 MHz), the INTOSC postscaler
or INTRC (31.25 kHz).
RCIO OSCILLATOR MODE
VDD
REXT
Internal
Clock
OSC1
CEXT
PIC16F7X7
VSS
RA6
I/O (OSC2)
Recommended values: 3 k  REXT  100 k
CEXT > 20 pF
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 35
PIC16F7X7
4.5.1
INTRC MODES
4.5.2
Using the internal oscillator as the clock source can
eliminate the need for up to two external oscillator pins,
after which it can be used for digital I/O. Two distinct
configurations are available:
• In INTIO1 mode, the OSC2 pin outputs FOSC/4,
while OSC1 functions as RA7 for digital input and
output.
• In INTIO2 mode, OSC1 functions as RA7 and
OSC2 functions as RA6, both for digital input and
output.
REGISTER 4-1:
The internal oscillator’s output has been calibrated at the
factory but can be adjusted in the application. This is
done by writing to the OSCTUNE register (Register 4-1).
The tuning sensitivity is constant throughout the tuning
range. The OSCTUNE register has a tuning range of
±12.5%.
When the OSCTUNE register is modified, the INTOSC
and INTRC frequencies will begin shifting to the new
frequency. The INTRC clock will reach the new
frequency within 8 clock cycles (approximately
8 * 32 s = 256 s); the INTOSC clock will stabilize
within 1 ms. Code execution continues during this shift.
There is no indication that the shift has occurred. Operation of features that depend on the 31.25 kHz INTRC
clock source frequency, such as the WDT, Fail-Safe
Clock Monitor and peripherals, will also be affected by
the change in frequency.
OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER (ADDRESS 90h)
U-0
—
bit 7
bit 7-6
bit 5-0
OSCTUNE REGISTER
U-0
—
R/W-0
TUN5
R/W-0
TUN4
R/W-0
TUN3
R/W-0
TUN2
R/W-0
TUN1
R/W-0
TUN0
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
TUN<5:0>: Frequency Tuning bits
011111 = Maximum frequency
011110 =
•
•
•
000001 =
000000 = Center frequency. Oscillator module is running at the calibrated frequency.
111111 =
•
•
•
100000 = Minimum frequency
Legend:
DS30498D-page 36
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
4.6
Clock Sources and Oscillator
Switching
The PIC16F7X7 devices include a feature that allows
the system clock source to be switched from the main
oscillator to an alternate low-frequency clock source.
PIC16F7X7 devices offer three alternate clock sources.
When enabled, these give additional options for
switching to the various power-managed operating
modes.
Essentially, there are three clock sources for these
devices:
• Primary oscillators
• Secondary oscillators
• Internal oscillator block (INTRC)
The primary oscillators include the External Crystal
and Resonator modes, the External RC modes, the
External Clock mode and the internal oscillator block.
The particular mode is defined on POR by the contents
of Configuration Word 1. The details of these modes
are covered earlier in this chapter.
The secondary oscillators are those external sources
not connected to the OSC1 or OSC2 pins. These
sources may continue to operate even after the
controller is placed in a power-managed mode.
PIC16F7X7 devices offer the Timer1 oscillator as a
secondary oscillator. This oscillator continues to run
when a SLEEP instruction is executed and is often the
time base for functions, such as a real-time clock.
Most often, a 32.768 kHz watch crystal is connected
between the RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI and RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
pins. Like the LP mode oscillator circuit, loading capacitors are also connected from each pin to ground. The
Timer1 oscillator is discussed in greater detail in
Section 7.6 “Timer1 Oscillator”.
In addition to being a primary clock source, the internal
oscillator block is available as a power-managed
mode clock source. The 31.25 kHz INTRC source is
also used as the clock source for several special
features, such as the WDT, Fail-Safe Clock Monitor,
Power-up Timer and Two-Speed Start-up.
The clock sources for the PIC16F7X7 devices are shown
in Figure 4-6. See Section 7.0 “Timer1 Module” for
further details of the Timer1 oscillator. See Section 15.1
“Configuration Bits” for Configuration register details.
the main oscillator that is selected by the
FOSC2:FOSC0 configuration bits in Configuration
Register 1. When the bits are set in any other manner,
the system clock source is provided by the Timer1
oscillator (SCS1:SCS0 = 01) or from the internal
oscillator block (SCS1:SCS0 = 10). After a Reset,
SCS<1:0> are always set to ‘00’.
The internal oscillator select bits, IRCF2:IRCF0, select
the frequency output of the internal oscillator block that
is used to drive the system clock. The choices are the
INTRC source (31.25 kHz), the INTOSC source
(8 MHz) or one of the six frequencies derived from the
INTOSC postscaler (125 kHz to 4 MHz). Changing the
configuration of these bits has an immediate change on
the multiplexor’s frequency output.
The OSTS and IOFS bits indicate the status of the
primary oscillator and INTOSC source; these bits are
set when their respective oscillators are stable. In
particular, OSTS indicates that the Oscillator Start-up
Timer has timed out.
4.6.2
Clock switching will occur for the following reasons:
• The FCMEN (CONFIG2<0>) bit is set, the device
is running from the primary oscillator and the
primary oscillator fails. The clock source will be
the internal RC oscillator.
• The FCMEN bit is set, the device is running from
the Timer1 oscillator (T1OSC) and T1OSC fails.
The clock source will be the internal RC oscillator.
• Following a wake-up due to a Reset or a POR,
when the device is configured for Two-Speed
Start-up mode, switching will occur between the
INTRC and the system clock defined by the
FOSC<2:0> bits.
• A wake-up from Sleep occurs due to interrupt or
WDT wake-up and Two-Speed Start-up is
enabled. If the primary clock is XT, HS or LP, the
clock will switch between the INTRC and the
primary system clock after 1024 clocks and
8 clocks of the primary oscillator. This is
conditional upon the SCS bits being set equal
to ‘00’.
• SCS bits are modified from their original value.
• IRCF bits are modified from their original value.
Note:
4.6.1
OSCCON REGISTER
The OSCCON register (Register 4-2) controls several
aspects of the system clock’s operation, both in full
power operation and in power-managed modes.
The system clock select bits, SCS1:SCS0, select the
clock source that is used when the device is operating
in power-managed modes. When the bits are cleared
(SCS<1:0> = 00), the system clock source comes from
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
CLOCK SWITCHING
Because the SCS bits are cleared on any
Reset, no clock switching will occur on a
Reset unless the Two-Speed Start-up is
enabled and the primary clock is XT, HS or
LP. The device will wait for the primary
clock to become stable before execution
begins (Two-Speed Start-up disabled).
DS30498D-page 37
PIC16F7X7
4.6.3
CLOCK TRANSITION AND WDT
When clock switching is performed, the Watchdog
Timer is disabled because the Watchdog Ripple
Counter is used as the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST).
Note:
Once the clock transition is complete (i.e., new oscillator selection switch has occurred), the Watchdog
Counter is re-enabled with the Counter Reset. This
allows the user to synchronize the Watchdog Timer to
the start of execution at the new clock frequency.
The OST is only used when switching to
XT, HS and LP Oscillator modes.
REGISTER 4-2:
OSCCON: OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 8Fh)
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
IRCF2
IRCF1
IRCF0
OSTS(1)
IOFS
SCS1
SCS0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-4
IRCF<2:0>: Internal RC Oscillator Frequency Select bits
000 = 31.25 kHz
001 = 125 kHz
010 = 250 kHz
011 = 500 kHz
100 = 1 MHz
101 = 2 MHz
110 = 4 MHz
111 = 8 MHz
bit 3
OSTS: Oscillator Start-up Time-out Status bit(1)
1 = Device is running from the primary system clock
0 = Device is running from the Timer1 oscillator (T1OSC) or INTRC as a secondary system clock
Note 1: Bit resets to ‘0’ with Two-Speed Start-up and LP, XT or HS selected as the oscillator
mode.
bit 2
IOFS: INTOSC Frequency Stable bit
1 = Frequency is stable
0 = Frequency is not stable
bit 1-0
SCS<1:0>: Oscillator Mode Select bits
00 = Oscillator mode defined by FOSC<2:0>
01 = T1OSC is used for system clock
10 = Internal RC is used for system clock
11 = Reserved
Legend:
DS30498D-page 38
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 4-6:
PIC16F7X7 CLOCK DIAGRAM
CONFIG1 (FOSC2:FOSC0)
SCS<1:0> (T1OSC)
Primary Oscillator
OSC2
Sleep
Secondary Oscillator
T1OSC
T1OSO
To Timer1
T1OSCEN
Enable
Oscillator
OSCCON<6:4>
8 MHz
4 MHz
Internal
Oscillator
Block
8 MHz
(INTOSC)
31.25 kHz
(INTRC)
4.6.4
CPU
111
110
101
1 MHz
100
500 kHz
250 kHz
125 kHz
31.25 kHz
MODIFYING THE IRCF BITS
The IRCF bits can be modified at any time regardless of
which clock source is currently being used as the
system clock. The internal oscillator allows users to
change the frequency during run time. This is achieved
by modifying the IRCF bits in the OSCCON register.
The sequence of events that occur after the IRCF bits
are modified is dependent upon the initial value of the
IRCF bits before they are modified. If the INTRC
(31.25 kHz, IRCF<2:0> = 000) is running and the IRCF
bits are modified to any other value than ‘000’, a 4 ms
(approx.) clock switch delay is turned on. Code execution continues at a higher than expected frequency
while the new frequency stabilizes. Time sensitive code
should wait for the IOFS bit in the OSCCON register to
become set before continuing. This bit can be
monitored to ensure that the frequency is stable before
using the system clock in time critical applications.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Internal Oscillator
2 MHz
Postscaler
31.25 kHz
Source
Peripherals
011
MUX
T1OSI
MUX
LP, XT, HS, RC, EC
OSC1
010
001
000
WDT, FSCM
If the IRCF bits are modified while the internal oscillator
is running at any other frequency than INTRC
(31.25 kHz, IRCF<2:0>  000), there is no need for a
4 ms (approx.) clock switch delay. The new INTOSC
frequency will be stable immediately after the eight
falling edges. The IOFS bit will remain set after clock
switching occurs.
Note:
Caution must be taken when modifying the
IRCF bits using BCF or BSF instructions. It
is possible to modify the IRCF bits to a
frequency that may be out of the VDD
specification range; for example:
VDD = 2.0V and IRCF = 111 (8 MHz).
DS30498D-page 39
PIC16F7X7
4.6.5
CLOCK TRANSITION SEQUENCE
• Clock before switch: One of INTOSC/INTOSC
postscaler (IRCF<2:0>  000)
1. IRCF bits are modified to a different INTOSC/
INTOSC postscaler frequency.
2. The clock switching circuitry waits for a falling
edge of the current clock, at which point CLKO
is held low.
3. The clock switching circuitry then waits for
eight falling edges of requested clock, after
which it switches CLKO to this new clock
source.
4. The IOFS bit is set.
5. Oscillator switchover is complete.
The following are three different sequences for
switching the internal RC oscillator frequency:
• Clock before switch: 31.25 kHz
(IRCF<2:0> = 000)
1. IRCF bits are modified to an INTOSC/INTOSC
postscaler frequency.
2. The clock switching circuitry waits for a falling
edge of the current clock, at which point CLKO
is held low.
3. The clock switching circuitry then waits for eight
falling edges of requested clock, after which it
switches CLKO to this new clock source.
4. The IOFS bit is clear to indicate that the clock is
unstable and a 4 ms (approx.) delay is started.
Time dependent code should wait for IOFS to
become set.
5. Switchover is complete.
• Clock before switch: One of INTOSC/INTOSC
postscaler (IRCF<2:0>  000)
1. IRCF
bits
are
modified
to
INTRC
(IRCF<2:0> = 000).
2. The clock switching circuitry waits for a falling
edge of the current clock, at which point CLKO
is held low.
3. The clock switching circuitry then waits for eight
falling edges of requested clock, after which it
switches CLKO to this new clock source.
4. Oscillator switchover is complete.
TABLE 4-3:
4.6.6
OSCILLATOR DELAY UPON
POWER-UP, WAKE-UP AND CLOCK
SWITCHING
Table 4-3 shows the different delays invoked for
various clock switching sequences. It also shows the
delays invoked for POR and wake-up.
OSCILLATOR DELAY EXAMPLES
Clock Switch
Frequency
Oscillator Delay
INTRC
T1OSC
31.25 kHz
32.768 kHz
CPU Start-up(1)
INTOSC/INTOSC
Postscaler
125 kHz-8 MHz
4 ms (approx.) and
CPU Start-up(1)
INTRC/
Sleep
EC, RC
DC – 20 MHz
INTRC
(31.25 kHz)
EC, RC
DC – 20 MHz
Sleep
LP, XT, HS
32.768 kHz-20 MHz
1024 Clock Cycles
Following a change from INTRC, the
OST count of 1024 cycles must occur.
125 kHz-8 MHz
4 ms (approx.)
Refer to Section 4.6.4 “Modifying the
IRCF Bits” for further details.
From
Sleep/POR
INTRC
INTOSC/INTOSC
(31.25 kHz)
Postscaler
Note 1:
Comments
To
Following a wake-up from Sleep mode
or POR, CPU start-up is invoked to
allow the CPU to become ready for
code execution.
The 5 s-10 s start-up delay is based on a 1 MHz system clock.
DS30498D-page 40
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
4.7
Power-Managed Modes
4.7.1
If the system clock does not come from the INTRC
(31.25 kHz) when the SCS bits are changed and the
IRCF bits in the OSCCON register are configured for a
frequency other than INTRC, the frequency may not be
stable immediately. The IOFS bit (OSCCON<2>) will
be set when the INTOSC or postscaler frequency is
stable, after 4 ms (approx.).
RC_RUN MODE
When SCS bits are configured to run from the INTRC,
a clock transition is generated if the system clock is not
already using the INTRC. The event will clear the
OSTS bit and switch the system clock from the primary
system clock (if SCS<1:0> = 00) determined by the
value contained in the configuration bits, or from the
T1OSC (if SCS<1:0> = 01) to the INTRC clock option
and shut-down the primary system clock to conserve
power. Clock switching will not occur if the primary
system clock is already configured as INTRC.
FIGURE 4-7:
After a clock switch has been executed, the OSTS bit
is cleared, indicating a low-power mode and the device
does not run from the primary system clock. The internal Q clocks are held in the Q1 state until eight falling
edge clocks are counted on the INTRC oscillator. After
the eight clock periods have transpired, the clock input
to the Q clocks is released and operation resumes (see
Figure 4-7).
TIMING DIAGRAM FOR XT, HS, LP, EC, EXTRC TO RC_RUN MODE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
Q1
TINP(1)
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
INTOSC
TSCS(3)
OSC1
System
Clock
TOSC(2)
TDLY(4)
SCS<1:0>
Program
Counter
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
PC
PC + 1
PC + 2
PC + 3
TINP = 32 s typical.
TOSC = 50 ns minimum.
TSCS = 8 TINP.
TDLY = 1 TINP.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 41
PIC16F7X7
4.7.2
SEC_RUN MODE
The core and peripherals can be configured to be
clocked by T1OSC using a 32.768 kHz crystal. The
crystal must be connected to the T1OSO and T1OSI
pins. This is the same configuration as the low-power
timer circuit (see Section 7.6 “Timer1 Oscillator”).
When SCS bits are configured to run from T1OSC, a
clock transition is generated. It will clear the OSTS bit,
switch the system clock from either the primary system
clock or INTRC, depending on the value of SCS<1:0>
and FOSC<2:0>, to the external low-power Timer1
oscillator input (T1OSC) and shut-down the primary
system clock to conserve power.
Note 1: The T1OSCEN bit must be enabled and it
is the user’s responsibility to ensure
T1OSC is stable before clock switching to
the T1OSC input clock can occur.
2: When T1OSCEN = 0, the following
possible effects result.
Original Modified
SCS<1:0> SCS<1:0>
After a clock switch has been executed, the internal Q
clocks are held in the Q1 state until eight falling edge
clocks are counted on the T1OSC. After the eight clock
periods have transpired, the clock input to the Q clocks
is released and operation resumes (see Figure 4-8). In
addition, T1RUN (in T1CON) is set to indicate that
T1OSC is being used as the system clock.
FIGURE 4-8:
Final
SCS<1:0>
00
01
00 – no change
00
11
10 – INTRC
10
11
10 – no change
10
01
00 – Oscillator
defined by
FOSC<2:0>
A clock switching event will occur if the
final state of the SCS bits is different from
the original.
TIMING DIAGRAM FOR SWITCHING TO SEC_RUN MODE
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
T1OSI
Q1
TT1P(1)
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
TSCS(3)
OSC1
System
Clock
TOSC(2)
TDLY(4)
SCS<1:0>
Program
Counter
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
PC
PC + 1
PC + 2
PC + 3
TT1P = 30.52 s.
TOSC = 50 ns minimum.
TSCS = 8 TT1P
TDLY = 1 TT1P.
DS30498D-page 42
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
4.7.3
SEC_RUN/RC_RUN TO PRIMARY
CLOCK SOURCE
When switching from a SEC_RUN or RC_RUN mode
back to the primary system clock, following a change of
SCS<1:0> to ‘00’, the sequence of events that take
place will depend upon the value of the FOSC bits in
the Configuration register. If the primary clock source is
configured as a crystal (HS, XT or LP), then the
transition will take place after 1024 clock cycles. This is
necessary because the crystal oscillator has been
powered down until the time of the transition. In order
to provide the system with a reliable clock when the
changeover has occurred, the clock will not be
released to the changeover circuit until the 1024 counts
have expired.
During the oscillator start-up time, the system clock
comes from the current system clock. Instruction
execution and/or peripheral operation continues using
the currently selected oscillator as the CPU clock
source, until the necessary clock count has expired, to
ensure that the primary system clock is stable.
To know when the OST has expired, the OSTS bit
should be monitored. OSTS = 1 indicates that the
Oscillator Start-up Timer has timed out and the system
clock comes from the primary clock source.
Following the oscillator start-up time, the internal Q
clocks are held in the Q1 state until eight falling edge
clocks are counted from the primary system clock. The
clock input to the Q clocks is then released and
operation resumes with the primary system clock
determined by the FOSC bits (see Figure 4-10).
4.7.3.1
Returning to Primary Clock Source
Sequence
Changing back to the primary oscillator from
SEC_RUN or RC_RUN can be accomplished by either
changing SCS<1:0> to ‘00’ or clearing the T1OSCEN
bit in the T1CON register (if T1OSC was the secondary
clock).
The sequence of events that follows is the same for
both modes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
If the primary system clock is configured as EC,
RC or INTRC, then the OST time-out is skipped.
Skip to step 3.
If the primary system clock is configured as an
external oscillator (HS, XT, LP), then the OST
will be active, waiting for 1024 clocks of the
primary system clock.
On the following Q1, the device holds the
system clock in Q1.
The device stays in Q1 while eight falling edges
of the primary system clock are counted.
Once the eight counts transpire, the device
begins to run from the primary oscillator.
If the secondary clock was INTRC and the
primary clock is not INTRC, the INTRC will be
shut-down to save current, providing that the
INTRC is not being used for any other function,
such as WDT or Fail-Safe Clock Monitoring.
If the secondary clock was T1OSC, the T1OSC
will continue to run if T1OSCEN is still set;
otherwise, the Timer1 oscillator will be shut-down.
When in SEC_RUN mode, the act of clearing the
T1OSCEN bit in the T1CON register will cause
SCS<0> to be cleared, which causes the SCS<1:0>
bits to revert to ‘00’ or ‘10’ depending on what SCS<1>
is. Although the T1OSCEN bit was cleared, T1OSC will
be enabled and instruction execution will continue until
the OST time-out for the main system clock is complete. At that time, the system clock will switch from the
T1OSC to the primary clock or the INTRC. Following
this, the Timer1 oscillator will be shut-down.
Note:
If the primary system clock is either RC or
EC, an internal delay timer (5-10 s) will
suspend operation after exiting Secondary
Clock mode to allow the CPU to become
ready for code execution.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 43
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 4-9:
TIMING FOR TRANSITION BETWEEN SEC_RUN/RC_RUN AND
PRIMARY CLOCK
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
TT1P(1) or TINP(2)
Q1
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Secondary
Oscillator
OSC1
TOST(6)
OSC2
TOSC(3)
Primary Clock
TSCS(4)
System Clock
TDLY(5)
SCS<1:0>
OSTS
Program
Counter
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
PC
PC + 1
PC + 2
PC + 3
TT1P = 30.52 s.
TINP = 32 s typical.
TOSC = 50 ns minimum.
TSCS = 8 TINP OR 8 TT1P.
TDLY = 1 TINP OR 1 TT1P.
Refer to parameter D032 in Section 18.0 “Electrical Characteristics”.
DS30498D-page 44
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
4.7.3.2
Returning to Primary Oscillator with
a Reset
A Reset will clear SCS<1:0> back to ‘00’. The
sequence for starting the primary oscillator following a
Reset is the same for all forms of Reset, including
POR. There is no transition sequence from the
alternate system clock to the primary system clock on
a Reset condition. Instead, the device will reset the
state of the OSCCON register and default to the
primary system clock. The sequence of events that
take place after this will depend upon the value of the
FOSC bits in the Configuration register. If the external
oscillator is configured as a crystal (HS, XT or LP), the
CPU will be held in the Q1 state until 1024 clock cycles
have transpired on the primary clock. This is
necessary because the crystal oscillator had been
powered down until the time of the transition.
no oscillator start-up time required because the
primary clock is already stable; however, there is a
delay between the wake-up event and the following
Q2. An internal delay timer of 5-10 s will suspend
operation after the Reset to allow the CPU to become
ready for code execution. The CPU and peripheral
clock will be held in the first Q1.
The sequence of events is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
During the oscillator start-up time, instruction
execution and/or peripheral operation is suspended.
Note:
If Two-Speed Clock Start-up mode is
enabled, the INTRC will act as the system
clock until the Oscillator Start-up Timer has
timed out.
4.
If the primary system clock is either RC, EC or INTRC,
the CPU will begin operating on the first Q1 cycle
following the wake-up event. This means that there is
FIGURE 4-10:
A device Reset is asserted from one of many
sources (WDT, BOR, MCLR, etc.).
The device resets and the CPU start-up timer is
enabled if in Sleep mode. The device is held in
Reset until the CPU start-up time-out is
complete.
If the primary system clock is configured as an
external oscillator (HS, XT, LP), then the OST
will be active waiting for 1024 clocks of the primary system clock. While waiting for the OST,
the device will be held in Reset. The OST and
CPU start-up timers run in parallel.
After both the CPU start-up timer and the
Oscillator Start-up Timer have timed out, the
device will wait for one additional clock cycle
and instruction execution will begin.
TIMING LP CLOCK TO PRIMARY SYSTEM CLOCK AFTER RESET (HS, XT, LP)
Q4
TT1P(1)
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
T1OSI
OSC1
TOST(4)
OSC2
TEPU(3)
TOSC(2)
CPU Start-up
System Clock
Peripheral
Clock
Reset
Sleep
OSTS
Program
Counter
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
PC
0000h
0001h
0003h
0004h
0005h
TT1P = 30.52 s.
TOSC = 50 ns minimum.
TEPU = 5-10 s.
Refer to parameter D032 in Section 18.0 “Electrical Characteristics”.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 45
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 4-11:
TIMING LP CLOCK TO PRIMARY SYSTEM CLOCK AFTER RESET
(EC, RC, INTRC)
TT1P(1)
Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
T1OSI
OSC1
OSC2
TCPU(2)
CPU Start-up
System Clock
MCLR
OSTS
Program
Counter
Note 1:
2:
PC
0000h
0001h
0002h
0003h
0004h
TT1P = 30.52 s.
TCPU = 5-10 s.
DS30498D-page 46
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 4-4:
Current
System
Clock
CLOCK SWITCHING MODES
SCS bits<1:0>
Modified to:
Delay
OSTS
bit
IOFS T1RUN
bit
bit
New
System
Clock
LP, XT, HS,
10
T1OSC,
(INTRC)
EC, RC
FOSC<2:0> = LP,
XT or HS
8 Clocks of
INTRC
0
1(1)
0
LP, XT, HS,
01
INTRC,
(T1OSC)
EC, RC
FOSC<2:0> = LP,
XT or HS
8 Clocks of
T1OSC
0
N/A
1
T1OSC
EC
or
RC
Comments
INTRC
The internal RC oscillator
or
frequency is dependant upon
INTOSC the IRCF bits.
or
INTOSC
Postscaler
T1OSCEN bit must be enabled.
INTRC
T1OSC
00
FOSC<2:0> = EC
or
FOSC<2:0> = RC
8 Clocks of
EC
or
RC
1
N/A
0
INTRC
T1OSC
00
FOSC<2:0> = LP,
XT, HS
1024 Clocks
+
8 Clocks of
LP, XT, HS
1
N/A
0
LP, XT, HS During the 1024 clocks,
program execution is clocked
from the secondary oscillator
until the primary oscillator
becomes stable.
LP, XT, HS
00
(Due to Reset)
LP, XT, HS
1024 Clocks
1
N/A
0
LP, XT, HS When a Reset occurs, there is
no clock transition sequence.
Instruction
execution and/or peripheral
operation is suspended unless
Two-Speed Start-up mode is
enabled, after which the INTRC
will act as the system clock
until the Oscillator Start-up
Timer has expired.
Note 1:
If the new clock source is the INTOSC or INTOSC postscaler, then the IOFS bit will be set 4 ms (approx.)
after the clock change.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 47
PIC16F7X7
4.7.4
EXITING SLEEP WITH AN
INTERRUPT
Any interrupt, such as WDT or INT0, will cause the part
to leave the Sleep mode.
The SCS bits are unaffected by a SLEEP command and
are the same before and after entering and leaving
Sleep. The clock source used after an exit from Sleep
is determined by the SCS bits.
4.7.4.1
Sequence of Events
If SCS<1:0> = 00:
1.
2.
3.
The device is held in Sleep until the CPU start-up
time-out is complete.
If the primary system clock is configured as an
external oscillator (HS, XT, LP), then the OST will
be active waiting for 1024 clocks of the primary
system clock. While waiting for the OST, the
device will be held in Sleep unless Two-Speed
Start-up is enabled. The OST and CPU start-up
timers run in parallel. Refer to Section 15.17.3
“Two-Speed Clock Start-up Mode” for details
on Two-Speed Start-up.
After both the CPU start-up timer and the
Oscillator Start-up Timer have timed out, the
device will exit Sleep and begin instruction
execution with the primary clock defined by the
FOSC bits.
DS30498D-page 48
If SCS<1:0> = 01 or 10:
1.
2.
The device is held in Sleep until the CPU start-up
time-out is complete.
After the CPU start-up timer has timed out, the
device will exit Sleep and begin instruction
execution with the selected oscillator mode.
Note:
If a user changes SCS<1:0> just before
entering Sleep mode, the system clock
used when exiting Sleep mode could be
different than the system clock used when
entering Sleep mode.
As an example, if SCS<1:0> = 01, T1OSC
is the system clock and the following
instructions are executed:
BCF
SLEEP
OSCCON,SCS0
then a clock change event is executed. If
the primary oscillator is XT, LP or HS, the
core will continue to run off T1OSC and
execute the SLEEP command.
When Sleep is exited, the part will resume
operation with the primary oscillator after
the OST has expired.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
5.0
I/O PORTS
Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an
alternate function for the peripheral features on the
device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that
pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
Additional information on I/O ports may be found in the
“PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual”
(DS33023).
5.1
PORTA and the TRISA Register
PORTA is a 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a
TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin
an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will
make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins, whereas writing to it, will write to the port latch.
The RA4 pin is multiplexed with the Timer0 module
clock input and one of the comparator outputs to
become the RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT pin. Pins RA6 and
RA7 are multiplexed with the main oscillator pins; they
are enabled as oscillator or I/O pins by the selection of
the main oscillator in Configuration Register 1H (see
Section 15.1 “Configuration Bits” for details). When
they are not used as port pins, RA6 and RA7 and their
associated TRIS and LAT bits are read as ‘0’.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
The other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog
inputs, the analog VREF+ and VREF- inputs and the
comparator voltage reference output. The operation of
pins RA3:RA0 and RA5 as A/D converter inputs is
selected by clearing/setting the control bits in the
ADCON1 register (A/D Control Register 1). Pins RA0
through RA5 may also be used as comparator inputs or
outputs by setting the appropriate bits in the CMCON
register.
Note:
On a Power-on Reset, RA5 and RA3:RA0
are configured as analog inputs and read
as ‘0’. RA4 is configured as a digital input.
The RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT pin is a Schmitt Trigger input
and an open-drain output. All other PORTA pins have
TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers.
The TRISA register controls the direction of the RA pins
even when they are being used as analog inputs. The
user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are
maintained set when using them as analog inputs.
EXAMPLE 5-1:
INITIALIZING PORTA
BCF
BCF
CLRF
STATUS, RP0
STATUS, RP1
PORTA
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0x0F
ADCON1
0xCF
MOVWF
TRISA
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Bank0
Initialize PORTA by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Configure all pins
as digital inputs
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RA<3:0> as inputs
RA<5:4> as outputs
TRISA<7:6>are always
read as '0'.
DS30498D-page 49
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-1:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA0/AN0:RA1/AN1 PINS
FIGURE 5-2:
Data
Bus
Data
Bus
D
Q
CK
Q
D
P
WR
TRISA
Q
D
Q
N
CK
CK
Q
VSS
TRIS Latch
I/O pin
WR
TRISA
Q
N
CK
RD TRISA
Q
Analog
Input Mode
To A/D Module Channel Input
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISA
Q
D
EN
EN
To Comparator
VSS
TRIS Latch
D
RD PORTA
I/O pin
Q
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
P
Data Latch
Data Latch
D
Q
VDD
WR
PORTA
VDD
WR
PORTA
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
RA3/AN3/VREF+ PIN
RD PORTA
To Comparator
To A/D Module Channel Input
To A/D Module VREF+ Input
DS30498D-page 50
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-3:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF PIN
Data
Bus
Q
D
VDD
WR
PORTA
CK
Q
P
Data Latch
D
Q
RA2/AN2/VREF-/
CVREF pin
N
WR
TRISA
CK
Q
VSS
TRIS Latch
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISA
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
To Comparator
To A/D Module VREFTo A/D Module Channel Input
CVROE
CVREF
FIGURE 5-4:
Data
Bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT PIN
Comparator Mode = 011, 101, 001
D
WR
PORTA
Q
Comparator 1 Output
1
CK
Q
Data Latch
D
WR
TRISA
0
Q
N
CK
RA4/T0CKI/
C1OUT pin
Q
TRIS Latch
VSS
Analog
Input Mode
Schmitt Trigger
Input Buffer
RD TRISA
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
TMR0 Clock Input
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 51
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-5:
Data
Bus
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT PIN
Comparator Mode = 011, 101
D
Q
Comparator 2 Output
WR
PORTA
CK
Q
Data Latch
D
VDD
1
P
0
Q
N
WR
TRISA
CK
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/
SS/C2OUT pin
Q
TRIS Latch
Analog
Input Mode
VSS
TTL
Buffer
RD TRISA
Q
D
EN
RD PORTA
SS Input
LVDIN
To A/D Module Channel Input
DS30498D-page 52
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-6:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF OSC2/CLKO/RA6 PIN
(FOSC = 1x1)
From OSC1
CLKO (FOSC/4)
1
Oscillator
Circuit
0
VDD
Data
Bus
OSC2/CLKO
D
WR
PORTA
CK
Q
VDD
Q
P
Data Latch
D
WR
TRISA
Q
N
CK
Q
(FOSC = 1x1)
TRIS Latch
EMUL
VSS
EMUL + FOSC = 00x,010
(FOSC = 1x0,011)
RD TRISA
Q
EMUL
D
TTL
Buffer
1
EN
0
RD PORTA
RA6 pin
(FOSC = 1x0,011)
VDD
P
N
(FOSC = 1x1)
EMUL + FOSC = 00x, 010
VSS
Note 1: CLKO signal is 1/4 of the FOSC frequency.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 53
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-7:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF OSC1/CLKI/RA7 PIN
Oscillator
Circuit
VDD
(FOSC = 011)
Data
Bus
D
WR
PORTA
Q
CK
OSC1/CLKI
VDD
Q
P
Data Latch
Q
D
WR
TRISA
N
CK
Q
TRIS Latch
(FOSC = 10x) EMUL
VSS
(FOSC = 10x)
RD TRISA
Q
D
NEMUL
1
EN
TTL
Buffer
0
RD PORTA
RA7 pin
(FOSC = 10x)
VDD
P
N
(FOSC = 10x) EMUL
VSS
DS30498D-page 54
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 5-1:
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer
Function
RA0/AN0
bit 0
TTL
Input/output or analog input.
RA1/AN1
bit 1
TTL
Input/output or analog input.
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
bit 2
TTL
Input/output or analog input or VREF-.
RA3/AN3/VREF+
bit 3
TTL
Input/output or analog input or VREF+.
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
bit 4
ST
Input/output or external clock input for Timer0. Output is
open-drain type.
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
bit 5
TTL
Input/output or slave select input for synchronous serial port or
analog input.
OSC2/CLKO/RA6
bit 6
ST
Input/output, connects to crystal or resonator, oscillator output or
1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle in
RC mode.
OSC1/CLKI/RA7
bit 7
ST/CMOS(1) Input/output, connects to crystal or resonator or oscillator input.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC Oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
TABLE 5-2:
Address
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Name
05h
PORTA
85h
TRISA
9Fh
ADCON1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RA7
RA6
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
xx0x 0000
uu0u 0000
1111 1111
1111 1111
0000 0000
0000 0000
PORTA Data Direction Register
ADFM
ADCS2
VCFG1 VCFG0 PCFG3 PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
9Ch
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0111
0000 0111
9Dh
CVRCON
CVREN CVROE
CVRR
—
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
000- 0000
000- 0000
Legend:
Note:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
When using the SSP module in SPI Slave mode and SS enabled, the A/D converter must be set to one of
the following modes, where PCFG2:PCFG0 = 100, 101, 11x.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 55
PIC16F7X7
5.2
PORTB and the TRISB Register
PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a
TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB
pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in
a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0)
will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e.,
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is
performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION_REG<7>).
The weak pull-up is automatically turned off when the
port pin is configured as an output. The pull-ups are
disabled on a Power-on Reset.
PORTB pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. The
operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the
appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 register.
Note:
On a Power-on Reset, these pins are
configured as analog inputs and read as
‘0’.
Four of the PORTB pins (RB7:RB4) have an interrupton-change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e., any RB7:RB4 pin
configured as an output is excluded from the interrupton-change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4)
are compared with the old value latched on the last
read of PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4
are ORed together to generate the RB port change
interrupt with flag bit, RBIF (INTCON<0>).
The interrupt-on-change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt-on-change feature.
This interrupt on mismatch feature, together with software configureable pull-ups on these four pins, allow
easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for
wake-up on key depression. Refer to the Application
Note AN552 “Implementing Wake-up on Key Stroke”
(DS00552).
RB0/INT is an external interrupt input pin and is
configured using the INTEDG bit (OPTION_REG<6>).
RB0/INT is discussed in detail in Section 15.15.1 “INT
Interrupt”.
PORTB is multiplexed with several peripheral functions
(see Table 5-3). PORTB pins have Schmitt Trigger
input buffers.
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTB pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in
effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modifywrite instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISB as
destination should be avoided. The user should refer to
the corresponding peripheral section for the correct
TRIS bit settings.
This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. The
user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the
interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit RBIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
DS30498D-page 56
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-8:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB0/INT/AN12 PIN
VDD
Analog
Input Mode
RBPU (1)
Data Bus
WR PORTB
Weak
P Pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O pin
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
Analog
Input Mode
CK
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISB
D
Q
RD PORTB
EN
Analog
Input Mode
RD PORTB
To INT
To A/D Channel Input
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
FIGURE 5-9:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB1/AN10 PIN
VDD
Analog
Input Mode
RBPU (1)
Data Bus
WR PORTB
Weak
P Pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O pin
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
CK
RD TRISB
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
Q
RD PORTB
D
EN
RD PORTB
To A/D Channel Input
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 57
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-10:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB2/AN8 PIN
VDD
RBPU(1)
Data Bus
WR PORTB
Weak
P Pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
I/O pin
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
CK
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISB
Q
RD PORTB
D
EN
RD PORTB
To A/D Channel Input
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
DS30498D-page 58
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-11:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB3/CCP2(1)/AN9 PIN
Analog
Input Mode
CCP2 Output Select and CCPMX
CCP2 Output
1
0
VDD
RBPU(2)
Data Bus
WR PORTB
Weak
P Pull-up
VDD
Data Latch
D
Q
P
CK
N
I/O pin
VSS
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
CK
Q
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISB
Q
RD PORTB
D
EN
RD PORTB
To A/D Channel Input
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer(3)
Analog
Input Mode
To CCP Module Input
Note 1: Pin location of CCP2 is determined by the CCPMX bit in Configuration Word Register 1.
2: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
3: The SDA Schmitt Trigger conforms to the I2C™ specification.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 59
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-12:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB4/AN11 PIN
Analog
Input Mode
RBPU(1)
VDD
Weak
P Pull-up
VDD
P
Data Latch
Data Bus
WR PORTB
D
Q
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
I/O pin
N
CK
VSS
CK
RD TRISB
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
Latch
Q
D
RD PORTB
Set RBIF
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
EN
Q1
Analog
Input Mode
Q
D
EN
RD PORTB
Q3
To A/D channel input
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
DS30498D-page 60
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-13:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB5/AN13/CCP3 PIN
Analog
Input Mode
CCP3 Output Select
CCP3 Output
1
0
VDD
RBPU(1)
Weak
P Pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
Data Bus
I/O pin
WR PORTB
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
CK
Analog
Input Mode
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISB
Latch
Q
D
RD PORTB
Set RBIF
Q
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
To CCP Module Input
EN
Q1
Analog
Input Mode
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
Analog
Input Mode
D
EN
RD PORTB
Q3
To A/D Channel Input
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 61
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-14:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB6/PGC PIN
Program Mode/ICD
VDD
RBPU(1)
Weak
P Pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
Data Bus
I/O pin
WR PORTB
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
CK
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISB
Latch
Q
D
Set RBIF
RD PORTB
EN
Program Mode/ICD
Q
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
D
RD PORTB
EN
PGC
Q1
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
Q3
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
DS30498D-page 62
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-15:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RB7/PGD PIN
Port/Program Mode/ICD
PGD
1
0
VDD
RBPU(1)
Weak
P Pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
Data Bus
I/O pin
WR PORTB
CK
TRIS Latch
D
Q
WR TRISB
0
CK
1
TTL
Input Buffer
RD TRISB
PGD DRVEN
Latch
Q
D
RD PORTB
Set RBIF
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
EN
Program Mode/ICD
Q
D
EN
Q1
RD PORTB
Q3
PGD
Note 1: To enable weak pull-ups, set the appropriate TRIS bit(s) and clear the RBPU bit.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 63
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 5-3:
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer
Function
RB0/INT/AN12
bit 0
RB1/AN10
bit 1
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up or
analog input.
RB2/AN8
bit 2
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up or
analog input.
RB3/CCP2/AN9
bit 3
TTL
Input/output pin or Capture 2 input/Compare 2 output/PWM 2 output.
Internal software programmable weak pull-up or analog input.
RB4/AN11
bit 4
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change). Internal software
programmable weak pull-up or analog input.
RB5/AN13/CCP3
bit 5
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change). Internal software
programmable weak pull-up or analog input or Capture 2 input/
Compare 2 output/PWM 2 output.
RB6/PGC
bit 6
TTL/ST(2) Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change). Internal software
programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming clock.
RB7/PGD
bit 7
TTL/ST(2) Input/output pin (with interrupt-on-change). Internal software
programmable weak pull-up. Serial programming data.
TTL/ST(1) Input/output pin or external interrupt input. Internal software
programmable weak pull-up or analog input.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in Serial Programming mode.
TABLE 5-4:
Address
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Name
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
xx00 0000 uu00 0000
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111 1111 1111
06h, 106h
PORTB
86h, 186h
TRISB
81h, 181h
OPTION_REG RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
9Fh
ADCON1
ADCS2
VCFG1
VCFG0
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
DS30498D-page 64
Value on:
POR, BOR
Bit 7
PORTB Data Direction Register
ADFM
1111 1111 1111 1111
PCFG3 PCFG2 PCFG1 PCFG0 0000 0000 0000 0000
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
5.3
PORTC and the TRISC Register
PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a
TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC
pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in
a high-impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0)
will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e.,
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions
(Table 5-5). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input
buffers.
When enabling peripheral functions, care should be
taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some
peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an
output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to
make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in
effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modifywrite instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as
destination should be avoided. The user should refer to
the corresponding peripheral section for the correct
TRIS bit settings and to Section 16.1 “Read-ModifyWrite Operations” for additional information on
read-modify-write operations.
FIGURE 5-17:
PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE) RC<4:3> PINS
Port/Peripheral Select(2)
Peripheral Data Out
Data Bus
WR
Port
D
CK
0
VDD
Q
Q
P
1
I/O
pin(1)
Data Latch
WR
TRIS
D
CK
Q
Q
N
TRIS Latch
Vss
RD
TRIS
Peripheral
OE(3)
RD
Port
Schmitt
Trigger
Q
D
EN
0
Schmitt
Trigger
with
SMBus
Levels
SSPl Input
1
FIGURE 5-16:
PORTC BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PERIPHERAL OUTPUT
OVERRIDE) RC<2:0>,
RC<7:5> PINS
Port/Peripheral Select(2)
Peripheral Data Out
Data Bus
WR
Port
D
CK
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral Select signal selects between port data
and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (Output Enable) is only activated if
Peripheral Select is active.
VDD
0
Q
Q
CKE
SSPSTAT<6>
P
1
I/O
pin(1)
Data Latch
D
WR
TRIS
CK
Q
Q
N
TRIS Latch
VSS
RD
TRIS
Schmitt
Trigger
Peripheral
OE(3)
Q
D
EN
RD
Port
Peripheral Input
Note 1: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
2: Port/Peripheral Select signal selects between port
data and peripheral output.
3: Peripheral OE (Output Enable) is only activated if
Peripheral Select is active.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 65
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 5-5:
PORTC FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit#
Buffer Type
Function
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
bit 0
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator output/Timer1 clock input.
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
bit 1
ST
Input/output port pin or Timer1 oscillator input or Capture 2 input/
Compare 2 output/PWM 2 output.
RC2/CCP1
bit 2
ST
Input/output port pin or Capture 1 input/Compare 1 output/PWM 1
output.
RC3/SCK/SCL
bit 3
ST
RC3 can also be the synchronous serial clock for both SPI and
I2C™ modes.
RC4/SDI/SDA
bit 4
ST
RC4 can also be the SPI data in (SPI mode) or data I/O (I2C mode).
RC5/SDO
bit 5
ST
Input/output port pin or Synchronous Serial Port data output.
RC6/TX/CK
bit 6
ST
Input/output port pin or AUSART asynchronous transmit or
synchronous clock.
RC7/RX/DT
bit 7
ST
Input/output port pin or AUSART asynchronous receive or
synchronous data.
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input
TABLE 5-6:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Value on
all other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
07h
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
87h
TRISC
Address
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged
DS30498D-page 66
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
5.4
FIGURE 5-18:
PORTD and TRISD Registers
This section is not applicable to the PIC16F737 or
PIC16F767.
Data Bus
PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input
buffers. Each pin is individually configureable as an
input or output.
PORTD BLOCK DIAGRAM
(IN I/O PORT MODE)
D
Q
I/O pin(1)
WR Port
CK
Data Latch
PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control
bit, PSPMODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode, the input
buffers are TTL.
D
WR TRIS
Q
Schmitt
Trigger
Input
Buffer
CK
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Q
D
ENEN
RD Port
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
TABLE 5-7:
Name
PORTD FUNCTIONS
Bit#
Buffer Type
bit 0
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 0.
RD1/PSP1
bit 1
ST/TTL
(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 1.
RD2/PSP2
bit 2
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 2.
RD3/PSP3
bit 3
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 3.
RD4/PSP4
bit 4
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 4.
RD5/PSP5
bit 5
ST/TTL
(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 5.
RD6/PSP6
bit 6
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 6.
bit 7
(1)
Input/output port pin or Parallel Slave Port bit 7.
RD0/PSP0
RD7/PSP7
ST/TTL
Function
Legend: ST = Schmitt Trigger input, TTL = TTL input
Note 1: Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffers when in Parallel Slave Port mode.
TABLE 5-8:
Address
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
1111 1111
1111 1111
0000 1111
0000 1111
08h
PORTD
88h
TRISD
89h
TRISE
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTD.
RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
PORTD Data Direction Register
IBF
OBF
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
IBOV
PSPMODE
—(1)
PORTE Data Direction bits
DS30498D-page 67
PIC16F7X7
5.5
FIGURE 5-19:
PORTE and TRISE Register
This section is not applicable to the PIC16F737 or
PIC16F767.
PORTE has four pins, RE0/RD/AN5, RE1/WR/AN6,
RE2/CS/AN7 and MCLR/VPP/RE3, which are individually configureable as inputs or outputs. These pins have
Schmitt Trigger input buffers. RE3 is only available as an
input if MCLRE is ‘0’ in Configuration Word 1.
PORTE BLOCK DIAGRAM
(IN I/O PORT MODE)
Data Bus
D
WR Port
CK
Q
I/O pin(1)
Data Latch
D
I/O PORTE becomes control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit, PSPMODE (TRISE<4>), is
set. In this mode, the user must make sure that the
TRISE<2:0> bits are set (pins are configured as digital
inputs). Ensure ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. In
this mode, the input buffers are TTL.
WR TRIS
Q
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Register 5-1 shows the TRISE register which also
controls the Parallel Slave Port operation.
Q
PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. When
selected as an analog input, these pins will read as ‘0’s.
D
ENEN
RD Port
TRISE controls the direction of the RE pins, even when
they are being used as analog inputs. The user must
make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when
using them as analog inputs.
Note:
Schmitt
Trigger
Input
Buffer
CK
Note 1: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
On a Power-on Reset, these pins are
configured as analog inputs and read as ‘0’.
TABLE 5-9:
Name
PORTE FUNCTIONS
Bit#
Buffer Type
Function
(1)
Input/output port pin or read control input in Parallel Slave Port mode or analog input.
For RD (PSP mode):
1 = Idle
0 = Read operation. Contents of PORTD register output to PORTD I/O pins (if chip selected).
RE0/RD/AN5
bit 0
ST/TTL
RE1/WR/AN6
bit 1
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or write control input in Parallel Slave Port mode or analog input.
For WR (PSP mode):
1 = Idle
0 = Write operation. Value of PORTD I/O pins latched into PORTD register (if chip selected).
RE2/CS/AN7
bit 2
ST/TTL(1)
Input/output port pin or chip select control input in Parallel Slave Port mode or analog input.
For CS (PSP mode):
1 = Device is not selected
0 = Device is selected
MCLR/VPP/RE3
bit 3
ST
Legend:
Note 1:
TABLE 5-10:
Addr
09h
Name
PORTE
89h
TRISE
9Fh
ADCON1
Legend:
Note 1:
Input, Master Clear (Reset) or programming input voltage.
ST = Schmitt Trigger input, TTL = TTL input
Input buffers are Schmitt Triggers when in I/O mode and TTL buffers when in Parallel Slave Port mode.
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
—
—
—
—
RE3
RE2
RE1
RE0
---- x000
---- x000
PSPMODE
—(1)
PORTE Data Direction bits
0000 1111
0000 1111
0000 0000
0000 0000
IBF
ADFM
OBF
IBOV
ADCS2 VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3 PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE.
RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
DS30498D-page 68
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 5-1:
TRISE REGISTER (ADDRESS 89h)
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
IBF
OBF
IBOV
PSPMODE
—(1)
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
Parallel Slave Port Status/Control bits:
IBF: Input Buffer Full Status bit
1 = A word has been received and is waiting to be read by the CPU
0 = No word has been received
bit 6
OBF: Output Buffer Full Status bit
1 = The output buffer still holds a previously written word
0 = The output buffer has been read
bit 5
IBOV: Input Buffer Overflow Detect bit (in Microprocessor mode)
1 = A write occurred when a previously input word has not been read (must be cleared in
software)
0 = No overflow occurred
bit 4
PSPMODE: Parallel Slave Port Mode Select bit
1 = Parallel Slave Port mode
0 = General Purpose I/O mode
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’(1)
Note 1: RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
bit 2
PORTE Data Direction bits:
TRISE2: Direction Control bit for pin RE2/CS/AN7
1 = Input
0 = Output
bit 1
TRISE1: Direction Control bit for pin RE1/WR/AN6
1 = Input
0 = Output
bit 0
TRISE0: Direction Control bit for pin RE0/RD/AN5
1 = Input
0 = Output
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 69
PIC16F7X7
5.6
Parallel Slave Port
The Parallel Slave Port (PSP) is not implemented on
the PIC16F737 or PIC16F767.
PORTD operates as an 8-bit wide Parallel Slave Port or
microprocessor port when control bit, PSPMODE
(TRISE<4>), is set. In Slave mode, it is asynchronously
readable and writable by an external system using the
read control input pin RE0/RD/AN5, the write control
input pin RE1/WR/AN6 and the chip select control input
pin RE2/CS/AN7.
The PSP can directly interface to an 8-bit microprocessor data bus. The external microprocessor can
read or write the PORTD latch as an 8-bit latch. Setting
bit PSPMODE enables port pin RE0/RD/AN5 to be the
RD input, RE1/WR/AN6 to be the WR input and
RE2/CS/AN7 to be the CS (Chip Select) input. For this
functionality, the corresponding data direction bits of
the TRISE register (TRISE<2:0>) must be configured
as inputs (i.e., set). The A/D port configuration bits,
PCFG3:PCFG0 (ADCON1<3:0>), must be set to
configure pins RE2:RE0 as digital I/O.
There are actually two 8-bit latches, one for data output
(external reads) and one for data input (external
writes). The firmware writes 8-bit data to the PORTD
output data latch and reads data from the PORTD input
data latch (note that they have the same address). In
this mode, the TRISD register is ignored since the
external device is controlling the direction of data flow.
An external write to the PSP occurs when the CS and
WR lines are both detected low. Firmware can read the
actual data on the PORTD pins during this time. When
either the CS or WR lines become high (level triggered), the data on the PORTD pins is latched and the
Input Buffer Full (IBF) status flag bit (TRISE<7>) and
interrupt flag bit, PSPIF (PIR1<7>), are set on the Q4
clock cycle following the next Q2 cycle to signal the
write is complete (Figure 5-21). Firmware clears the
IBF flag by reading the latched PORTD data and clears
the PSPIF bit.
When either the CS or RD pins are detected high, the
PORTD outputs are disabled and the interrupt flag bit
PSPIF is set on the Q4 clock cycle following the next
Q2 cycle, indicating that the read is complete. OBF
remains low until firmware writes new data to PORTD.
When not in PSP mode, the IBF and OBF bits are held
clear. Flag bit IBOV remains unchanged. The PSPIF bit
must be cleared by the user in firmware; the interrupt
can be disabled by clearing the interrupt enable bit,
PSPIE (PIE1<7>).
FIGURE 5-20:
PORTD AND PORTE
BLOCK DIAGRAM
(PARALLEL SLAVE PORT)
Data Bus
D
WR
Port
Q
RDx pin
CK
TTL
Q
RD
Port
D
ENEN
One bit of PORTD
Set Interrupt Flag
PSPIF (PIR1<7>)
Read
TTL
RD
Chip Select
TTL
CS
Write
TTL
WR
Note: I/O pin has protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
The Input Buffer Overflow (IBOV) status flag bit
(TRISE<5>) is set if an external write to the PSP occurs
while the IBF flag is set from a previous external write.
The previous PORTD data is overwritten with the new
data. IBOV is cleared by reading PORTD and clearing
IBOV.
A read from the PSP occurs when both the CS and RD
lines are detected low. The data in the PORTD output
latch is output to the PORTD pins. The Output Buffer
Full (OBF) status flag bit (TRISE<6>) is cleared immediately (Figure 5-22), indicating that the PORTD latch is
being read or has been read by the external bus. If
firmware writes new data to the output latch during this
time, it is immediately output to the PORTD pins but
OBF will remain cleared.
DS30498D-page 70
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 5-21:
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT WRITE WAVEFORMS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
CS
WR
RD
PORTD<7:0>
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
FIGURE 5-22:
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT READ WAVEFORMS
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
CS
WR
RD
PORTD<7:0>
IBF
OBF
PSPIF
TABLE 5-11:
Address
08h
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL SLAVE PORT
Name
PORTD
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 1
Bit 0
Port Data Latch when written: Port pins when read
09h
PORTE
—
—
—
—
RE3
89h
TRISE
IBF
OBF
IBOV
PSPMODE
—(2)
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
9Fh
ADCON1
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
Bit 2
ADFM
ADCS2 VCFG1
VCFG0
RE2
Value on
all other
Resets
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---- x000
RE0
---- x000
PORTE Data Direction bits
0000 1111
0000 1111
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
SSPIE
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
PCFG3 PCFG2
RE1
Value on:
POR, BOR
PCFG1
PCFG0
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Parallel Slave Port.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F737/767; always maintain these bits clear.
RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 71
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 72
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
6.0
TIMER0 MODULE
Counter mode is selected by setting bit, T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In Counter mode, Timer0 will
increment, either on every rising or falling edge of pin
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT. The incrementing edge is
determined by the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit, T0SE
(OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the rising
edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are
discussed in detail in Section 6.3 “Using Timer0 With
an External Clock”.
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following
features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
8-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Internal or external clock select
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
Edge select for external clock
The prescaler is mutually, exclusively shared between
the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. The
prescaler is not readable or writable. Section 6.4
“Prescaler” details the operation of the prescaler.
Additional information on the Timer0 module is
available in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023).
6.2
Figure 6-1 is a block diagram of the Timer0 module and
the prescaler shared with the WDT.
6.1
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit
TMR0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked
by clearing bit TMR0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit TMR0IF
must be cleared in software by the Timer0 module
Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling this
interrupt. The TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the
processor from Sleep since the timer is shut-off during
Sleep.
Timer0 Operation
Timer0 operation is controlled through the
OPTION_REG register (see Register 2-2). Timer mode
is selected by clearing bit T0CS (OPTION_REG<5>).
In Timer mode, the Timer0 module will increment every
instruction cycle (without prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written, the increment is inhibited for the following
two instruction cycles. The user can work around this
by writing an adjusted value to the TMR0 register.
FIGURE 6-1:
Timer0 Interrupt
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
CLKO (= FOSC/4)
Data Bus
0
1
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
pin
8
M
U
X
1
M
U
X
0
Sync
2
Cycles
TMR0 Reg
T0SE
T0CS
Set Flag bit TMR0IF
on Overflow
PSA
Prescaler
0
WDT Timer
31.25 kHz
16-bit
Prescaler
1
M
U
X
8-bit Prescaler
8
8-to-1 MUX
WDT Enable bit
PS2:PS0
PSA
1
0
MUX
PSA
WDT Time-out
Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA and PS2:PS0 are (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 73
PIC16F7X7
6.3
Using Timer0 With an
External Clock
When no prescaler is used, the external clock input is
the same as the prescaler output. The synchronization
of T0CKI with the internal phase clocks is accomplished by sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and
Q4 cycles of the internal phase clocks. Therefore, it is
necessary for T0CKI to be high for at least 2 TOSC (and
a small RC delay of 20 ns) and low for at least 2 TOSC
(and a small RC delay of 20 ns). Refer to the electrical
specification of the desired device.
6.4
Prescaler
There is only one prescaler available, which is mutually
exclusively shared between the Timer0 module and the
Watchdog Timer. A prescaler assignment for the
Timer0 module means that the prescaler cannot be
used by the Watchdog Timer and vice versa. This
prescaler is not readable or writable (see Figure 6-1).
DS30498D-page 74
Note:
Although the prescaler can be assigned to
either the WDT or Timer0, but not both, a
new divide counter is implemented in the
WDT circuit to give multiple WDT time-out
selections. This allows TMR0 and WDT to
each have their own scaler. Refer to
Section 15.17 “Watchdog Timer (WDT)”
for further details.
The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>)
determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g., CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF 1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When assigned
to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the prescaler
along with the Watchdog Timer. The prescaler is not
readable or writable.
Note:
Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count but will not change the prescaler
assignment.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 6-1:
OPTION_REG: OPTION CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 181h)
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA(1)
PS2
PS1
PS0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled
bit 6
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKO)
bit 4
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit(1)
1 = Prescaler is assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
Note 1: To avoid an unintended device Reset, the instruction sequence shown in the ”PIC®
Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023) must be executed when
changing the prescaler assignment from Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must
be followed even if the WDT is disabled.
bit 2-0
PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value TMR0 Rate WDT Rate
1:2
000
1:1
1:4
001
1:2
1:8
010
1:4
1 : 16
011
1:8
1 : 32
100
1 : 16
1 : 64
101
1 : 32
1 : 128
110
1 : 64
1 : 256
111
1 : 128
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 75
PIC16F7X7
EXAMPLE 6-1:
CLRWDT
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
CHANGING THE PRESCALER ASSIGNMENT FROM WDT TO TIMER0
TABLE 6-1:
Name
01h,101h
TMR0
0Bh,8Bh,
10Bh,18Bh
INTCON
Legend:
Clear WDT and prescaler
Select Bank of OPTION_REG
Select TMR0, new prescale
value and clock source
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Address
81h,181h
;
;
;
;
OPTION_REG
b'xxxx0xxx'
OPTION_REG
OPTION_REG
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Timer0 Module Register
GIE
PEIE
RBPU
INTEDG
Value on
all other
Resets
Value on
POR, BOR
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
TMR0IE INT0IE RBIE TMR0IF INT0IF RBIF 0000 000x
0000 000u
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
DS30498D-page 76
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
7.0
TIMER1 MODULE
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting
of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) which are
readable and writable. The TMR1 register pair
(TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh
and rolls over to 0000h. The TMR1 interrupt, if enabled,
is generated on overflow which is latched in interrupt
flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing TMR1 interrupt
enable bit, TMR1IE (PIE1<0>).
The Timer1 oscillator can be used as a secondary clock
source in low-power modes. When the T1RUN bit is set
along with SCS<1:0> = 01, the Timer1 oscillator is providing the system clock. If the Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
is enabled and the Timer1 oscillator fails while
providing the system clock, polling the T1RUN bit will
indicate whether the clock is being provided by the
Timer1 oscillator or another source.
Timer1 can also be used to provide Real-Time Clock
(RTC) functionality to applications with only a minimal
addition of external components and code overhead.
7.1
Timer1 Operation
Timer1 can operate in one of three modes:
• as a Timer
• as a Synchronous Counter
• as an Asynchronous Counter
The operating mode is determined by the clock select
bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>).
In Timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction
cycle. In Counter mode, it increments on every rising
edge of the external clock input.
Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
control bit, TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).
Timer1 also has an internal “Reset input”. This Reset
can be generated by the CCP1 module as the special
event trigger (see Section 9.4 “Capture Mode”).
Register 7-1 shows the Timer1 Control register.
When the Timer1 oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is
set), the RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI and RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
pins become inputs. That is, the TRISB<7:6> value is
ignored and these pins read as ‘0’.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual”
(DS33023).
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 77
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 7-1:
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 10h)
U-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
T1RUN
T1CKPS1
T1CKPS0
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
TMR1CS
TMR1ON
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
T1RUN: Timer1 System Clock Status bit
1 = System clock is derived from Timer1 oscillator
0 = System clock is derived from another source
bit 5-4
T1CKPS<1:0>: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3
T1OSCEN: Timer1 Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Oscillator is enabled
0 = Oscillator is shut-off (the oscillator inverter is turned off to eliminate power drain)
bit 2
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS = 1:
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input
TMR1CS = 0:
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS = 0.
bit 1
TMR1CS: Timer1 Clock Source Select bit
1 = External clock from pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI (on the rising edge)
0 = Internal clock (FOSC/4)
bit 0
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
Legend:
DS30498D-page 78
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
7.2
Timer1 Operation in Timer Mode
7.4
Timer mode is selected by clearing the TMR1CS
(T1CON<1>) bit. In this mode, the input clock to the
timer is FOSC/4. The synchronize control bit, T1SYNC
(T1CON<2>), has no effect since the internal clock is
always in sync.
7.3
Counter mode is selected by setting bit TMR1CS. In
this mode, the timer increments on every rising edge of
clock input on pin RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 when bit
T1OSCEN is set, or on pin RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI when
bit T1OSCEN is cleared.
Timer1 Counter Operation
If T1SYNC is cleared, then the external clock input is
synchronized with internal phase clocks. The synchronization is done after the prescaler stage. The
prescaler stage is an asynchronous ripple counter.
Timer1 may operate in Asynchronous or Synchronous
mode depending on the setting of the TMR1CS bit.
When Timer1 is being incremented via an external
source, increments occur on a rising edge. After Timer1
is enabled in Counter mode, the module must first have
a falling edge before the counter begins to increment.
FIGURE 7-1:
Timer1 Operation in Synchronized
Counter Mode
In this configuration during Sleep mode, Timer1 will not
increment even if the external clock is present, since
the synchronization circuit is shut-off. The prescaler,
however, will continue to increment.
TIMER1 INCREMENTING EDGE
T1CKI
(Default High)
T1CKI
(Default Low)
Note: Arrows indicate counter increments.
FIGURE 7-2:
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Set Flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
0
TMR1
TMR1H
Synchronized
Clock Input
TMR1L
1
TMR1ON
On/Off
T1SYNC
T1OSC
1
T1OSO/T1CKI
T1OSI
Note 1:
T1OSCEN FOSC/4
Enable
Internal
Oscillator(1) Clock
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
Synchronize
det
0
2
T1CKPS1:T1CKPS0
TMR1CS
Q Clock
When the T1OSCEN bit is cleared, the inverter is turned off. This eliminates power drain.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 79
PIC16F7X7
7.5
Timer1 Operation in
Asynchronous Counter Mode
If control bit, T1SYNC (T1CON<2>), is set, the external
clock input is not synchronized. The timer continues to
increment asynchronous to the internal phase clocks.
The timer will continue to run during Sleep and can
generate an interrupt on overflow that will wake-up the
processor. However, special precautions in software
are needed to read/write the timer (Section 7.5.1
“Reading and Writing Timer1 in Asynchronous
Counter Mode”).
In Asynchronous Counter mode, Timer1 cannot be
used as a time base for capture or compare operations.
7.5.1
READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN
ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER MODE
Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running
from an external asynchronous clock will ensure a valid
read (taken care of in hardware). However, the user
should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer in two
8-bit values itself, poses certain problems, since the
timer may overflow between the reads.
For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop
the timer and write the desired values. A write contention may occur by writing to the Timer registers while
the register is incrementing. This may produce an
unpredictable value in the Timer register.
Reading the 16-bit value requires some care. The
example codes provided in Example 7-1 and
Example 7-2 demonstrate how to write to and read
Timer1 while it is running in Asynchronous mode.
EXAMPLE 7-1:
WRITING A 16-BIT FREE RUNNING TIMER
; All interrupts are disabled
CLRF
TMR1L
; Clear Low byte, Ensures no rollover into TMR1H
MOVLW
HI_BYTE
; Value to load into TMR1H
MOVWF
TMR1H, F
; Write High byte
MOVLW
LO_BYTE
; Value to load into TMR1L
MOVWF
TMR1H, F
; Write Low byte
; Re-enable the Interrupt (if required)
CONTINUE
; Continue with your code
EXAMPLE 7-2:
READING A 16-BIT FREE RUNNING TIMER
; All interrupts are disabled
MOVF
TMR1H, W
; Read high byte
MOVWF
TMPH
MOVF
TMR1L, W
; Read low byte
MOVWF
TMPL
MOVF
TMR1H, W
; Read high byte
SUBWF
TMPH, W
; Sub 1st read with 2nd read
BTFSC
STATUS, Z
; Is result = 0
GOTO
CONTINUE
; Good 16-bit read
; TMR1L may have rolled over between the read of the high and low bytes.
; Reading the high and low bytes now will read a good value.
MOVF
TMR1H, W
; Read high byte
MOVWF
TMPH
MOVF
TMR1L, W
; Read low byte
MOVWF
TMPL
; Re-enable the Interrupt (if required)
CONTINUE
; Continue with your code
DS30498D-page 80
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
7.6
Timer1 Oscillator
7.7
A crystal oscillator circuit is built between pins T1OSI
(input) and T1OSO (amplifier output). It is enabled by
setting control bit, T1OSCEN (T1CON<3>). The oscillator is a low-power oscillator, rated up to 32.768 kHz.
It will continue to run during all power-managed modes.
It is primarily intended for a 32 kHz crystal. The circuit
for a typical LP oscillator is shown in Figure 7-3.
Table 7-1 shows the capacitor selection for the Timer1
oscillator.
The user must provide a software time delay to ensure
proper oscillator start-up.
FIGURE 7-3:
EXTERNAL
COMPONENTS FOR THE
TIMER1 LP OSCILLATOR
C1
33 pF
Timer1 Oscillator Layout
Considerations
The Timer1 oscillator circuit draws very little power
during operation. Due to the low-power nature of the
oscillator, it may also be sensitive to rapidly changing
signals in close proximity.
The oscillator circuit, shown in Figure 7-3, should be
located as close as possible to the microcontroller.
There should be no circuits passing within the oscillator
circuit boundaries other than VSS or VDD.
If a high-speed circuit must be located near the oscillator, a grounded guard ring around the oscillator circuit,
as shown in Figure 7-4, may be helpful when used on
a single sided PCB or in addition to a ground plane.
FIGURE 7-4:
PIC16F7X7
OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
WITH GROUNDED
GUARD RING
T1OSI
VSS
XTAL
32.768 kHz
OSC1
OSC2
T1OSO
C2
33 pF
Note:
See the Notes with Table 7-1 for additional
information about capacitor selection.
RC0
RC1
TABLE 7-1:
CAPACITOR SELECTION FOR
THE TIMER1 OSCILLATOR
Osc Type
Freq
C1
C2
LP
32 kHz
33 pF
33 pF
Note 1: Microchip suggests this value as a starting
point in validating the oscillator circuit.
2: Higher capacitance increases the stability
of the oscillator but also increases the
start-up time.
3: Since each resonator/crystal has its own
characteristics, the user should consult
the resonator/crystal manufacturer for
appropriate
values
of
external
components.
4: Capacitor values are for design guidance
only.
RC2
7.8
Resetting Timer1 Using a CCP
Trigger Output
If the CCP1 module is configured in Compare mode to
generate
a
“special
event
trigger”
signal
(CCP1M3:CCP1M0 = 1011), the signal will reset
Timer1 and start an A/D conversion (if the A/D module
is enabled).
Note:
The special event triggers from the CCP1
module will not set interrupt flag bit,
TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
Timer1 must be configured for either Timer or Synchronized Counter mode to take advantage of this feature.
If Timer1 is running in Asynchronous Counter mode,
this Reset operation may not work.
In the event that a write to Timer1 coincides with a
special event trigger from CCP1, the write will take
precedence.
In this mode of operation, the CCPR1H:CCPR1L
register pair effectively becomes the period register for
Timer1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 81
PIC16F7X7
7.9
Resetting Timer1 Register Pair
(TMR1H, TMR1L)
battery or supercapacitor as a power source, it can
completely eliminate the need for a separate RTC
device and battery backup.
TMR1H and TMR1L registers are not reset to 00h on a
POR, or any other Reset, except by the CCP1 special
event triggers.
T1CON register is reset to 00h on a Power-on Reset or
a Brown-out Reset, which shuts off the timer and
leaves a 1:1 prescale. In all other Resets, the register
is unaffected.
7.10
Timer1 Prescaler
The prescaler counter is cleared on writes to the
TMR1H or TMR1L registers.
7.11
Using Timer1 as a Real-Time Clock
Adding an external LP oscillator to Timer1 (such as the
one described in Section 7.6 “Timer1 Oscillator”)
gives users the option to include RTC functionality in
their applications. This is accomplished with an inexpensive watch crystal to provide an accurate time base
and several lines of application code to calculate the
time. When operating in Sleep mode and using a
EXAMPLE 7-3:
RTCinit
RTCisr
Since the register pair is 16 bits wide, counting up to
overflow the register directly from a 32.768 kHz clock
would take 2 seconds. To force the overflow at the
required one-second intervals, it is necessary to
preload it. The simplest method is to set the MSb of
TMR1H with a BSF instruction. Note that the TMR1L
register is never preloaded or altered; doing so may
introduce cumulative error over many cycles.
For this method to be accurate, Timer1 must operate in
Asynchronous mode and the Timer1 overflow interrupt
must be enabled (PIE1<0> = 1) as shown in the
routine, RTCinit. The Timer1 oscillator must also be
enabled and running at all times.
IMPLEMENTING A REAL-TIME CLOCK USING A TIMER1 INTERRUPT SERVICE
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
CLRF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BANKSEL
BSF
RETURN
BANKSEL
BSF
BCF
INCF
MOVF
SUBLW
BTFSS
RETURN
CLRF
INCF
MOVF
SUBLW
BTFSS
RETURN
CLRF
INCF
MOVF
SUBLW
BTFSS
RETURN
CLRF
RETURN
DS30498D-page 82
The application code routine, RTCisr, shown in
Example 7-3, demonstrates a simple method to
increment a counter at one-second intervals using an
Interrupt Service Routine. Incrementing the TMR1 register pair to overflow, triggers the interrupt and calls the
routine which increments the seconds counter by one;
additional counters for minutes and hours are
incremented as the previous counter overflows.
TMR1H
0x80
TMR1H
TMR1L
b’00001111’
T1CON
secs
mins
.12
hours
PIE1
PIE1, TMR1IE
TMR1H
TMR1H, 7
PIR1, TMR1IF
secs, F
secs, w
.60
STATUS, Z
seconds
mins, f
mins, w
.60
STATUS, Z
mins
hours, f
hours, w
.24
STATUS, Z
hours
; Preload TMR1 register pair
; for 1 second overflow
; Configure for external clock,
; Asynchronous operation, external oscillator
; Initialize timekeeping registers
; Enable Timer1 interrupt
; Preload for 1 sec overflow
; Clear interrupt flag
; Increment seconds
;
;
;
;
60 seconds elapsed?
No, done
Clear seconds
Increment minutes
;
;
;
;
60 seconds elapsed?
No, done
Clear minutes
Increment hours
;
;
;
;
24 hours elapsed?
No, done
Clear hours
Done
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 7-2:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
0Ch
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
Legend:
Note 1:
—
T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON -000 0000 -uuu uuuu
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F737/767 devices; always maintain these bits clear.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 83
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 84
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
8.0
TIMER2 MODULE
Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a prescaler and a
postscaler. It can be used as the PWM time base for the
PWM mode of the CCP module(s). The TMR2 register
is readable and writable and is cleared on any device
Reset.
The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1,
1:4
or
1:16,
selected
by
control
bits,
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>).
The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register, PR2.
Timer2 increments from 00h until it matches PR2 and
then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is
a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is
initialized to FFh upon Reset.
The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit
postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive)
to generate a TMR2 interrupt, latched in flag bit,
TMR2IF (PIR1<1>).
8.1
Timer2 Prescaler and Postscaler
The prescaler and postscaler counters are cleared
when any of the following occurs:
• a write to the TMR2 register
• a write to the T2CON register
• any device Reset (POR, MCLR Reset, WDT
Reset or BOR)
TMR2 is not cleared when T2CON is written.
8.2
Output of TMR2
The output of TMR2 (before the postscaler) is fed to the
SSP module which optionally uses it to generate the
shift clock.
FIGURE 8-1:
Sets Flag
bit TMR2IF
TIMER2 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMR2
Output(1)
Timer2 can be shut-off by clearing control bit, TMR2ON
(T2CON<2>), to minimize power consumption.
Reset
Register 8-1 shows the Timer2 Control register.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual”
(DS33023).
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
4
EQ
TMR2 Reg
Comparator
PR2 Reg
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16
FOSC/4
2
T2CKPS1:
T2CKPS0
TOUTPS3:
TOUTPS0
Note 1: TMR2 register output can be software selected by the
SSP module as a baud clock.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 85
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 8-1:
T2CON: TIMER2 CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 12h)
U-0
R/W-0
—
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-3
TOUTPS3:TOUTPS0: Timer2 Output Postscale Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscale
0001 = 1:2 Postscale
0010 = 1:3 Postscale
•
•
•
1111 = 1:16 Postscale
bit 2
TMR2ON: Timer2 On bit
1 = Timer2 is on
0 = Timer2 is off
bit 1-0
T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0: Timer2 Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
1x = Prescaler is 16
Legend:
TABLE 8-1:
Address
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2 AS A TIMER/COUNTER
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
Name
0Bh,8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
0Ch
R = Readable bit
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
11h
TMR2
Timer2 Module Register
12h
T2CON
92h
PR2
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer2 module.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F737/767 devices; always maintain these bits clear.
DS30498D-page 86
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
Timer2 Period Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
9.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
MODULES
Each Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) module contains
a 16-bit register which can operate as a:
• 16-bit Capture register
• 16-bit Compare register
• PWM Master/Slave Duty Cycle register
The CCP1, CCP2 and CCP3 modules are identical in
operation, with the exception being the operation of the
special event trigger. Table 9-1 and Table 9-2 show the
resources and interactions of the CCP module(s). In
the following sections, the operation of a CCP module
is described with respect to CCP1. CCP2 and CCP3
operate the same as CCP1, except where noted.
9.1
CCP1 Module
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (CCPR1) is
comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR1L (low byte)
and CCPR1H (high byte). The CCP1CON register controls the operation of CCP1. The special event trigger
is generated by a compare match and will clear both
TMR1H and TMR1L registers.
TABLE 9-2:
CCP2 Module
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (CCPR2) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR2L (low byte) and
CCPR2H (high byte). The CCP2CON register controls
the operation of CCP2. The special event trigger is generated by a compare match; it will clear both TMR1H and
TMR1L registers and start an A/D conversion (if the A/D
module is enabled).
Additional information on CCP modules is available in
the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual”
(DS33023) and in Application Note AN594 “Using the
CCP Module(s)” (DS00594).
9.3
CCP3 Module
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (CCPR3) is comprised of two 8-bit registers: CCPR3L (low byte) and
CCPR3H (high byte). The CCP3CON register controls
the operation of CCP3.
TABLE 9-1:
CCP MODE – TIMER
RESOURCES REQUIRED
CCP Mode
Timer Resource
Capture
Compare
PWM
Timer1
Timer1
Timer2
INTERACTION OF TWO CCP MODULES
CCPx Mode CCPy Mode
Capture
9.2
Interaction
Capture
Same TMR1 time base.
Capture
Compare
Same TMR1 time base.
Compare
Compare
Same TMR1 time base.
PWM
PWM
The PWMs will have the same frequency and update rate (TMR2 interrupt).
The rising edges are aligned.
PWM
Capture
None.
PWM
Compare
None.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 87
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 9-1:
CCPxCON: CCPx CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 17h, 1Dh, 97h)
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
—
—
CCPxX
CCPxY
CCPxM3
CCPxM2
CCPxM1
CCPxM0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-4
CCPxX:CCPxY: PWM Least Significant bits
Capture mode:
Unused.
Compare mode:
Unused.
PWM mode:
These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0
CCPxM3:CCPxM0: CCPx Mode Select bits
0000 = Capture/Compare/PWM disabled (resets CCPx module)
0100 = Capture mode, every falling edge
0101 = Capture mode, every rising edge
0110 = Capture mode, every 4th rising edge
0111 = Capture mode, every 16th rising edge
1000 = Compare mode, set output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
1001 = Compare mode, clear output on match (CCPxIF bit is set)
1010 = Compare mode, generate software interrupt on match (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is
unaffected)
1011 = Compare mode, trigger special event (CCPxIF bit is set, CCPx pin is unaffected);
CCP1 clears Timer1; CCP2 clears Timer1 and starts an A/D conversion (if A/D module
is enabled)
11xx = PWM mode
Legend:
DS30498D-page 88
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
9.4
Capture Mode
9.4.4
In Capture mode, CCPR1H:CCPR1L captures the
16-bit value of the TMR1 register when an event occurs
on pin RC2/CCP1. An event is defined as one of the
following and is configured by CCPxCON<3:0>:
•
•
•
•
Every falling edge
Every rising edge
Every 4th rising edge
Every 16th rising edge
An event is selected by control bits, CCP1M3:CCP1M0
(CCP1CON<3:0>). When a capture is made, the interrupt request flag bit, CCP1IF (PIR1<2>), is set. The
interrupt flag must be cleared in software. If another
capture occurs before the value in register CCPR1 is
read, the old captured value is overwritten by the new
captured value.
9.4.1
There are four prescaler settings specified by bits,
CCP1M3:CCP1M0. Whenever the CCP module is
turned off, or the CCP module is not in Capture mode,
the prescaler counter is cleared. Any Reset will clear
the prescaler counter.
Switching from one capture prescaler to another may
generate an interrupt. Also, the prescaler counter will
not be cleared, therefore, the first capture may be from
a non-zero prescaler. Example 9-1 shows the
recommended method for switching between capture
prescalers. This example also clears the prescaler
counter and will not generate the “false” interrupt.
EXAMPLE 9-1:
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
CLRF
MOVLW
CCP1CON
NEW_CAPT_PS
MOVWF
CCP1CON
If the RC2/CCP1 pin is configured as an
output, a write to the port can cause a
capture condition.
FIGURE 9-1:
CAPTURE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Prescaler
 1, 4, 16
Set Flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
RC2/CCP1
pin
CCPR1H
and
Edge Detect
CCPR1L
Capture
Enable
TMR1H
TMR1L
9.5
Compare Mode
In Compare mode, the 16-bit CCPR1 register value is
constantly compared against the TMR1 register pair
value. When a match occurs, the RC2/CCP1 pin is:
• Driven high
• Driven low
• Remains unchanged
The action on the pin is based on the value of control
bits, CCP1M3:CCP1M0 (CCP1CON<3:0>). At the
same time, interrupt flag bit CCP1IF is set.
FIGURE 9-2:
COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCP1CON<3:0>
Q’s
9.4.2
CCP1CON<3:0>
Mode Select
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode for the CCP module to use the
capture feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
capture operation may not work.
9.4.3
;Turn CCP module off
;Load the W reg with
;the new prescaler
;move value and CCP ON
;Load CCP1CON with this
;value
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the RC2/CCP1 pin should be
configured as an input by setting the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
CCP PRESCALER
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep bit,
CCP1IE (PIE1<2>), clear to avoid false interrupts and
should clear the flag bit, CCP1IF, following any such
change in operating mode.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Set Flag bit CCP1IF
(PIR1<2>)
CCPR1H CCPR1L
Q
S
RC2/CCP1
pin
R
Output
Logic
Match
TRISC<2>
Output Enable
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
Special Event Trigger
Special Event Trigger will:
• clear TMR1H and TMR1L registers
• NOT set interrupt flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>)
• (for CCP2 only) set the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0<2>)
DS30498D-page 89
PIC16F7X7
9.5.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
9.5.4
The user must configure the RC2/CCP1 pin as an
output by clearing the TRISC<2> bit.
Note:
9.5.2
In this mode, an internal hardware trigger is generated
which may be used to initiate an action.
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the RC2/CCP1 compare output latch to
the default low level. This is not the
PORTC I/O data latch.
The special event trigger output of CCP1 resets the
TMR1 register pair. This allows the CCPR1 register to
effectively be a 16-bit programmable period register for
Timer1.
TIMER1 MODE SELECTION
The special event trigger output of CCP2 resets the
TMR1 register pair and starts an A/D conversion (if the
A/D module is enabled).
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode if the CCP module is using the
compare feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the
compare operation may not work.
9.5.3
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
Note:
The special event trigger from the CCP1
and CCP2 modules will not set interrupt
flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>).
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
When Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen, the
CCP1 pin is not affected. The CCP1IF or CCP2IF bit is
set, causing a CCP interrupt (if enabled).
TABLE 9-3:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE, COMPARE AND TIMER1
Value on
all other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
0Bh,8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
—
CCP3IF
CCP2IF 000- 0-00 000- 0-00
CCP1IE TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
Address
0Ch
PIR1
0Dh
PIR2
OSFIF
CMIF
LVDIF
—
BCLIF
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
OSFIE
CMIE
LVDIE
—
BCLIE
8Dh
PIE2
87h
TRISC
—
CCP3IE
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
CCP2IE 000- 0-00 000- 0-00
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
0Eh
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
0Fh
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10h
T1CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (LSB)
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (MSB)
17h
CCP1CON
1Bh
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (LSB)
1Ch
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (MSB)
1Dh
CCP2CON
95h
CCPR3L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (LSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
96h
CCPR3H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (MSB)
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
97h
CCP3CON
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Capture and Timer1.
The PSP is not implemented on the PIC16F737/767 devices; always maintain these bits clear.
DS30498D-page 90
—
—
—
—
T1RUN T1CKPS1 T1CKPS0 T1OSCEN T1SYNC TMR1CS TMR1ON -000 0000 -uuu uuuu
—
—
—
CCP1X
CCP2X
CCP3X
CCP1Y
CCP2Y
CCP3Y
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP1M3 CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
CCP3M3 CCP3M2 CCP3M1 CCP3M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
9.6
9.6.1
PWM Mode (PWM)
In Pulse-Width Modulation mode, the CCPx pin
produces up to a 10-bit resolution PWM output. Since
the CCP1 pin is multiplexed with the PORTC data latch,
the TRISC<2> bit must be cleared to make the CCP1
pin an output.
Note:
Clearing the CCP1CON register will force
the CCP1 PWM output latch to the default
low level. This is not the PORTC I/O data
latch.
PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by writing to the PR2
register. The PWM period can be calculated using the
following formula:
EQUATION 9-1:
PWM Period = [(PR2) + 1] • 4 • TOSC •
(TMR2 Prescale Value)
PWM frequency is defined as 1/[PWM period].
Figure 9-3 shows a simplified block diagram of the
CCP module in PWM mode.
When TMR2 is equal to PR2, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
For a step-by-step procedure on how to set up the CCP
module for PWM operation, see Section 9.6.3 “Setup
for PWM Operation”.
• TMR2 is cleared
• The CCP1 pin is set (exception: if PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the CCP1 pin will not be set)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPR1L into
CCPR1H
FIGURE 9-3:
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Duty Cycle Registers
CCP1CON<5:4>
Note:
CCPR1L
CCPR1H (Slave)
R
Comparator
9.6.2
Q
RC2/CCP1
(1)
TMR2
S
(Note 1)
TRISC<2>
Comparator
Clear Timer,
CCP1 pin and
latch D.C.
PR2
Note 1: The 8-bit timer is concatenated with the 2-bit
internal Q clock or 2 bits of the prescaler to create
the 10-bit time base.
A PWM output (Figure 9-4) has a time base (period)
and a time that the output stays high (duty cycle). The
frequency of the PWM is the inverse of the period
(1/period).
FIGURE 9-4:
PWM OUTPUT
TMR2
Reset
The Timer2 postscaler (see Section 9.4
“Capture Mode”) is not used in the determination of the PWM frequency. The postscaler could be used to have a servo
update rate at a different frequency than
the PWM output.
PWM DUTY CYCLE
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing to the
CCPR1L register and to the CCP1CON<5:4> bits. Up
to 10-bit resolution is available. The CCPR1L contains
the eight MSbs and the CCP1CON<5:4> contains the
two LSbs. This 10-bit value is represented by
CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>. The following equation is
used to calculate the PWM duty cycle in time:
EQUATION 9-2:
PWM Duty Cycle = (CCPR1L:CCP1CON<5:4>) •
TOSC • (TMR2 Prescale Value)
CCPR1L and CCP1CON<5:4> can be written to at any
time, but the duty cycle value is not latched into
CCPR1H until after a match between PR2 and TMR2
occurs (i.e., the period is complete). In PWM mode,
CCPR1H is a read-only register.
TMR2
Reset
Period
Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
TMR2 = Duty Cycle
TMR2 = PR2
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 91
PIC16F7X7
The CCPR1H register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double-buffer the PWM duty cycle. This
double-buffering is essential for glitchless PWM
operation.
When the CCPR1H and 2-bit latch match TMR2,
concatenated with an internal 2-bit Q clock or 2 bits of
the TMR2 prescaler, the CCP1 pin is cleared.
The maximum PWM resolution (bits) for a given PWM
frequency is given by the formula:
9.6.3
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for PWM operation:
1.
2.
Set the PWM period by writing to the PR2 register.
Set the PWM duty cycle by writing to the
CCPR1L register and CCP1CON<5:4> bits.
Make the CCP1 pin an output by clearing the
TRISC<2> bit.
Set the TMR2 prescale value and enable Timer2
by writing to T2CON.
Configure the CCP1 module for PWM operation.
3.
4.
EQUATION 9-3:
(
FOSC
log FPWM
Resolution =
Note:
5.
)
SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION
bits
log(2)
If the PWM duty cycle value is longer than
the PWM period, the CCP1 pin will not be
cleared.
TABLE 9-4:
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 20 MHz)
PWM Frequency
1.22 kHz
4.88 kHz
19.53 kHz
78.12 kHz
156.3 kHz
208.3 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0x3F
0x1F
0x17
10
10
10
8
7
6.6
Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16)
PR2 Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 9-5:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PWM AND TIMER2
Value on
all other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
0Bh,8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
Address
0Ch
PIR1
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
0Dh
PIR2
OSFIF
CMIF
LVDIF
—
BCLIF
—
CCP3IF
CCP2IF 000- 0-00 000- 0-00
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
8Dh
PIE2
OSFIE
CMIE
LVDIE
—
BCLIE
—
CCP3IE
CCP2IE 000- 0-00 000- 0-00
87h
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
11h
TMR2
Timer2 Module Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
92h
PR2
Timer2 Period Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
12h
T2CON
15h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (LSB)
16h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (MSB)
17h
CCP1CON
1Bh
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (LSB)
1Ch
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (MSB)
1Dh
CCP2CON
95h
CCPR3L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (LSB)
96h
CCPR3H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (MSB)
97h
CCP3CON
Legend:
Note 1:
—
—
—
—
TOUTPS3 TOUTPS2 TOUTPS1 TOUTPS0 TMR2ON T2CKPS1 T2CKPS0 -000 0000 -000 0000
—
—
—
CCP1X
CCP2X
CCP3X
CCP1Y
CCP2Y
CCP3Y
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP1M3
CCP1M2 CCP1M1 CCP1M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP2M3
CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP3M3
CCP3M2 CCP3M1 CCP3M0 --00 0000 --00 0000
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PWM and Timer2.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F737/767 devices; always maintain these bits clear.
DS30498D-page 92
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.0
10.1
MASTER SYNCHRONOUS
SERIAL PORT (MSSP)
MODULE
FIGURE 10-1:
Internal
Data Bus
Master SSP (MSSP) Module
Overview
The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is
a serial interface, useful for communicating with other
peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral
devices may be serial EEPROMs, shift registers,
display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The MSSP module
can operate in one of two modes:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C™)
- Full Master mode
- Slave mode (with general address call)
The I2C interface supports the following modes in
hardware:
Read
RC4/SDI/
SDA
SSPSR Reg
RC5/SDO
Additional details are provided under the individual
sections.
Shift
Clock
bit 0
Peripheral OE
RA5/AN4/
LVDIN/SS/
C2OUT
SS Control
Enable
Edge
Select
2
Clock Select
Control Registers
The MSSP module has three associated registers.
These include a status register (SSPSTAT) and two
control registers (SSPCON and SSPCON2). The use
of these registers and their individual configuration bits
differ significantly, depending on whether the MSSP
module is operated in SPI or I2C mode.
10.3
Write
SSPBUF Reg
• Master mode
• Multi-Master mode
• Slave mode
10.2
MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(SPI MODE)
RC3/
SCK/
SCL
SSPM3:SSPM0
SMP:CKE 4
TMR2 Output
2
2
(
Edge
Select
)
Prescaler TOSC
4, 16, 64
Data to TX/RX in SSPSR
TRIS bit
SPI Mode
The SPI mode allows 8 bits of data to be synchronously
transmitted and received simultaneously. All four modes
of SPI are supported. To accomplish communication,
typically three pins are used:
• Serial Data Out (SDO) – RC5/SDO
• Serial Data In (SDI) – RC4/SDI/SDA
• Serial Clock (SCK) – RC3/SCK/SCL
Additionally, a fourth pin may be used when in a Slave
mode of operation:
• Slave Select (SS) – RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
Figure 10-1 shows the block diagram of the MSSP
module when operating in SPI mode.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 93
PIC16F7X7
10.3.1
REGISTERS
The MSSP module has four registers for SPI mode
operation. These are:
•
•
•
•
In receive operations, SSPSR and SSPBUF together
create a double-buffered receiver. When SSPSR
receives a complete byte, it is transferred to SSPBUF
and the SSPIF interrupt is set.
MSSP Control Register (SSPCON)
MSSP Status Register (SSPSTAT)
Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer (SSPBUF)
MSSP Shift Register (SSPSR) – Not directly
accessible
SSPCON and SSPSTAT are the control and status
registers in SPI mode operation. The SSPCON
register is readable and writable. The lower 6 bits of
the SSPSTAT are read-only. The upper two bits of the
SSPSTAT are read/write.
REGISTER 10-1:
SSPSR is the shift register used for shifting data in or
out. SSPBUF is the buffer register to which data bytes
are written to or read from.
During transmission, the SSPBUF is not doublebuffered. A write to SSPBUF will write to both SSPBUF
and SSPSR.
SSPSTAT: MSSP STATUS (SPI MODE) REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
SMP: Sample bit
SPI Master mode:
1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time
0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time
SPI Slave mode:
SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in Slave mode.
bit 6
CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select bit
1 = Transmit occurs on transition from active to Idle clock state
0 = Transmit occurs on transition from Idle to active clock state
Note:
Polarity of clock state is set by the CKP bit (SSPCON1<4>).
bit 5
D/A: Data/Address bit
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 4
P: Stop bit
Used in I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled, SSPEN is cleared.
bit 3
S: Start bit
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 2
R/W: Read/Write bit Information
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 1
UA: Update Address bit
Used in I2C mode only.
bit 0
BF: Buffer Full Status bit (Receive mode only)
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
Legend:
DS30498D-page 94
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 10-2:
SSPCON: MSSP CONTROL (SPI MODE) REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 14h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit (Transmit mode only)
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word.
(Must be cleared in software.)
0 = No collision
bit 6
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit
SPI Slave mode:
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case
of overflow, the data in SSPSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in Slave mode. The user
must read the SSPBUF, even if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow.
(Must be cleared in software.)
0 = No overflow
Note:
bit 5
In Master mode, the overflow bit is not set since each new reception (and
transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPBUF register.
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCK, SDO, SDI and SS as serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
Note:
When enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level
bit 3-0
SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0101 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control disabled. SS can be used as I/O pin.
0100 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCK pin. SS pin control enabled.
0011 = SPI Master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2
0010 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/64
0001 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/16
0000 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/4
Note:
Bit combinations not specifically listed here are either reserved or implemented in
I2C mode only.
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 95
PIC16F7X7
10.3.2
OPERATION
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits (SSPCON<5:0> and SSPSTAT<7:6>).
These control bits allow the following to be specified:
•
•
•
•
Master mode (SCK is the clock output)
Slave mode (SCK is the clock input)
Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCK)
Data Input Sample Phase (middle or end of data
output time)
• Clock Edge (output data on rising/falling edge of
SCK)
• Clock Rate (Master mode only)
• Slave Select mode (Slave mode only)
The MSSP consists of a Transmit/Receive Shift register
(SSPSR) and a Buffer register (SSPBUF). The SSPSR
shifts the data in and out of the device, MSb first. The
SSPBUF holds the data that was written to the SSPSR
until the received data is ready. Once the 8 bits of data
have been received, that byte is moved to the SSPBUF
register. Then, the Buffer Full detect bit, BF
(SSPSTAT<0>) and the interrupt flag bit, SSPIF, are set.
This double-buffering of the received data (SSPBUF)
allows the next byte to start reception before reading the
EXAMPLE 10-1:
LOOP
data that was just received. Any write to the SSPBUF
register during transmission/reception of data will be
ignored and the Write Collision detect bit, WCOL
(SSPCON<7>), will be set. User software must clear the
WCOL bit so that it can be determined if the following
write(s) to the SSPBUF register completed successfully.
When the application software is expecting to receive
valid data, the SSPBUF should be read before the next
byte of data to transfer is written to the SSPBUF. Buffer
Full bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>), indicates when SSPBUF
has been loaded with the received data (transmission
is complete). When the SSPBUF is read, the BF bit is
cleared. This data may be irrelevant if the SPI is only a
transmitter. Generally, the MSSP interrupt is used to
determine when the transmission/reception has completed. The SSPBUF must be read and/or written. If the
interrupt method is not going to be used, then software
polling can be done to ensure that a write collision does
not occur. Example 10-1 shows the loading of the
SSPBUF (SSPSR) for data transmission.
The SSPSR is not directly readable or writable and can
only be accessed by addressing the SSPBUF register.
Additionally, the MSSP Status register (SSPSTAT)
indicates the various status conditions.
LOADING THE SSPBUF (SSPSR) REGISTER
BTFSS
BRA
MOVF
SSPSTAT, BF
LOOP
SSPBUF, W
;Has data been received (transmit complete)?
;No
;WREG reg = contents of SSPBUF
MOVWF
RXDATA
;Save in user RAM, if data is meaningful
MOVF
MOVWF
TXDATA, W
SSPBUF
;W reg = contents of TXDATA
;New data to xmit
DS30498D-page 96
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.3.3
ENABLING SPI I/O
10.3.4
To enable the serial port, SSP Enable bit, SSPEN
(SSPCON<5>), must be set. To reset or reconfigure
SPI mode, clear the SSPEN bit, reinitialize the
SSPCON registers and then set the SSPEN bit. This
configures the SDI, SDO, SCK and SS pins as serial
port pins. For the pins to behave as the serial port
function, some must have their data direction bits (in
the TRIS register) appropriately programmed. That is:
• SDI is automatically controlled by the SPI module
• SDO must have TRISC<5> bit cleared
• SCK (Master mode) must have TRISC<3> bit
cleared
• SCK (Slave mode) must have TRISC<3> bit set
• SS must have TRISA<5> bit set
TYPICAL CONNECTION
Figure 10-2 shows a typical connection between two
microcontrollers. The master controller (Processor 1)
initiates the data transfer by sending the SCK signal.
Data is shifted out of both shift registers on their programmed clock edge and latched on the opposite edge
of the clock. Both processors should be programmed to
the same Clock Polarity (CKP), then both controllers
would send and receive data at the same time.
Whether the data is meaningful (or dummy data)
depends on the application software. This leads to
three scenarios for data transmission:
• Master sends data–Slave sends dummy data
• Master sends data–Slave sends data
• Master sends dummy data–Slave sends data
Any serial port function that is not desired may be
overridden by programming the corresponding data
direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value.
FIGURE 10-2:
SPI MASTER/SLAVE CONNECTION
SPI Master SSPM3:SSPM0 = 00xxb
SPI Slave SSPM3:SSPM0 = 010xb
SDO
SDI
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPBUF)
SDI
Shift Register
(SSPSR)
MSb
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPBUF)
LSb
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Shift Register
(SSPSR)
MSb
SCK
PROCESSOR 1
SDO
Serial Clock
LSb
SCK
PROCESSOR 2
DS30498D-page 97
PIC16F7X7
10.3.5
MASTER MODE
The master can initiate the data transfer at any time
because it controls the SCK. The master determines
when the slave (Processor 2, Figure 10-2) is to
broadcast data by the software protocol.
In Master mode, the data is transmitted/received as
soon as the SSPBUF register is written to. If the SPI is
only going to receive, the SDO output could be disabled (programmed as an input). The SSPSR register
will continue to shift in the signal present on the SDI pin
at the programmed clock rate. As each byte is
received, it will be loaded into the SSPBUF register as
if it is a normal received byte (interrupts and status bits
appropriately set). This could be useful in receiver
applications, such as a “Line Activity Monitor” mode.
The clock polarity is selected by appropriately programming the CKP bit (SSPCON<4>). This then, would give
waveforms for SPI communication as shown in
FIGURE 10-3:
Figure 10-3, Figure 10-5 and Figure 10-6, where the
MSB is transmitted first. In Master mode, the SPI clock
rate (bit rate) is user programmable to be one of the
following:
•
•
•
•
FOSC/4 (or TCY)
FOSC/16 (or 4 • TCY)
FOSC/64 (or 16 • TCY)
Timer2 output/2
This allows a maximum data rate (at 40 MHz) of
10.00 Mbps.
Figure 10-3 shows the waveforms for Master mode.
When the CKE bit is set, the SDO data is valid before
there is a clock edge on SCK. The change of the input
sample is shown based on the state of the SMP bit. The
time when the SSPBUF is loaded with the received
data is shown.
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (MASTER MODE)
Write to
SSPBUF
SCK
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCK
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
4 Clock
Modes
SCK
(CKP = 0
CKE = 1)
SCK
(CKP = 1
CKE = 1)
SDO
(CKE = 0)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDO
(CKE = 1)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDI
(SMP = 0)
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SDI
(SMP = 1)
bit 7
bit 0
Input
Sample
(SMP = 1)
SSPIF
SSPSR to
SSPBUF
DS30498D-page 98
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.3.6
SLAVE MODE
In Slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as
the external clock pulses appear on SCK. When the
last bit is latched, the SSPIF interrupt flag bit is set.
While in Slave mode, the external clock is supplied by
the external clock source on the SCK pin. This external
clock must meet the minimum high and low times, as
specified in the electrical specifications.
While in Sleep mode, the slave can transmit/receive
data. When a byte is received, the device will wake-up
from Sleep.
Before enabling the module in SPI Slave mode, the
clock line must match the proper Idle state. The clock
line can be observed by reading the SCK pin. The Idle
state is determined by the CKP bit (SSPCON1<4>).
10.3.7
SLAVE SELECT
SYNCHRONIZATION
The SS pin allows a Synchronous Slave mode. The
SPI must be in Slave mode with SS pin control enabled
(SSPCON<3:0> = 4h). The pin must not be driven low
for the SS pin to function as an input. The data latch
FIGURE 10-4:
must be high. When the SS pin is low, transmission and
reception are enabled and the SDO pin is driven. When
the SS pin goes high, the SDO pin is no longer driven,
even if in the middle of a transmitted byte and becomes
a floating output. External pull-up/pull-down resistors
may be desirable, depending on the application.
Note 1: When the SPI is in Slave mode with SS pin
control enabled (SSPCON<3:0> = 0100),
the SPI module will reset if the SS pin is set
to VDD.
2: If the SPI is used in Slave mode with CKE
set, then the SS pin control must be
enabled.
When the SPI module resets, the bit counter is forced
to ‘0’. This can be done by either forcing the SS pin to
a high level or clearing the SSPEN bit.
To emulate two-wire communication, the SDO pin can
be connected to the SDI pin. When the SPI needs to
operate as a receiver, the SDO pin can be configured
as an input. This disables transmissions from the SDO.
The SDI can always be left as an input (SDI function)
since it cannot create a bus conflict.
SLAVE SYNCHRONIZATION WAVEFORM
SS
SCK
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCK
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
Write to
SSPBUF
SDO
SDI
(SMP = 0)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 7
bit 0
bit 0
bit 7
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SSPIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPSR to
SSPBUF
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2
DS30498D-page 99
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 10-5:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 0)
SS
Optional
SCK
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCK
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
Write to
SSPBUF
SDO
bit 7
SDI
(SMP = 0)
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SSPIF
Interrupt
Flag
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2
SSPSR to
SSPBUF
FIGURE 10-6:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 1)
SS
Not Optional
SCK
(CKP = 0
CKE = 1)
SCK
(CKP = 1
CKE = 1)
Write to
SSPBUF
SDO
SDI
(SMP = 0)
bit 6
bit 7
bit 7
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
bit 0
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SSPIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPSR to
SSPBUF
DS30498D-page 100
Next Q4 Cycle
after Q2
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.3.8
SLEEP OPERATION
10.3.10
In Master mode, all module clocks are halted and the
transmission/reception will remain in that state until the
device wakes from Sleep. After the device returns to
normal mode, the module will continue to transmit/
receive data.
Table 10-1 shows the compatibility between the
standard SPI modes and the states of the CKP and
CKE control bits.
TABLE 10-1:
In Slave mode, the SPI Transmit/Receive Shift register
operates asynchronously to the device. This allows the
device to be placed in Sleep mode and data to be
shifted into the SPI Transmit/Receive Shift register.
When all 8 bits have been received, the MSSP interrupt
flag bit will be set and if enabled, will wake the device
from Sleep.
10.3.9
Control Bits State
CKP
CKE
0, 0
0
1
0, 1
0
0
1, 0
1
1
1, 1
1
0
There is also an SMP bit which controls when the data
is sampled.
A Reset disables the MSSP module and terminates the
current transfer.
Name
SPI BUS MODES
Standard SPI Mode
Terminology
EFFECTS OF A RESET
TABLE 10-2:
BUS MODE COMPATIBILITY
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
INTCON
GIE/GIEH PEIE/GIEL
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PIR1
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
PIE1
PSPIE
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
SSPBUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
SSPCON
TRISA
SSPSTAT
Legend:
Note 1:
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
1111 1111 1111 1111
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
0000 0000 0000 0000
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
0000 0000 0000 0000
PORTA Data Direction Register
SMP
CKE
D/A
1111 1111 1111 1111
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the MSSP in SPI mode.
The PSPIF and PSPIE bits are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 101
PIC16F7X7
10.4
I2C Mode
10.4.1
The MSSP module in I 2C mode fully implements all
master and slave functions (including general call
support) and provides interrupts on Start and Stop bits
in hardware to determine a free bus (multi-master
function). The MSSP module implements the standard
mode specifications, as well as 7-bit and 10-bit
addressing.
Two pins are used for data transfer:
• Serial clock (SCL) – RC3/SCK/SCL
• Serial data (SDA) – RC4/SDI/SDA
The user must configure these pins as inputs or outputs
through the TRISC<4:3> bits.
FIGURE 10-7:
MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM
(I2C™ MODE)
Internal
Data Bus
Read
Write
RC3/SCK/
SCL
SSPBUF Reg
Shift
Clock
MSb
LSb
Match Detect
Addr Match
SSPADD Reg
Start and
Stop bit Detect
DS30498D-page 102
The MSSP module has six registers for I2C operation.
These are:
•
•
•
•
•
MSSP Control Register (SSPCON)
MSSP Control Register 2 (SSPCON2)
MSSP Status Register (SSPSTAT)
Serial Receive/Transmit Buffer (SSPBUF)
MSSP Shift Register (SSPSR) – Not directly
accessible
• MSSP Address Register (SSPADD)
SSPCON, SSPCON2 and SSPSTAT are the control
and status registers in I2C mode operation. The
SSPCON and SSPCON2 registers are readable and
writable. The lower 6 bits of the SSPSTAT are
read-only. The upper two bits of the SSPSTAT are
read/write.
SSPSR is the shift register used for shifting data in or
out. SSPBUF is the buffer register to which data bytes
are written to or read from.
SSPADD register holds the slave device address when
the SSP is configured in I2C Slave mode. When the
SSP is configured in Master mode, the lower seven bits
of SSPADD act as the Baud Rate Generator reload
value.
In receive operations, SSPSR and SSPBUF together
create a double-buffered receiver. When SSPSR
receives a complete byte, it is transferred to SSPBUF
and the SSPIF interrupt is set.
SSPSR Reg
RC4/
SDI/
SDA
REGISTERS
During transmission, the SSPBUF is not doublebuffered. A write to SSPBUF will write to both SSPBUF
and SSPSR.
Set, Reset
S, P bits
(SSPSTAT Reg)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 10-3:
SSPSTAT: MSSP STATUS (I2C MODE) REGISTER (ADDRESS 94h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
R-0
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
SMP: Slew Rate Control bit
In Master or Slave mode:
1 = Slew rate control disabled for Standard Speed mode (100 kHz and 1 MHz)
0 = Slew rate control enabled for High-Speed mode (400 kHz)
bit 6
CKE: SMBus Select bit
In Master or Slave mode:
1 = Enable SMBus specific inputs
0 = Disable SMBus specific inputs
bit 5
D/A: Data/Address bit
In Master mode:
Reserved.
In Slave mode:
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4
P: Stop bit
1 = Indicates that a Stop bit has been detected last
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
Note:
bit 3
This bit is cleared on Reset and when SSPEN is cleared.
S: Start bit
1 = Indicates that a Start bit has been detected last
0 = Start bit was not detected last
Note:
This bit is cleared on Reset and when SSPEN is cleared.
bit 2
R/W: Read/Write bit Information bit (I2C mode only)
In Slave mode:
1 = Read
0 = Write
Note:
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is
only valid from the address match to the next Start bit, Stop bit or not ACK bit.
In Master mode:
1 = Transmit is in progress
0 = Transmit is not in progress
Note:
ORing this bit with SEN, RSEN, PEN, RCEN or ACKEN will indicate if the MSSP is
in Idle mode.
bit 1
UA: Update Address bit (10-bit Slave mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
bit 0
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
In Transmit mode:
1 = Receive complete, SSPBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPBUF is empty
In Receive mode:
1 = Data transmit in progress (does not include the ACK and Stop bits), SSPBUF is full
0 = Data transmit complete (does not include the ACK and Stop bits), SSPBUF is empty
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 103
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 10-4:
SSPCON: MSSP CONTROL (I2C MODE) REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 14h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPM3
SSPM2
SSPM1
SSPM0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
In Master Transmit mode:
1 = A write to the SSPBUF register was attempted while the I2C conditions were not valid for
a transmission to be started (must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
In Slave Transmit mode:
1 = The SSPBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word (must be
cleared in software)
0 = No collision
In Receive mode (Master or Slave modes):
This is a “don’t care” bit.
bit 6
SSPOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit
In Receive mode:
1 = A byte is received while the SSPBUF register is still holding the previous byte (must be
cleared in software)
0 = No overflow
In Transmit mode:
This is a “don’t care” bit in Transmit mode.
bit 5
SSPEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDA and SCL pins as the serial port pins
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
Note:
When enabled, the SDA and SCL pins must be properly configured as input or output.
bit 4
CKP: SCK Release Control bit
In Slave mode:
1 = Release clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch). (Used to ensure data setup time.)
In Master mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 3-0
SSPM3:SSPM0: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
1111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled
1110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled
1011 = I2C Firmware Controlled Master mode (slave Idle)
1000 = I2C Master mode, clock = FOSC/(4 * (SSPADD + 1))
0111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address
0110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address
Note:
Bit combinations not specifically listed here are either reserved or implemented in
SPI mode only.
Legend:
DS30498D-page 104
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 10-5:
SSPCON2: MSSP CONTROL (I2C MODE) REGISTER 2 (ADDRESS 91h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
GCEN: General Call Enable bit (Slave mode only)
1 = Enable interrupt when a general call address (0000h) is received in the SSPSR
0 = General call address disabled
bit 6
ACKSTAT: Acknowledge Status bit (Master Transmit mode only)
1 = Acknowledge was not received from slave
0 = Acknowledge was received from slave
bit 5
ACKDT: Acknowledge Data bit (Master Receive mode only)
1 = Not Acknowledge
0 = Acknowledge
Note:
Value that will be transmitted when the user initiates an Acknowledge sequence at
the end of a receive.
bit 4
ACKEN: Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit (Master Receive mode only)
1 = Initiate Acknowledge sequence on SDA and SCL pins and transmit ACKDT data bit.
Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Acknowledge sequence Idle
bit 3
RCEN: Receive Enable bit (Master mode only)
1 = Enables Receive mode for I2C
0 = Receive Idle
bit 2
PEN: Stop Condition Enable bit (Master mode only)
1 = Initiate Stop condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Stop condition Idle
bit 1
RSEN: Repeated Start Condition Enable bit (Master mode only)
1 = Initiate Repeated Start condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Repeated Start condition Idle
bit 0
SEN: Start Condition Enable/Stretch Enable bit
In Master mode:
1 = Initiate Start condition on SDA and SCL pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Start condition Idle
In Slave mode:
1 = Clock stretching is enabled for both slave transmit and slave receive (stretch enabled)
0 = Clock stretching is enabled for slave transmit only (PIC16F87X compatibility)
Note:
For bits ACKEN, RCEN, PEN, RSEN, SEN: If the I2C module is not in the Idle mode,
this bit may not be set (no spooling) and the SSPBUF may not be written (or writes
to the SSPBUF are disabled).
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 105
PIC16F7X7
10.4.2
OPERATION
10.4.3
The MSSP module functions are enabled by setting
MSSP enable bit, SSPEN (SSPCON<5>).
The SSPCON register allows control of the I2C operation. Four mode selection bits (SSPCON<3:0>) allow
one of the following I2C modes to be selected:
I2C Master mode, clock = Oscillator/4 (SSPADD + 1)
I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address)
I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address)
I 2C Slave mode (7-bit address), with Start and
Stop bit interrupts enabled
• I 2C Slave mode (10-bit address), with Start and
Stop bit interrupts enabled
• I2C Firmware Controlled Master mode, slave is Idle
•
•
•
•
Selection of any I 2C mode, with the SSPEN bit set,
forces the SCL and SDA pins to be open-drain, provided these pins are programmed to inputs by setting
the appropriate TRISC bits. To ensure proper operation
of the module, pull-up resistors must be provided
externally to the SCL and SDA pins.
MOVF
IORLW
ANDLW
TRISC, W
0x18
B’11111001’
MOVWF
TRISC
;
;
;
;
SLAVE MODE
In Slave mode, the SCL and SDA pins must be configured as inputs (TRISC<4:3> set). The MSSP module
will override the input state with the output data when
required (slave-transmitter).
To ensure proper communication of the I2C Slave
mode, the TRIS bits (TRISx [SDA, SCL]) corresponding to the I2C pins must be set to ‘1’. If any TRIS bits
(TRISx<7:0>) of the port containing the I2C pins
(PORTx [SDA, SCL]) are changed in software, during
I2C communication using a Read-Modify-Write
instruction (BSF, BCF), then the I2C mode may stop
functioning properly and I2C communication may
suspend. Do not change any of the TRISx bits (TRIS
bits of the port containing the I2C pins) using the
instruction BSF or BCF during I2C communication. If it
is absolutely necessary to change the TRISx bits
during communication, the following method can be
used:
Example for a 40-pin part such as the PIC16F877A
Ensures <4:3> bits are ‘11’
Sets <2:1> as output, but will not alter other bits
User can use their own logic here, such as IORLW, XORLW and ANDLW
The I 2C Slave mode hardware will always generate an
interrupt on an address match. Through the mode
select bits, the user can also choose to interrupt on
Start and Stop bits.
When an address is matched, or the data transfer after
an address match is received, the hardware automatically will generate the Acknowledge (ACK) pulse and
load the SSPBUF register with the received value
currently in the SSPSR register.
Any combination of the following conditions will cause
the MSSP module not to give this ACK pulse:
• The Buffer Full bit, BF (SSPSTAT<0>), was set
before the transfer was received.
• The overflow bit, SSPOV (SSPCON<6>), was set
before the transfer was received.
In this case, the SSPSR register value is not loaded
into the SSPBUF, but bit SSPIF (PIR1<3>) is set. The
BF bit is cleared by reading the SSPBUF register, while
bit SSPOV is cleared through software.
10.4.3.1
Addressing
Once the MSSP module has been enabled, it waits for
a Start condition to occur. Following the Start condition,
the 8 bits are shifted into the SSPSR register. All incoming bits are sampled with the rising edge of the clock
(SCL) line. The value of register SSPSR<7:1> is
compared to the value of the SSPADD register. The
address is compared on the falling edge of the eighth
clock (SCL) pulse. If the addresses match and the BF
and SSPOV bits are clear, the following events occur:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The SSPSR register value is loaded into the
SSPBUF register.
The Buffer Full bit, BF, is set.
An ACK pulse is generated.
MSSP Interrupt Flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), is
set (interrupt is generated if enabled) on the
falling edge of the ninth SCL pulse.
The SCL clock input must have a minimum high and
low for proper operation. The high and low times of the
I2C specification, as well as the requirement of the
MSSP module, are shown in timing parameter #100
and parameter #101.
DS30498D-page 106
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
In 10-bit Address mode, two address bytes need to be
received by the slave. The five Most Significant bits
(MSbs) of the first address byte specify if this is a 10-bit
address. Bit R/W (SSPSTAT<2>) must specify a write
so the slave device will receive the second address
byte. For a 10-bit address, the first byte would equal
‘11110 A9 A8 0’, where ‘A9’ and ‘A8’ are the two
MSbs of the address. The sequence of events for
10-bit address is as follows, with steps 7 through 9 for
the slave-transmitter:
An MSSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. Flag bit, SSPIF (PIR1<3>), must be cleared in
software. The SSPSTAT register is used to determine
the status of the byte.
1.
10.4.3.3
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Receive first (high) byte of address (bits SSPIF,
BF and UA (SSPSTAT<1>) are set).
Update the SSPADD register with second (low)
byte of address (clears bit UA and releases the
SCL line).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive second (low) byte of address (bits
SSPIF, BF and UA are set).
Update the SSPADD register with the first (high)
byte of address. If match releases SCL line, this
will clear bit UA.
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
Receive Repeated Start condition.
Receive first (high) byte of address (bits SSPIF
and BF are set).
Read the SSPBUF register (clears bit BF) and
clear flag bit SSPIF.
10.4.3.2
Reception
When the R/W bit of the address byte is clear and an
address match occurs, the R/W bit of the SSPSTAT
register is cleared. The received address is loaded into
the SSPBUF register and the SDA line is held low
(ACK).
When the address byte overflow condition exists, then
the no Acknowledge (ACK) pulse is given. An overflow
condition is defined as either bit BF (SSPSTAT<0>) is
set or bit SSPOV (SSPCON<6>) is set.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
If SEN is enabled (SSPCON<0> = 1), RC3/SCK/SCL
will be held low (clock stretch) following each data
transfer. The clock must be released by setting bit,
CKP (SSPCON<4>). See Section 10.4.4 “Clock
Stretching” for more detail.
Transmission
When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set
and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the
SSPSTAT register is set. The received address is loaded
into the SSPBUF register. The ACK pulse will be sent on
the ninth bit and pin RC3/SCK/SCL is held low regardless of SEN (see Section 10.4.4 “Clock Stretching”
for more detail). By stretching the clock, the master will
be unable to assert another clock pulse until the slave is
done preparing the transmit data. The transmit data
must be loaded into the SSPBUF register, which also
loads the SSPSR register. Then pin RC3/SCK/SCL
should be enabled by setting bit CKP (SSPCON<4>).
The eight data bits are shifted out on the falling edge of
the SCL input. This ensures that the SDA signal is valid
during the SCL high time (Figure 10-9).
The ACK pulse from the master-receiver is latched on
the rising edge of the ninth SCL input pulse. If the SDA
line is high (not ACK), then the data transfer is complete. In this case, when the ACK is latched by the
slave, the slave logic is reset (resets SSPSTAT register) and the slave monitors for another occurrence of
the Start bit. If the SDA line was low (ACK), the next
transmit data must be loaded into the SSPBUF register.
Again, pin RC3/SCK/SCL must be enabled by setting
bit CKP.
An MSSP interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. The SSPIF bit must be cleared in software and
the SSPSTAT register is used to determine the status
of the byte. The SSPIF bit is set on the falling edge of
the ninth clock pulse.
DS30498D-page 107
DS30498D-page 108
CKP
2
A6
3
4
A4
5
A3
Receiving Address
A5
6
A2
(CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
1
SCL
S
A7
7
A1
8
9
ACK
R/W = 0
1
D7
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
Cleared in software
SSPBUF is read
2
D6
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
9
ACK
1
D7
2
D6
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
9
ACK
FIGURE 10-8:
SDA
PIC16F7X7
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 0 (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
1
CKP
2
A6
Data in
sampled
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
S
A7
3
A5
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
Receiving Address
7
A1
8
R/W = 1
9
ACK
SCL held low
while CPU
responds to SSPIF
1
D7
4
D4
5
D3
Cleared in software
3
D5
6
D2
CKP is set in software
SSPBUF is written in software
2
D6
Transmitting Data
7
8
D0
9
ACK
From SSPIF ISR
D1
1
D7
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
CKP is set in software
7
8
D0
9
ACK
From SSPIF ISR
D1
Transmitting Data
Cleared in software
3
D5
SSPBUF is written in software
2
D6
P
FIGURE 10-9:
SCL
SDA
PIC16F7X7
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING (TRANSMISSION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
DS30498D-page 109
DS30498D-page 110
2
1
4
1
5
0
7
UA is set indicating that
the SSPADD needs to be
updated
SSPBUF is written with
contents of SSPSR
6
A9 A8
8
9
(CKP does not reset to ‘0’ when SEN = 0)
UA (SSPSTAT<1>)
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
CKP
3
1
Cleared in software
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
1
SCL
S
1
ACK
R/W = 0
A7
2
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
8
9
A0 ACK
UA is set indicating that
SSPADD needs to be
updated
Cleared by hardware
when SSPADD is updated
with low byte of address
7
A1
Cleared in software
3
A5
Dummy read of SSPBUF
to clear BF flag
1
A6
Receive Second Byte of Address
1
D7
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
7
8
9
1
2
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
D3 D2
Receive Data Byte
D1 D0 ACK D7 D6 D5 D4
Cleared by hardware when
SSPADD is updated with high
byte of address
2
D3 D2
Receive Data Byte
D6 D5 D4
Clock is held low until
update of SSPADD has
taken place
7
8
D1 D0
9
P
Bus master
terminates
transfer
SSPOV is set
because SSPBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
ACK
FIGURE 10-10:
SDA
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPADD has
taken place
PIC16F7X7
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 0 (RECEPTION, 10-BIT ADDRESS)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2
CKP (SSPCON<4>)
UA (SSPSTAT<1>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
1
S
SCL
1
4
1
5
0
6
7
A9 A8
UA is set indicating that
the SSPADD needs to be
updated
SSPBUF is written with
contents of SSPSR
3
1
Receive First Byte of Address
1
8
9
ACK
1
3
4
5
Cleared in software
2
7
UA is set indicating that
SSPADD needs to be
updated
8
A1 A0
Cleared by hardware when
SSPADD is updated with low
byte of address.
6
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2
Receive Second Byte of Address
Dummy read of SSPBUF
to clear BF flag
A7
9
ACK
2
3
1
4
1
Cleared in software
1
1
5
0
6
8
9
ACK
R/W = 1
1
2
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
CKP is set in software
9
P
Completion of
data transmission
clears BF flag
8
ACK
Bus master
terminates
transfer
CKP is automatically cleared in hardware holding SCL low
7
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
Transmitting Data Byte
Clock is held low until
CKP is set to ‘1’
Write of SSPBUF
BF flag is clear
initiates transmit
at the end of the
third address sequence
7
A9 A8
Cleared by hardware when
SSPADD is updated with high
byte of address.
Dummy read of SSPBUF
to clear BF flag
Sr
1
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPADD has
taken place
FIGURE 10-11:
SDA
R/W = 0
Clock is held low until
update of SSPADD has
taken place
PIC16F7X7
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING (TRANSMISSION, 10-BIT ADDRESS)
DS30498D-page 111
PIC16F7X7
10.4.4
CLOCK STRETCHING
Both 7-bit and 10-bit Slave modes implement
automatic clock stretching during a transmit sequence.
The SEN bit (SSPCON2<0>) allows clock stretching to
be enabled during receives. Setting SEN will cause
the SCL pin to be held low at the end of each data
receive sequence.
10.4.4.1
Clock Stretching for 7-bit Slave
Receive Mode (SEN = 1)
In 7-bit Slave Receive mode, on the falling edge of the
ninth clock, at the end of the ACK sequence if the BF bit
is set, the CKP bit in the SSPCON register is automatically cleared, forcing the SCL output to be held low.
The CKP being cleared to ‘0’ will assert the SCL line
low. The CKP bit must be set in the user’s ISR before
reception is allowed to continue. By holding the SCL
line low, the user has time to service the ISR and read
the contents of the SSPBUF before the master device
can initiate another receive sequence. This will prevent
buffer overruns from occurring (see Figure 10-13).
Note 1: If the user reads the contents of the
SSPBUF before the falling edge of the
ninth clock, thus clearing the BF bit, the
CKP bit will not be cleared and clock
stretching will not occur.
2: The CKP bit can be set in software
regardless of the state of the BF bit. The
user should be careful to clear the BF bit
in the ISR before the next receive
sequence in order to prevent an overflow
condition.
10.4.4.2
10.4.4.3
Clock Stretching for 7-bit Slave
Transmit Mode
7-bit Slave Transmit mode implements clock stretching
by clearing the CKP bit after the falling edge of the
ninth clock, if the BF bit is clear. This occurs
regardless of the state of the SEN bit.
The user’s ISR must set the CKP bit before transmission is allowed to continue. By holding the SCL line
low, the user has time to service the ISR and load the
contents of the SSPBUF before the master device can
initiate another transmit sequence (see Figure 10-9).
Note 1: If the user loads the contents of SSPBUF,
setting the BF bit before the falling edge of
the ninth clock, the CKP bit will not be
cleared and clock stretching will not occur.
2: The CKP bit can be set in software
regardless of the state of the BF bit.
10.4.4.4
Clock Stretching for 10-bit Slave
Transmit Mode
In 10-bit Slave Transmit mode, clock stretching is
controlled during the first two address sequences by
the state of the UA bit, just as it is in 10-bit Slave
Receive mode. The first two addresses are followed
by a third address sequence, which contains the highorder bits of the 10-bit address and the R/W bit set to
‘1’. After the third address sequence is performed, the
UA bit is not set, the module is now configured in
Transmit mode and clock stretching is controlled by
the BF flag as in 7-bit Slave Transmit mode (see
Figure 10-11).
Clock Stretching for 10-bit Slave
Receive Mode (SEN = 1)
In 10-bit Slave Receive mode during the address
sequence, clock stretching automatically takes place
but CKP is not cleared. During this time, if the UA bit is
set after the ninth clock, clock stretching is initiated.
The UA bit is set after receiving the upper byte of the
10-bit address and following the receive of the second
byte of the 10-bit address, with the R/W bit cleared to
‘0’. The release of the clock line occurs upon updating
SSPADD. Clock stretching will occur on each data
receive sequence as described in 7-bit mode.
Note:
If the user polls the UA bit and clears it by
updating the SSPADD register before the
falling edge of the ninth clock occurs and if
the user hasn’t cleared the BF bit by reading the SSPBUF register before that time,
then the CKP bit will still NOT be asserted
low. Clock stretching on the basis of the
state of the BF bit only occurs during a
data sequence, not an address sequence.
DS30498D-page 112
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.4.4.5
Clock Synchronization
and the CKP Bit
When the CKP bit is cleared, the SCL output is forced
to ‘0’; however, setting the CKP bit will not assert the
SCL output low until the SCL output is already
sampled low. Therefore, the CKP bit will not assert the
SCL line until an external I2C master device has
already asserted the SCL line. The SCL output will
remain low until the CKP bit is set and all other
devices on the I2C bus have deasserted SCL. This
ensures that a write to the CKP bit will not violate the
minimum high time requirement for SCL (see
Figure 10-12).
FIGURE 10-12:
CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION TIMING
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
SDA
DX
DX – 1
SCL
CKP
Master device
asserts clock
Master device
deasserts clock
Write
SSPCON
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 113
DS30498D-page 114
CKP
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
1
SCL
S
A7
2
A6
3
4
A4
5
A3
Receiving Address
A5
6
A2
7
A1
8
9
ACK
R/W = 0
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
Cleared in software
2
D6
If BF is cleared
prior to the falling
edge of the 9th clock,
CKP will not be reset
to ‘0’ and no clock
stretching will occur
SSPBUF is read
1
D7
6
D2
7
D1
9
ACK
1
D7
BF is set after falling
edge of the 9th clock,
CKP is reset to ‘0’ and
clock stretching occurs
8
D0
3
4
D4
5
D3
Receiving Data
D5
CKP
written
to ‘1’ in
software
2
D6
Clock is held low until
CKP is set to ‘1’
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
9
ACK
Clock is not held low
because ACK = 1
FIGURE 10-13:
SDA
Clock is not held low
because buffer full bit is
clear prior to falling edge
of 9th clock
PIC16F7X7
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 1 (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2
1
UA (SSPSTAT<1>)
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
CKP
3
1
4
1
5
0
6
A9
7
A8
8
UA is set indicating that
the SSPADD needs to be
updated
SSPBUF is written with
contents of SSPSR
Cleared in software
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF (PIR1<3>)
1
SCL
S
1
9
ACK
R/W = 0
A7
2
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
Cleared in software
3
A5
7
A1
8
Note:
An update of the SSPADD
register before the falling
edge of the ninth clock will
have no effect on UA and
UA will remain set.
UA is set indicating that
SSPADD needs to be
updated
9
A0 ACK
Cleared by hardware when
SSPADD is updated with low
byte of address after falling edge
of ninth clock
Dummy read of SSPBUF
to clear BF flag
1
A6
Receive Second Byte of Address
2
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
D5 D4 D3 D2
Receive Data Byte
7
D1
8
Note:
1
4
5
6
Cleared in software
3
CKP written to ‘1’
in software
2
D3 D2
Receive Data Byte
D7 D6 D5 D4
An update of the SSPADD register before the falling edge of
the ninth clock will have no effect on UA and UA will remain
set.
9
ACK
Clock is held low until
CKP is set to ‘1’
D0
Cleared by hardware when
SSPADD is updated with high
byte of address after falling edge
of ninth clock
Dummy read of SSPBUF
to clear BF flag
1
D7 D6
Clock is held low until
update of SSPADD has
taken place
7
8
9
ACK
Bus master
terminates
transfer
P
SSPOV is set
because SSPBUF is
still full. ACK is not sent.
D1 D0
Clock is not held low
because ACK = 1
FIGURE 10-14:
SDA
Receive First Byte of Address
Clock is held low until
update of SSPADD has
taken place
PIC16F7X7
I2C™ SLAVE MODE TIMING WITH SEN = 1 (RECEPTION, 10-BIT ADDRESS)
DS30498D-page 115
PIC16F7X7
10.4.5
GENERAL CALL ADDRESS
SUPPORT
If the general call address matches, the SSPSR is
transferred to the SSPBUF, the BF flag bit is set (eighth
bit) and on the falling edge of the ninth bit (ACK bit), the
SSPIF interrupt flag bit is set.
The addressing procedure for the I2C bus is such that
the first byte after the Start condition usually
determines which device will be the slave addressed by
the master. The exception is the general call address
which can address all devices. When this address is
used, all devices should, in theory, respond with an
Acknowledge.
When the interrupt is serviced, the source for the interrupt can be checked by reading the contents of the
SSPBUF. The value can be used to determine if the
address was device specific or a general call address.
In 10-bit mode, the SSPADD is required to be updated
for the second half of the address to match and the UA
bit is set (SSPSTAT<1>). If the general call address is
sampled when the GCEN bit is set and while the slave
is configured in 10-bit Address mode, then the second
half of the address is not necessary, the UA bit will not
be set and the slave will begin receiving data after the
Acknowledge (Figure 10-15).
The general call address is one of eight addresses
reserved for specific purposes by the I2C protocol. It
consists of all ‘0’s with R/W = 0.
The general call address is recognized when the
General Call Enable bit (GCEN) is enabled
(SSPCON2<7> set). Following a Start bit detect, 8 bits
are shifted into the SSPSR and the address is
compared against the SSPADD. It is also compared to
the general call address and fixed in hardware.
FIGURE 10-15:
SLAVE MODE GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SEQUENCE
(7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESS MODE)
Address is compared to general call address
after ACK, set interrupt
R/W = 0
ACK D7
General Call Address
SDA
Receiving Data
ACK
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SCL
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
9
SSPIF
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
Cleared in software
SSPBUF is read
SSPOV (SSPCON<6>)
‘0’
GCEN (SSPCON2<7>)
‘1’
DS30498D-page 116
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
MASTER MODE
Note:
Master mode is enabled by setting and clearing the
appropriate SSPM bits in SSPCON and by setting the
SSPEN bit. In Master mode, the SCL and SDA lines
are manipulated by the MSSP hardware.
Master mode of operation is supported by interrupt
generation on the detection of the Start and Stop
conditions. The Stop (P) and Start (S) bits are cleared
from a Reset or when the MSSP module is disabled.
Control of the I 2C bus may be taken when the P bit is
set or the bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear.
The following events will cause SSP Interrupt Flag bit,
SSPIF, to be set (SSP interrupt if enabled):
In Firmware Controlled Master mode, user code
conducts all I 2C bus operations based on Start and
Stop bit conditions.
•
•
•
•
•
Once Master mode is enabled, the user has six
options:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Assert a Start condition on SDA and SCL.
Assert a Repeated Start condition on SDA and
SCL.
Write to the SSPBUF register, initiating
transmission of data/address.
Configure the I2C port to receive data.
Generate an Acknowledge condition at the end
of a received byte of data.
Generate a Stop condition on SDA and SCL.
FIGURE 10-16:
The MSSP module, when configured in
I2C Master mode, does not allow queueing
of events. For instance, the user is not
allowed to initiate a Start condition and
immediately write the SSPBUF register to
initiate transmission before the Start condition is complete. In this case, the SSPBUF
will not be written to and the WCOL bit will
be set, indicating that a write to the
SSPBUF did not occur.
Start condition
Stop condition
Data transfer byte transmitted/received
Acknowledge Transmit
Repeated Start
MSSP BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C™ MASTER MODE)
SSPM3:SSPM0
SSPADD<6:0>
Internal
Data Bus
Read
Write
SSPBUF
Baud
Rate
Generator
Shift
Clock
SDA
SDA In
SCL In
Bus Collision
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
LSb
Start bit, Stop bit,
Acknowledge
Generate
Start bit Detect
Stop bit Detect
Write Collision Detect
Clock Arbitration
State Counter for
end of XMIT/RCV
Clock Cntl
SCL
Receive Enable
SSPSR
MSb
Clock Arbitrate/WCOL Detect
(hold off clock source)
10.4.6
Set/Reset S, P, WCOL (SSPSTAT)
Set SSPIF, BCLIF
Reset ACKSTAT, PEN (SSPCON2)
DS30498D-page 117
PIC16F7X7
10.4.6.1
I2C Master Mode Operation
The master device generates all of the serial clock
pulses and the Start and Stop conditions. A transfer is
ended with a Stop condition or with a Repeated Start
condition. Since the Repeated Start condition is also
the beginning of the next serial transfer, the I2C bus will
not be released.
In Master Transmitter mode, serial data is output
through SDA while SCL outputs the serial clock. The
first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the
receiving device (7 bits) and the Read/Write (R/W) bit.
In this case, the R/W bit will be logic ‘0’. Serial data is
transmitted 8 bits at a time. After each byte is transmitted, an Acknowledge bit is received. Start and Stop
conditions are output to indicate the beginning and the
end of a serial transfer.
In Master Receive mode, the first byte transmitted
contains the slave address of the transmitting device
(7 bits) and the R/W bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be
logic ‘1’. Thus, the first byte transmitted is a 7-bit slave
address followed by a ‘1’ to indicate a receive bit. Serial
data is received via SDA, while SCL outputs the serial
clock. Serial data is received 8 bits at a time. After each
byte is received, an Acknowledge bit is transmitted.
Start and Stop conditions indicate the beginning and
end of transmission.
The Baud Rate Generator used for the SPI mode
operation is used to set the SCL clock frequency for
either 100 kHz, 400 kHz or 1 MHz I2C operation. See
Section 10.4.7 “Baud Rate Generator” for more
detail.
DS30498D-page 118
A typical transmit sequence would go as follows:
1.
The user generates a Start condition by setting
the Start enable bit, SEN (SSPCON2<0>).
2. SSPIF is set. The MSSP module will wait the
required Start time before any other operation
takes place.
3. The user loads the SSPBUF with the slave
address to transmit.
4. Address is shifted out the SDA pin until all 8 bits
are transmitted.
5. The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the
slave device and writes its value into the
SSPCON2 register (SSPCON2<6>).
6. The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the
end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the SSPIF
bit.
7. The user loads the SSPBUF with eight bits of
data.
8. Data is shifted out the SDA pin until all 8 bits are
transmitted.
9. The MSSP module shifts in the ACK bit from the
slave device and writes its value into the
SSPCON2 register (SSPCON2<6>).
10. The MSSP module generates an interrupt at the
end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the SSPIF
bit.
11. The user generates a Stop condition by setting
the Stop enable bit, PEN (SSPCON2<2>).
12. Interrupt is generated once the Stop condition is
complete.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.4.7
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
Once the given operation is complete (i.e., transmission of the last data bit is followed by ACK), the internal
clock will automatically stop counting and the SCL pin
will remain in its last state.
2
In I C Master mode, the Baud Rate Generator (BRG)
reload value is placed in the lower 7 bits of the
SSPADD register (Figure 10-17). When a write occurs
to SSPBUF, the Baud Rate Generator will automatically
begin counting. The BRG counts down to 0 and stops
until another reload has taken place. The BRG count is
decremented twice per instruction cycle (TCY) on the
Q2 and Q4 clocks. In I2C Master mode, the BRG is
reloaded automatically.
FIGURE 10-17:
Table 10-3 demonstrates clock rates based on
instruction cycles and the BRG value loaded into
SSPADD.
BAUD RATE GENERATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM
SSPM3:SSPM0
SSPM3:SSPM0
Reload
SCL
Control
SSPADD<6:0>
Reload
CLKO
TABLE 10-3:
BRG Down Counter
FOSC/4
I2C™ CLOCK RATE w/BRG
FOSC
FCY
FCY*2
BRG Value
FSCL
(2 Rollovers of BRG)
40 MHz
10 MHz
20 MHz
18h
400 kHz(1)
40 MHz
10 MHz
20 MHz
1Fh
312.5 kHz
40 MHz
10 MHz
20 MHz
63h
100 kHz
16 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
09h
400 kHz(1)
16 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
0Ch
308 kHz
16 MHz
4 MHz
8 MHz
27h
100 kHz
4 MHz
1 MHz
2 MHz
02h
333 kHz(1)
4 MHz
1 MHz
2 MHz
09h
100 kHz
4 MHz
1 MHz
2 MHz
00h
1 MHz(1)
Note 1:
The I2C™ interface does not conform to the 400 kHz I2C specification (which applies to rates greater than
100 kHz) in all details, but may be used with care where higher rates are required by the application.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 119
PIC16F7X7
10.4.7.1
Clock Arbitration
Clock arbitration occurs when the master, during any
receive, transmit or Repeated Start/Stop condition,
deasserts the SCL pin (SCL allowed to float high).
When the SCL pin is allowed to float high, the Baud
Rate Generator (BRG) is suspended from counting
until the SCL pin is actually sampled high. When the
SCL pin is sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is
reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and
begins counting. This ensures that the SCL high time
will always be at least one BRG rollover count in the
event that the clock is held low by an external device
(Figure 10-18).
FIGURE 10-18:
SDA
BAUD RATE GENERATOR TIMING WITH CLOCK ARBITRATION
DX
DX – 1
SCL deasserted but slave holds
SCL low (clock arbitration)
SCL allowed to transition high
SCL
BRG decrements on
Q2 and Q4 cycles
BRG
Value
03h
02h
01h
00h (hold off)
03h
02h
SCL is sampled high, reload takes
place and BRG starts its count
BRG
Reload
DS30498D-page 120
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.4.8
I2C MASTER MODE START
CONDITION TIMING
10.4.8.1
If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Start sequence
is in progress, the WCOL is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur).
To initiate a Start condition, the user sets the Start
Condition Enable bit, SEN (SSPCON2<0>). If the SDA
and SCL pins are sampled high, the Baud Rate
Generator is reloaded with the contents of
SSPADD<6:0> and starts its count. If SCL and SDA are
both sampled high when the Baud Rate Generator
times out (TBRG), the SDA pin is driven low. The action
of the SDA being driven low while SCL is high is the
Start condition and causes the S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) to
be set. Following this, the Baud Rate Generator is
reloaded with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and
resumes its count. When the Baud Rate Generator
times out (TBRG), the SEN bit (SSPCON2<0>) will be
automatically cleared by hardware, the Baud Rate
Generator is suspended, leaving the SDA line held low
and the Start condition is complete.
Note:
WCOL Status Flag
Note:
Because queueing of events is not
allowed, writing to the lower 5 bits of
SSPCON2 is disabled until the Start
condition is complete.
If at the beginning of the Start condition,
the SDA and SCL pins are already sampled low, or if during the Start condition, the
SCL line is sampled low before the SDA
line is driven low, a bus collision occurs,
the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLIF, is
set, the Start condition is aborted and the
I2C module is reset into its Idle state.
FIGURE 10-19:
FIRST START BIT TIMING
Set S bit (SSPSTAT<3>)
Write to SEN bit occurs here
SDA = 1,
SCL = 1
TBRG
At completion of Start bit,
hardware clears SEN bit
and sets SSPIF bit
TBRG
Write to SSPBUF occurs here
1st bit
SDA
2nd bit
TBRG
SCL
TBRG
S
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 121
PIC16F7X7
10.4.9
I2C MASTER MODE REPEATED
START CONDITION TIMING
Immediately following the SSPIF bit getting set, the
user may write the SSPBUF with the 7-bit address in
7-bit mode or the default first address in 10-bit mode.
After the first eight bits are transmitted and an ACK is
received, the user may then transmit an additional eight
bits of address (10-bit mode) or eight bits of data (7-bit
mode).
A Repeated Start condition occurs when the RSEN bit
(SSPCON2<1>) is programmed high and the I2C logic
module is in the Idle state. When the RSEN bit is set,
the SCL pin is asserted low. When the SCL pin is
sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with
the contents of SSPADD<5:0> and begins counting.
The SDA pin is released (brought high) for one Baud
Rate Generator count (TBRG). When the Baud Rate
Generator times out, if SDA is sampled high, the SCL
pin will be deasserted (brought high). When SCL is
sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded
with the contents of SSPADD<6:0> and begins counting. SDA and SCL must be sampled high for one TBRG.
This action is then followed by assertion of the SDA pin
(SDA = 0) for one TBRG while SCL is high. Following
this, the RSEN bit (SSPCON2<1>) will be automatically
cleared and the Baud Rate Generator will not be
reloaded, leaving the SDA pin held low. As soon as a
Start condition is detected on the SDA and SCL pins,
the S bit (SSPSTAT<3>) will be set. The SSPIF bit will
not be set until the Baud Rate Generator has timed out.
10.4.9.1
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Repeated Start
sequence is in progress, the WCOL is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t
occur).
Note:
Because queueing of events is not
allowed, writing of the lower 5 bits of
SSPCON2 is disabled until the Repeated
Start condition is complete.
Note 1: If RSEN is programmed while any other
event is in progress, it will not take effect.
2: A bus collision during the Repeated Start
condition occurs if:
• SDA is sampled low when SCL goes
from low-to-high.
• SCL goes low before SDA is
asserted low. This may indicate that
another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’.
FIGURE 10-20:
REPEATED START CONDITION WAVEFORM
Set S (SSPSTAT<3>)
Write to SSPCON2
occurs here.
SDA = 1,
SCL (no change).
SDA = 1,
SCL = 1
TBRG
TBRG
At completion of Start bit,
hardware clears RSEN bit
and sets SSPIF
TBRG
1st bit
SDA
Falling edge of ninth clock.
End of Xmit.
SCL
Write to SSPBUF occurs here
TBRG
TBRG
Sr = Repeated Start
DS30498D-page 122
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.4.10
I2C MASTER MODE
TRANSMISSION
Transmission of a data byte, a 7-bit address or the
other half of a 10-bit address, is accomplished by
simply writing a value to the SSPBUF register. This
action will set the Buffer Full flag bit, BF and allow the
Baud Rate Generator to begin counting and start the
next transmission. Each bit of address/data will be
shifted out onto the SDA pin after the falling edge of
SCL is asserted (see data hold time specification
parameter #106). SCL is held low for one Baud Rate
Generator rollover count (TBRG). Data should be valid
before SCL is released high (see data setup time
specification parameter #107). When the SCL pin is
released high, it is held that way for TBRG. The data on
the SDA pin must remain stable for that duration and
some hold time after the next falling edge of SCL. After
the eighth bit is shifted out (the falling edge of the eighth
clock), the BF flag is cleared and the master releases
SDA. This allows the slave device being addressed to
respond with an ACK bit, during the ninth bit time, if an
address match occurred or if data was received
properly. The status of ACK is written into the ACKDT
bit on the falling edge of the ninth clock. If the master
receives an Acknowledge, the Acknowledge Status bit,
ACKSTAT, is cleared. If not, the bit is set. After the ninth
clock, the SSPIF bit is set and the master clock (Baud
Rate Generator) is suspended until the next data byte
is loaded into the SSPBUF, leaving SCL low and SDA
unchanged (Figure 10-21).
After the write to the SSPBUF, each bit of address will
be shifted out on the falling edge of SCL until all seven
address bits and the R/W bit are completed. On the
falling edge of the eighth clock, the master will deassert
the SDA pin, allowing the slave to respond with an
Acknowledge. On the falling edge of the ninth clock, the
master will sample the SDA pin to see if the address
was recognized by a slave. The status of the ACK bit is
loaded into the ACKSTAT status bit (SSPCON2<6>).
Following the falling edge of the ninth clock transmission of the address, the SSPIF is set, The BF flag Is
cleared and the Baud Rate Generator is turned off until
another write to the SSPBUF takes place, holding SCL
low and allowing SDA to float.
10.4.10.1
BF Status Flag
10.4.10.3
ACKSTAT Status Flag
In Transmit mode, the ACKSTAT bit (SSPCON2<6>) is
cleared when the slave has sent an Acknowledge
(ACK = 0) and is set when the slave does not Acknowledge (ACK = 1). A slave sends an Acknowledge when
it has recognized its address (including a general call)
or when the slave has properly received its data.
10.4.11
I2C MASTER MODE RECEPTION
Master mode reception is enabled by programming the
Receive Enable bit, RCEN (SSPCON2<3>).
Note:
The MSSP module must be in an Idle state
before the RCEN bit is set or the RCEN bit
will be disregarded.
The Baud Rate Generator begins counting and on each
rollover, the state of the SCL pin changes (high-to-low/
low-to-high) and data is shifted into the SSPSR. After
the falling edge of the eighth clock, the receive enable
flag is automatically cleared, the contents of the
SSPSR are loaded into the SSPBUF, the BF flag bit is
set, the SSPIF flag bit is set and the Baud Rate Generator is suspended from counting, holding SCL low. The
MSSP is now in Idle state, awaiting the next command.
When the buffer is read by the CPU, the BF flag bit is
automatically cleared. The user can then send an
Acknowledge bit at the end of reception by setting the
Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit, ACKEN
(SSPCON2<4>).
10.4.11.1
BF Status Flag
In receive operation, the BF bit is set when an address
or data byte is loaded into SSPBUF from SSPSR. It is
cleared when the SSPBUF register is read.
10.4.11.2
SSPOV Status Flag
In receive operation, the SSPOV bit is set when 8 bits
are received into the SSPSR and the BF flag bit is
already set from a previous reception.
10.4.11.3
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPBUF when a receive is
already in progress (i.e., SSPSR is still shifting in a data
byte), the WCOL bit is set and the contents of the buffer
are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur).
In Transmit mode, the BF bit (SSPSTAT<0>) is set
when the CPU writes to SSPBUF and is cleared when
all 8 bits are shifted out.
10.4.10.2
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPBUF when a transmit is
already in progress (i.e., SSPSR is still shifting out a
data byte), the WCOL is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t occur).
WCOL must be cleared in software.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 123
DS30498D-page 124
S
R/W
PEN
SEN
BF (SSPSTAT<0>)
SSPIF
SCL
SDA
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
3
4
5
Cleared in software
2
6
7
8
After Start condition, SEN cleared by hardware
SSPBUF written
1
9
D7
3
D5
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
SSPBUF is written in software
Cleared in software service routine
from SSP interrupt
2
D6
P
Cleared in software
9
Transmitting Data or Second Half of 10-bit Address ACK
1
SCL held low
while CPU
responds to SSPIF
ACK = 0
R/W = 0
SSPBUF written with 7-bit address and R/W
starts transmit
A7
Transmit Address to Slave
From Slave, clear ACKSTAT bit (SSPCON2<6>)
ACKSTAT in
SSPCON2 = 1
FIGURE 10-21:
SEN = 0
Write to SSPCON2<0> (SEN = 1),
Start condition begins
PIC16F7X7
I 2C™ MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (TRANSMISSION, 7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESS)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
ACKEN
SSPOV
BF
(SSPSTAT<0>)
SDA = 0, SCL = 1
while CPU
responds to SSPIF
SSPIF
4
5
Cleared in software
3
6
2
1
SCL
S
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2
Transmit Address to Slave
A7
SDA
7
A1
8
9
R/W = 1
ACK
ACK from Slave
2
3
5
6
7
8
D0
9
ACK
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cleared in software
Set SSPIF interrupt
at end of Acknowledge
sequence
Data shifted in on falling edge of CLK
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
Cleared in
software
Set SSPIF at end
of receive
9
ACK is not sent
ACK
P
Set SSPIF interrupt
at end of Acknowledge sequence
Bus master
terminates
transfer
Set P bit
(SSPSTAT<4>)
and SSPIF
PEN bit = 1
written here
SSPOV is set because
SSPBUF is still full
8
D0
RCEN cleared
automatically
Set ACKEN, start Acknowledge sequence
SDA = ACKDT = 1
Receiving Data from Slave
RCEN = 1, start
next receive
ACK from Master
SDA = ACKDT = 0
Last bit is shifted into SSPSR and
contents are unloaded into SSPBUF
Cleared in software
Set SSPIF interrupt
at end of receive
4
Cleared in software
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
Receiving Data from Slave
RCEN cleared
automatically
Master configured as a receiver
by programming SSPCON2<3> (RCEN = 1)
FIGURE 10-22:
SEN = 0
Write to SSPBUF occurs here.
Start XMIT.
Write to SSPCON2<0> (SEN = 1),
begin Start condition
Write to SSPCON2<4>
to start Acknowledge sequence,
SDA = ACKDT (SSPCON2<5>) = 0
PIC16F7X7
I 2C™ MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
DS30498D-page 125
PIC16F7X7
10.4.12
ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE
TIMING
10.4.13
A Stop bit is asserted on the SDA pin at the end of a
receive/transmit by setting the Stop Sequence Enable
bit, PEN (SSPCON2<2>). At the end of a receive/
transmit, the SCL line is held low after the falling edge
of the ninth clock. When the PEN bit is set, the master
will assert the SDA line low. When the SDA line is
sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded and
counts down to ‘0’. When the Baud Rate Generator
times out, the SCL pin will be brought high and one
TBRG (Baud Rate Generator rollover count) later, the
SDA pin will be deasserted. When the SDA pin is sampled high while SCL is high, the P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is
set. A TBRG later, the PEN bit is cleared and the SSPIF
bit is set (Figure 10-24).
An Acknowledge sequence is enabled by setting the
Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit, ACKEN
(SSPCON2<4>). When this bit is set, the SCL pin is
pulled low and the contents of the Acknowledge data bit
are presented on the SDA pin. If the user wishes to generate an Acknowledge, then the ACKDT bit should be
cleared. If not, the user should set the ACKDT bit before
starting an Acknowledge sequence. The Baud Rate
Generator then counts for one rollover period (TBRG)
and the SCL pin is deasserted (pulled high). When the
SCL pin is sampled high (clock arbitration), the Baud
Rate Generator counts for TBRG. The SCL pin is then
pulled low. Following this, the ACKEN bit is automatically
cleared, the Baud Rate Generator is turned off and the
MSSP module then goes into Idle mode (Figure 10-23).
10.4.12.1
10.4.13.1
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPBUF when a Stop sequence
is in progress, then the WCOL bit is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t
occur).
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPBUF when an Acknowledge
sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write doesn’t
occur).
FIGURE 10-23:
STOP CONDITION TIMING
ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE WAVEFORM
Acknowledge sequence starts here,
write to SSPCON2
ACKEN = 1, ACKDT = 0
ACKEN automatically cleared
TBRG
TBRG
SDA
ACK
D0
SCL
8
9
SSPIF
Cleared in
software
Set SSPIF at the end
of receive
Cleared in
software
Set SSPIF at the end
of Acknowledge sequence
Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period.
FIGURE 10-24:
STOP CONDITION RECEIVE OR TRANSMIT MODE
SCL = 1 for TBRG, followed by SDA = 1 for TBRG
after SDA sampled high. P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set.
Write to SSPCON2,
set PEN
Falling edge of
9th clock
PEN bit (SSPCON2<2>) is cleared by
hardware and the SSPIF bit is set
TBRG
SCL
SDA
ACK
TBRG
P
TBRG
TBRG
SCL brought high after TBRG
SDA asserted low before rising edge of clock to setup Stop condition
Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period.
DS30498D-page 126
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.4.14
SLEEP OPERATION
10.4.17
2
While in Sleep mode, the I C module can receive
addresses or data and when an address match or
complete byte transfer occurs, wake the processor
from Sleep (if the MSSP interrupt is enabled).
10.4.15
EFFECT OF A RESET
A Reset disables the MSSP module and terminates the
current transfer.
10.4.16
MULTI-MASTER MODE
In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of the Start and Stop conditions allows the
determination of when the bus is free. The Stop (P) and
Start (S) bits are cleared from a Reset or when the
MSSP module is disabled. Control of the I 2C bus may
be taken when the P bit (SSPSTAT<4>) is set or the
bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear. When the
bus is busy, enabling the SSP interrupt will generate
the interrupt when the Stop condition occurs.
In multi-master operation, the SDA line must be
monitored for arbitration to see if the signal level is at
the expected output level. This check is performed in
hardware with the result placed in the BCLIF bit.
The states where arbitration can be lost are:
•
•
•
•
•
Address Transfer
Data Transfer
A Start Condition
A Repeated Start Condition
An Acknowledge Condition
MULTI-MASTER COMMUNICATION,
BUS COLLISION AND BUS
ARBITRATION
Multi-Master mode support is achieved by bus arbitration. When the master outputs address/data bits onto
the SDA pin, arbitration takes place when the master
outputs a ‘1’ on SDA by letting SDA float high and
another master asserts a ‘0’. When the SCL pin floats
high, data should be stable. If the expected data on
SDA is a ‘1’ and the data sampled on the SDA pin = 0,
then a bus collision has taken place. The master will set
the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLIF and reset the
I2C port to its Idle state (Figure 10-25).
If a transmit was in progress when the bus collision
occurred, the transmission is halted, the BF flag is
cleared, the SDA and SCL lines are deasserted and the
SSPBUF can be written to. When the user services the
bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if the I2C
bus is free, the user can resume communication by
asserting a Start condition.
If a Start, Repeated Start, Stop or Acknowledge condition was in progress when the bus collision occurred,
the condition is aborted, the SDA and SCL lines are
deasserted and the respective control bits in the
SSPCON2 register are cleared. When the user
services the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and
if the I2C bus is free, the user can resume
communication by asserting a Start condition.
The master will continue to monitor the SDA and SCL
pins. If a Stop condition occurs, the SSPIF bit will be set.
A write to the SSPBUF will start the transmission of
data at the first data bit, regardless of where the
transmitter left off when the bus collision occurred.
In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of Start and Stop conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. Control of the I2C bus can
be taken when the P bit is set in the SSPSTAT register or
the bus is Idle and the S and P bits are cleared.
FIGURE 10-25:
BUS COLLISION TIMING FOR TRANSMIT AND ACKNOWLEDGE
Data changes
while SCL = 0
SDA line pulled low
by another source
Sample SDA. While SCL is high,
data doesn’t match what is driven
by the master. Bus collision has occurred.
SDA released
by master
SDA
SCL
Set bus collision
interrupt (BCLIF)
BCLIF
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 127
PIC16F7X7
10.4.17.1
Bus Collision During a Start
Condition
During a Start condition, a bus collision occurs if:
a)
b)
SDA or SCL are sampled low at the beginning of
the Start condition (Figure 10-26).
SCL is sampled low before SDA is asserted low
(Figure 10-27).
During a Start condition, both the SDA and the SCL
pins are monitored.
If the SDA pin is sampled low during this count, the
BRG is reset and the SDA line is asserted early
(Figure 10-28). If, however, a ‘1’ is sampled on the SDA
pin, the SDA pin is asserted low at the end of the BRG
count. The Baud Rate Generator is then reloaded and
counts down to 0 and during this time, if the SCL pin is
sampled as ‘0’, a bus collision does not occur. At the
end of the BRG count, the SCL pin is asserted low.
Note:
If the SDA pin is already low, or the SCL pin is already
low, then all of the following occur:
• the Start condition is aborted,
• the BCLIF flag is set and
• the MSSP module is reset to its Idle state
(Figure 10-26).
The Start condition begins with the SDA and SCL pins
deasserted. When the SDA pin is sampled high, the
Baud Rate Generator is loaded from SSPADD<6:0>
and counts down to 0. If the SCL pin is sampled low
while SDA is high, a bus collision occurs because it is
assumed that another master is attempting to drive a
data ‘1’ during the Start condition.
FIGURE 10-26:
The reason that bus collision is not a factor
during a Start condition is that no two bus
masters can assert a Start condition at the
exact same time. Therefore, one master
will always assert SDA before the other.
This condition does not cause a bus
collision because the two masters must be
allowed to arbitrate the first address
following the Start condition. If the address
is the same, arbitration must be allowed to
continue into the data portion, Repeated
Start or Stop conditions.
BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SDA ONLY)
SDA goes low before the SEN bit is set.
Set BCLIF,
S bit and SSPIF set because
SDA = 0, SCL = 1.
SDA
SCL
Set SEN, enable Start
condition if SDA = 1, SCL = 1
SEN cleared automatically because of bus collision.
SSP module resets into Idle state.
SEN
BCLIF
SDA sampled low before
Start condition. Set BCLIF.
S bit and SSPIF set because
SDA = 0, SCL = 1.
SSPIF and BCLIF are
cleared in software
S
SSPIF
SSPIF and BCLIF are
cleared in software
DS30498D-page 128
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 10-27:
BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SCL = 0)
SDA = 0, SCL = 1
TBRG
TBRG
SDA
Set SEN, enable Start
sequence if SDA = 1, SCL = 1
SCL
SCL = 0 before SDA = 0,
bus collision occurs. Set BCLIF.
SEN
SCL = 0 before BRG time-out,
bus collision occurs. Set BCLIF.
BCLIF
Interrupt cleared
in software
S
‘0’
‘0’
SSPIF
‘0’
‘0’
FIGURE 10-28:
BRG RESET DUE TO SDA ARBITRATION DURING START CONDITION
SDA = 0, SCL = 1
Set S
Less than TBRG
SDA
Set SSPIF
TBRG
SDA pulled low by other master.
Reset BRG and assert SDA.
SCL
S
SCL pulled low after BRG
time-out
SEN
Set SEN, enable Start
sequence if SDA = 1, SCL = 1
‘0’
BCLIF
S
SSPIF
SDA = 0, SCL = 1,
set SSPIF
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Interrupts cleared
in software
DS30498D-page 129
PIC16F7X7
10.4.17.2
Bus Collision During a Repeated
Start Condition
If SDA is low, a bus collision has occurred (i.e., another
master is attempting to transmit a data ‘0’, see
Figure 10-29). If SDA is sampled high, the BRG is
reloaded and begins counting. If SDA goes from highto-low before the BRG times out, no bus collision
occurs because no two masters can assert SDA at
exactly the same time.
During a Repeated Start condition, a bus collision
occurs if:
a)
b)
A low level is sampled on SDA when SCL goes
from low level to high level.
SCL goes low before SDA is asserted low,
indicating that another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’.
If SCL goes from high-to-low before the BRG times out
and SDA has not already been asserted, a bus collision
occurs. In this case, another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’ during the Repeated Start condition
(Figure 10-30).
When the user deasserts SDA and the pin is allowed to
float high, the BRG is loaded with SSPADD<6:0> and
counts down to 0. The SCL pin is then deasserted and
when sampled high, the SDA pin is sampled.
FIGURE 10-29:
If at the end of the BRG time-out, both SCL and SDA are
still high, the SDA pin is driven low and the BRG is
reloaded and begins counting. At the end of the count,
regardless of the status of the SCL pin, the SCL pin is
driven low and the Repeated Start condition is complete.
BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 1)
SDA
SCL
Sample SDA when SCL goes high.
If SDA = 0, set BCLIF and release SDA and SCL.
RSEN
BCLIF
Cleared in software
‘0’
S
‘0’
SSPIF
FIGURE 10-30:
BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 2)
TBRG
TBRG
SDA
SCL
BCLIF
SCL goes low before SDA,
set BCLIF. Release SDA and SCL.
Interrupt cleared
in software
RSEN
S
‘0’
SSPIF
DS30498D-page 130
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
10.4.17.3
Bus Collision During a Stop
Condition
The Stop condition begins with SDA asserted low.
When SDA is sampled low, the SCL pin is allowed to
float. When the pin is sampled high (clock arbitration),
the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with SSPADD<6:0>
and counts down to 0. After the BRG times out, SDA is
sampled. If SDA is sampled low, a bus collision has
occurred. This is due to another master attempting to
drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 10-31). If the SCL pin is
sampled low before SDA is allowed to float high, a bus
collision occurs. This is another case of another master
attempting to drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 10-32).
Bus collision occurs during a Stop condition if:
a)
b)
After the SDA pin has been deasserted and
allowed to float high, SDA is sampled low after
the BRG has timed out.
After the SCL pin is deasserted, SCL is sampled
low before SDA goes high.
FIGURE 10-31:
BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 1)
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SDA sampled
low after TBRG,
set BCLIF
SDA
SDA asserted low
SCL
PEN
BCLIF
P
‘0’
SSPIF
‘0’
FIGURE 10-32:
BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 2)
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SDA
Assert SDA
SCL
SCL goes low before SDA goes high,
set BCLIF
PEN
BCLIF
P
‘0’
SSPIF
‘0’
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 131
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 132
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
11.0
ADDRESSABLE UNIVERSAL
SYNCHRONOUS
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
TRANSMITTER (AUSART)
The AUSART can be configured in the following
modes:
• Asynchronous (full-duplex)
• Synchronous – Master (half-duplex)
• Synchronous – Slave (half-duplex)
The Addressable Universal Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter (AUSART) module is one of the
two serial I/O modules. (AUSART is also known as a
Serial Communications Interface or SCI.) The AUSART
can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system
that can communicate with peripheral devices, such as
CRT terminals and personal computers, or it can be
configured as a half-duplex synchronous system that
can communicate with peripheral devices, such as A/D
or D/A integrated circuits, serial EEPROMs, etc.
REGISTER 11-1:
Bit SPEN (RCSTA<7>) and bits TRISC<7:6> have
to be set in order to configure pins RC6/TX/CK and
RC7/RX/DT
as
the
Universal
Synchronous
Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.
The AUSART module also has a multi-processor
communication capability using 9-bit address detection.
TXSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 98h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R-1
R/W-0
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
CSRC: Clock Source Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care.
Synchronous mode:
1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG)
0 = Slave mode (clock from external source)
bit 6
TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit transmission
0 = Selects 8-bit transmission
bit 5
TXEN: Transmit Enable bit
1 = Transmit enabled
0 = Transmit disabled
Note:
bit 4
SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in Sync mode.
SYNC: AUSART Mode Select bit
1 = Synchronous mode
0 = Asynchronous mode
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = High speed
0 = Low speed
Synchronous mode:
Unused in this mode.
bit 1
TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit
1 = TSR empty
0 = TSR full
bit 0
TX9D: 9th bit of Transmit Data, can be Parity bit
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 133
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 11-2:
RCSTA: RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 18h)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-x
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Serial port enabled (configures RC7/RX/DT and RC6/TX/CK pins as serial port pins)
0 = Serial port disabled
bit 6
RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit reception
0 = Selects 8-bit reception
bit 5
SREN: Single Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care.
Synchronous mode – Master:
1 = Enables single receive
0 = Disables single receive
This bit is cleared after reception is complete.
Synchronous mode – Slave:
Don’t care.
bit 4
CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive
0 = Disables continuous receive
Synchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides SREN)
0 = Disables continuous receive
bit 3
ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit
Asynchronous mode 9-bit (RX9 = 1):
1 = Enables address detection, enables interrupt and load of the receive buffer when
RSR<8> is set
0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received and ninth bit can be used as parity bit
bit 2
FERR: Framing Error bit
1 = Framing error (can be updated by reading RCREG register and receiving next valid byte)
0 = No framing error
bit 1
OERR: Overrun Error bit
1 = Overrun error (can be cleared by clearing bit CREN)
0 = No overrun error
bit 0
RX9D: 9th bit of Received Data
Can be parity bit but must be calculated by user firmware.
Legend:
DS30498D-page 134
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
11.1
AUSART Baud Rate Generator
(BRG)
It may be advantageous to use the high baud rate
(BRGH = 1) even for slower baud clocks. This is
because the FOSC/(16(X + 1)) equation can reduce the
baud rate error in some cases.
The BRG supports both the Asynchronous and
Synchronous modes of the AUSART. It is a dedicated
8-bit Baud Rate Generator. The SPBRG register
controls the period of a free running 8-bit timer. In
Asynchronous mode, bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>) also
controls the baud rate. In Synchronous mode, bit
BRGH is ignored. Table 11-1 shows the formula for
computation of the baud rate for different AUSART
modes which only apply in Master mode (internal
clock).
Writing a new value to the SPBRG register causes the
BRG timer to be reset (or cleared). This ensures the
BRG does not wait for a timer overflow before
outputting the new baud rate.
11.1.1
Given the desired baud rate and FOSC, the nearest
integer value for the SPBRG register can be calculated
using the formula in Table 11-1. From this, the error in
baud rate can be determined.
TABLE 11-1:
SAMPLING
The data on the RC7/RX/DT pin is sampled three times
by a majority detect circuit to determine if a high or a
low level is present at the RX pin.
BAUD RATE FORMULA
SYNC
BRGH = 0 (Low Speed)
BRGH = 1 (High Speed)
0
1
(Asynchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(64(X + 1))
(Synchronous) Baud Rate = FOSC/(4(X + 1))
Baud Rate = FOSC/(16(X + 1))
N/A
Legend: X = value in SPBRG (0 to 255).
TABLE 11-2:
Address
Name
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
18h
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
0000 000x
99h
SPBRG
0000 0000
0000 0000
Legend:
Baud Rate Generator Register
x = unknown, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the BRG.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 135
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 11-3:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 0)
FOSC = 20 MHz
Baud
Rate
(K)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 16 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 10 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.2
1.221
1.75
255
1.202
0.17
207
1.202
0.17
129
2.4
2.404
0.17
129
2.404
0.17
103
2.404
0.17
64
9.6
9.766
1.73
31
9.615
0.16
25
9.766
1.73
15
19.2
19.531
1.72
15
19.231
0.16
12
19.531
1.72
7
28.8
31.250
8.51
9
27.778
3.55
8
31.250
8.51
4
33.6
34.722
3.34
8
35.714
6.29
6
31.250
6.99
4
57.6
62.500
8.51
4
62.500
8.51
3
52.083
9.58
2
HIGH
1.221
—
255
0.977
—
255
0.610
—
255
LOW
312.500
—
0
250.000
—
0
156.250
—
0
FOSC = 4 MHz
Baud
Rate
(K)
Kbaud
0.3
1.2
FOSC = 3.6864 MHz
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.300
0
207
0.3
0
191
1.202
0.17
51
1.2
0
47
2.4
2.404
0.17
25
2.4
0
23
9.6
8.929
6.99
6
9.6
0
5
19.2
20.833
8.51
2
19.2
0
2
28.8
31.250
8.51
1
28.8
0
1
33.6
—
—
—
—
—
—
57.6
62.500
8.51
0
57.6
0
0
HIGH
0.244
—
255
0.225
—
255
LOW
62.500
—
0
57.6
—
0
TABLE 11-4:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 1)
FOSC = 20 MHz
FOSC = 16 MHz
FOSC = 10 MHz
Baud
Rate
(K)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
2.4
—
—
—
—
—
—
2.441
1.71
255
9.6
9.615
0.16
129
9.615
0.16
103
9.615
0.16
64
19.2
19.231
0.16
64
19.231
0.16
51
19.531
1.72
31
28.8
29.070
0.94
42
29.412
2.13
33
28.409
1.36
21
33.6
33.784
0.55
36
33.333
0.79
29
32.895
2.10
18
57.6
59.524
3.34
20
58.824
2.13
16
56.818
1.36
10
HIGH
4.883
—
255
3.906
—
255
2.441
—
255
LOW
1250.000
—
0
1000.000
—
0
625.000
—
0
FOSC = 4 MHz
Baud
Rate
(K)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 3.6864 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.2
1.202
0.17
207
1.2
0
191
2.4
2.404
0.17
103
2.4
0
95
9.6
9.615
0.16
25
9.6
0
23
11
19.2
19.231
0.16
12
19.2
0
28.8
27.798
3.55
8
28.8
0
7
33.6
35.714
6.29
6
32.9
2.04
6
57.6
62.500
8.51
3
57.6
0
3
HIGH
0.977
—
255
0.9
—
255
LOW
250.000
—
0
230.4
—
0
DS30498D-page 136
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 11-5:
INTRC BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 0)
FOSC = 8 MHz
Baud
Rate
(K)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 4 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
FOSC = 2 MHz
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
FOSC = 1 MHz
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
NA
—
—
0.300
0
207
0.300
0
103
0.300
0
51
1.2
1.202
+0.16
103
1.202
+0.16
51
1.202
+0.16
25
1.202
+0.16
12
2.4
2.404
+0.16
51
2.404
+0.16
25
2.404
+0.16
12
2.232
-6.99
6
9.6
9.615
+0.16
12
8.929
-6.99
6
10.417
+8.51
2
NA
—
—
19.2
17.857
-6.99
6
20.833
+8.51
2
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
28.8
31.250
+8.51
3
31.250
+8.51
1
31.250
+8.51
0
NA
—
—
38.4
41.667
+8.51
2
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
57.6
62.500
+8.51
1
62.500
8.51
0
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
TABLE 11-6:
INTRC BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODE (BRGH = 1)
FOSC = 8 MHz
Baud
Rate
(K)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 4 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 2 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
FOSC = 1 MHz
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
Kbaud
%
Error
SPBRG
Value
(decimal)
0.3
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
NA
—
—
0.300
0
207
1.2
NA
—
—
1.202
+0.16
207
1.202
+0.16
103
1.202
+0.16
51
2.4
2.404
+0.16
207
2.404
+0.16
103
2.404
+0.16
51
2.404
+0.16
25
9.6
9.615
+0.16
51
9.615
+0.16
25
9.615
+0.16
12
8.929
-6.99
6
19.2
19.231
+0.16
25
19.231
+0.16
12
17.857
-6.99
6
20.833
+8.51
2
28.8
29.412
+2.12
16
27.778
-3.55
8
31.250
+8.51
3
31.250
+8.51
1
38.4
38.462
+0.16
12
35.714
-6.99
6
41.667
+8.51
2
NA
—
—
57.6
55.556
-3.55
8
62.500
+8.51
3
62.500
+8.51
1
62.500
+8.51
0
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 137
PIC16F7X7
11.2
AUSART Asynchronous Mode
interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing
enable bit, TXIE (PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set
regardless of the state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be
cleared in software. It will reset only when new data is
loaded into the TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF
indicates the status of the TXREG register, another bit,
TRMT (TXSTA<1>), shows the status of the TSR
register. Status bit TRMT is a read-only bit which is set
when the TSR register is empty. No interrupt logic is
tied to this bit, so the user has to poll this bit in order to
determine if the TSR register is empty.
In this mode, the AUSART uses standard Non-Returnto-Zero (NRZ) format (one Start bit, eight or nine data
bits and one Stop bit). The most common data format
is 8 bits. An on-chip, dedicated, 8-bit Baud Rate
Generator can be used to derive standard baud rate
frequencies from the oscillator. The AUSART transmits
and receives the LSb first. The transmitter and receiver
are functionally independent but use the same data format and baud rate. The Baud Rate Generator produces
a clock, either x16 or x64 of the bit shift rate, depending
on bit BRGH (TXSTA<2>). Parity is not supported by
the hardware but can be implemented in software (and
stored as the ninth data bit). Asynchronous mode is
stopped during Sleep.
Note 1: The TSR register is not mapped in data
memory so it is not available to the user.
2: Flag bit TXIF is set when enable bit TXEN
is set. TXIF is cleared by loading TXREG.
Asynchronous mode is selected by clearing bit, SYNC
(TXSTA<4>).
Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit, TXEN
(TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur
until the TXREG register has been loaded with data
and the Baud Rate Generator (BRG) has produced a
shift clock (Figure 11-2). The transmission can also be
started by first loading the TXREG register and then
setting enable bit TXEN. Normally, when transmission
is first started, the TSR register is empty. At that point,
transfer to the TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to TSR, resulting in an empty TXREG. A
back-to-back transfer is thus possible (Figure 11-3).
Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will
cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the
transmitter. As a result, the RC6/TX/CK pin will revert
to high-impedance.
The AUSART asynchronous module consists of the
following important elements:
•
•
•
•
Baud Rate Generator
Sampling Circuit
Asynchronous Transmitter
Asynchronous Receiver
11.2.1
AUSART ASYNCHRONOUS
TRANSMITTER
The AUSART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 11-1. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit
(Serial) Shift Register (TSR). The Shift register obtains
its data from the Read/Write Transmit Buffer register,
TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in
software. The TSR register is not loaded until the Stop
bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As
soon as the Stop bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded
with new data from the TXREG register (if available).
Once the TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR
register (occurs in one TCY), the TXREG register is
empty and flag bit, TXIF (PIR1<4>), is set. This
FIGURE 11-1:
In order to select 9-bit transmission, transmit bit, TX9
(TXSTA<6>), should be set and the ninth bit should be
written to TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must be
written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG
register. This is because a data write to the TXREG
register can result in an immediate transfer of the data
to the TSR register (if the TSR is empty). In such a
case, an incorrect ninth data bit may be loaded in the
TSR register.
AUSART TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
TXIF
TXREG Register
TXIE
8
MSb
(8)

LSb
0
Pin Buffer
and Control
TSR Register
RC6/TX/CK pin
Interrupt
TXEN
Baud Rate CLK
TRMT
SPEN
SPBRG
Baud Rate Generator
TX9
TX9D
DS30498D-page 138
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
When setting up an Asynchronous Transmission,
follow these steps:
5.
1.
6.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high-speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH (see Section 11.1 “AUSART
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)”).
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set transmit
bit TX9.
2.
3.
4.
FIGURE 11-2:
Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN
which will also set bit TXIF.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Load data to the TXREG register (starts
transmission).
If using interrupts, ensure that GIE and PEIE
(bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set.
7.
8.
ASYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Write to TXREG
Word 1
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
RC6/TX/CK (pin)
Start bit
bit 0
bit 1
Word 1
TXIF bit
(Transmit Buffer
Reg. Empty Flag)
bit 7/8
Stop bit
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
FIGURE 11-3:
ASYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION (BACK TO BACK)
Write to TXREG
Word 1
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
RC6/TX/CK (pin)
Word 2
Start bit
bit 0
TXIF bit
(Interrupt Reg. Flag)
Start bit
Word 2
bit 0
Word 2
Transmit Shift Reg.
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
Stop bit
This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions.
TABLE 11-7:
Address
bit 7/8
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg.
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
Note:
bit 1
Word 1
PIR1
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
0000 000x
Bit 5
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG
AUSART Transmit Data Register
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
0000 0000
0000 0000
TMR1IE
0000 0000
0000 0000
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
99h
SPBRG Baud Rate Generator Register
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous transmission.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 139
PIC16F7X7
11.2.2
AUSART ASYNCHRONOUS
RECEIVER
is possible for two bytes of data to be received and
transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a third byte to
begin shifting to the RSR register. On the detection of
the Stop bit of the third byte, if the RCREG register is
still full, the Overrun Error bit, OERR (RCSTA<1>), will
be set. The word in the RSR will be lost. The RCREG
register can be read twice to retrieve the two bytes in
the FIFO. Overrun bit, OERR, has to be cleared in software. This is done by resetting the receive logic (CREN
is cleared and then set). If bit OERR is set, transfers
from the RSR register to the RCREG register are inhibited and no further data will be received. It is, therefore,
essential to clear error bit OERR if it is set. Framing
Error bit, FERR (RCSTA<2>), is set if a Stop bit is
detected as clear. Bit FERR and the 9th receive bit are
buffered the same way as the receive data. Reading
the RCREG will load bits RX9D and FERR with new
values; therefore, it is essential for the user to read the
RCSTA register before reading the RCREG register in
order not to lose the old FERR and RX9D information.
The receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 11-4.
The data is received on the RC7/RX/DT pin and drives
the data recovery block. The data recovery block is
actually a high-speed shifter, operating at x16 times the
baud rate; whereas, the main receive serial shifter
operates at the bit rate or at FOSC.
Once Asynchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting bit, CREN (RCSTA<4>).
The heart of the receiver is the Receive (Serial) Shift
Register (RSR). After sampling the Stop bit, the
received data in the RSR is transferred to the RCREG
register (if it is empty). If the transfer is complete, flag
bit, RCIF (PIR1<5>), is set. The actual interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, RCIE
(PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read-only bit which is
cleared by the hardware. It is cleared when the RCREG
register has been read and is empty. The RCREG is a
double-buffered register (i.e., it is a two-deep FIFO). It
FIGURE 11-4:
AUSART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM
x64 Baud Rate CLK
OERR
CREN
FOSC
FERR
SPBRG
Baud Rate Generator
Pin Buffer
and Control
64
or
16
RSR Register
MSb
Stop
Data
Recovery
(8)

7
1
LSb
0
Start
RX9
RC7/RX/DT
RX9D
SPEN
Interrupt
RCREG Register
8
RCIF
Data Bus
RCIE
FIGURE 11-5:
RX (pin)
Rcv Shift
Reg
Rcv Buffer Reg
Read Rcv
Buffer Reg
RCREG
FIFO
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Start
bit
bit 0
bit 1
bit 7/8 Stop
bit
Start
bit
Word 1
RCREG
bit 0
bit 7/8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 7/8
Stop
bit
Word 2
RCREG
RCIF
(Interrupt Flag)
OERR bit
CREN
Note:
This timing diagram shows three words appearing on the RX input. The RCREG (receive buffer) is read after the third word,
causing the OERR (Overrun Error) bit to be set.
DS30498D-page 140
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
When setting up an Asynchronous Reception, follow
these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE is set.
7. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
8. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
9. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
enable bit CREN.
10. If using interrupts, ensure that GIE and PEIE
(bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high-speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH (see Section 11.1 “AUSART
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)”).
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
Enable the reception by setting bit CREN.
TABLE 11-8:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
PIR1
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
CREN
ADDEN
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
18h
RCSTA
1Ah
RCREG AUSART Receive Data Register
8Ch
PIE1
98h
TXSTA
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
Baud Rate Generator Register
FERR
OERR
RX9D
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
99h
SPBRG
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous reception.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 141
PIC16F7X7
11.2.3
SETTING UP 9-BIT MODE WITH
ADDRESS DETECT
• Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
• Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit and
determine if any error occurred during reception.
• Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register to determine if the device is
being addressed.
• If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
enable bit CREN.
• If the device has been addressed, clear the
ADDEN bit to allow data bytes and address bytes
to be read into the receive buffer and interrupt the
CPU.
When setting up an Asynchronous Reception with
Address Detect enabled:
• Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate. If a high-speed baud rate is desired,
set bit BRGH.
• Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
bit SYNC and setting bit SPEN.
• If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit RCIE.
• Set bit RX9 to enable 9-bit reception.
• Set ADDEN to enable address detect.
• Enable the reception by setting enable bit CREN.
FIGURE 11-6:
AUSART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM
x64 Baud Rate CLK
FERR
OERR
CREN
FOSC
SPBRG
 64
MSb
 16
Stop
or
Baud Rate Generator
Pin Buffer
and Control
Data
Recovery
RSR Register
(8)
7

1
LSb
0
Start
RX9
RC7/RX/DT
8
SPEN
Enable
Load of
Receive
Buffer
RX9
ADDEN
RX9
ADDEN
RSR<8>
8
RX9D
RCREG Register
FIFO
8
Interrupt
RCIF
Data Bus
RCIE
DS30498D-page 142
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 11-7:
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS DETECT
Start
bit
RC7/RX/DT (pin)
bit 0
bit 1
bit 8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 0
bit 8
Stop
bit
Load RSR
bit 8 = 0, Data Byte
bit 8 = 1, Address Byte
Word 1
RCREG
Read
RCIF
Note:
This timing diagram shows a data byte followed by an address byte. The data byte is not read into the RCREG (Receive Buffer)
because ADDEN = 1.
FIGURE 11-8:
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION WITH ADDRESS BYTE FIRST
Start
bit
RC7/RX/DT (pin)
bit 0
bit 1
bit 8
Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 0
bit 8
Stop
bit
Load RSR
bit 8 = 1, Address Byte
bit 8 = 0, Data Byte
Word 1
RCREG
Read
RCIF
Note:
This timing diagram shows a data byte followed by an address byte. The data byte is not read into the RCREG (Receive Buffer)
because ADDEN was not updated and still = 0.
TABLE 11-9:
Address
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
PIR1
18h
RCSTA
1Ah
RCREG
8Ch
PIE1
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
Legend:
Note 1:
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF
CREN
ADDEN
Bit 5
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
FERR
OERR
RX9D
AUSART Receive Register
PSPIE
(1)
CSRC
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
Baud Rate Generator Register
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, — = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for asynchronous reception.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 143
PIC16F7X7
11.3
AUSART Synchronous
Master Mode
In Synchronous Master mode, the data is transmitted in
a half-duplex manner (i.e., transmission and reception
do not occur at the same time). When transmitting data,
the reception is inhibited and vice versa. Synchronous
mode is entered by setting bit, SYNC (TXSTA<4>). In
addition, enable bit, SPEN (RCSTA<7>), is set in order
to configure the RC6/TX/CK and RC7/RX/DT I/O pins
to CK (clock) and DT (data) lines, respectively. The
Master mode indicates that the processor transmits the
master clock on the CK line. The Master mode is
entered by setting bit, CSRC (TXSTA<7>).
11.3.1
AUSART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER
TRANSMISSION
The AUSART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 11-6. The heart of the transmitter is the Transmit
(Serial) Shift Register (TSR). The Shift register obtains
its data from the Read/Write Transmit Buffer register,
TXREG. The TXREG register is loaded with data in
software. The TSR register is not loaded until the last
bit has been transmitted from the previous load. As
soon as the last bit is transmitted, the TSR is loaded
with new data from the TXREG (if available). Once the
TXREG register transfers the data to the TSR register
(occurs in one TCYCLE), the TXREG is empty and interrupt bit, TXIF (PIR1<4>), is set. The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, TXIE
(PIE1<4>). Flag bit TXIF will be set regardless of the
state of enable bit TXIE and cannot be cleared in
software. It will reset only when new data is loaded into
the TXREG register. While flag bit TXIF indicates the
status of the TXREG register, another bit, TRMT
(TXSTA<1>), shows the status of the TSR register.
TRMT is a read-only bit which is set when the TSR is
empty. No interrupt logic is tied to this bit so the user
has to poll this bit in order to determine if the TSR
register is empty. The TSR is not mapped in data
memory so it is not available to the user.
Transmission is enabled by setting enable bit, TXEN
(TXSTA<5>). The actual transmission will not occur
until the TXREG register has been loaded with data.
The first data bit will be shifted out on the next available
rising edge of the clock on the CK line. Data out is
stable around the falling edge of the synchronous clock
(Figure 11-9). The transmission can also be started by
first loading the TXREG register and then setting bit
TXEN (Figure 11-10). This is advantageous when slow
baud rates are selected since the BRG is kept in Reset
when bits TXEN, CREN and SREN are clear. Setting
enable bit TXEN will start the BRG, creating a shift
clock immediately. Normally when transmission is first
started, the TSR register is empty, so a transfer to the
TXREG register will result in an immediate transfer to
TSR, resulting in an empty TXREG. Back-to-back
transfers are possible.
DS30498D-page 144
Clearing enable bit TXEN during a transmission will
cause the transmission to be aborted and will reset the
transmitter. The DT and CK pins will revert to highimpedance. If either bit CREN or bit SREN is set during
a transmission, the transmission is aborted and the DT
pin reverts to a high-impedance state (for a reception).
The CK pin will remain an output if bit CSRC is set
(internal clock). The transmitter logic, however, is not
reset, although it is disconnected from the pins. In order
to reset the transmitter, the user has to clear bit TXEN.
If bit SREN is set (to interrupt an on-going transmission
and receive a single word) and after the single word is
received, bit SREN will be cleared and the serial port
will revert back to transmitting since bit TXEN is still set.
The DT line will immediately switch from HighImpedance Receive mode to transmit and start driving.
To avoid this, bit TXEN should be cleared.
In order to select 9-bit transmission, the TX9
(TXSTA<6>) bit should be set and the ninth bit should
be written to bit TX9D (TXSTA<0>). The ninth bit must
be written before writing the 8-bit data to the TXREG
register. This is because a data write to the TXREG can
result in an immediate transfer of the data to the TSR
register (if the TSR is empty). If the TSR was empty and
the TXREG was written before writing the “new” value
to TX9D, the “present” value of bit TX9D is loaded.
Steps to follow when setting up a Synchronous Master
Transmission:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate (see Section 11.1 “AUSART Baud
Rate Generator (BRG)”).
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, set enable bit TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting bit TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG
register.
If using interrupts, ensure that GIE and PEIE
(bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 11-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
0Bh, 8Bh,
INTCO
10Bh,18Bh N
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
0Ch
PIR1
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG
PSPIE
PIE1
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
Legend:
Note 1:
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
TXIF
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
FERR
OERR
CREN ADDEN
TMR1IF 0000 0000
RX9D
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
CSRC
0000 0000
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000
0000 0000
AUSART Transmit Register
(1)
8Ch
Bit 5
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master transmission.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
FIGURE 11-9:
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2Q3 Q4Q1Q2 Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
RC7/RX/DT
pin
bit 0
bit 1
Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2Q3 Q4Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
bit 2
bit 7
RC6/TX/CK
pin
Write to
TXREG Reg
Write Word 1
bit 0
bit 1
bit 7
Word 2
Word 1
Write Word 2
TXIF bit
(Interrupt Flag)
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
‘1’
‘1’
Note: Sync Master mode, SPBRG = 0. Continuous transmission of two 8-bit words.
FIGURE 11-10:
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN)
RC7/RX/DT pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 6
bit 7
RC6/TX/CK pin
Write to
TXREG Reg
TXIF bit
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 145
PIC16F7X7
11.3.2
AUSART SYNCHRONOUS MASTER
RECEPTION
data. Reading the RCREG register will load bit RX9D
with a new value; therefore, it is essential for the user
to read the RCSTA register before reading RCREG in
order not to lose the old RX9D information.
Once Synchronous mode is selected, reception is
enabled by setting either enable bit, SREN
(RCSTA<5>) or enable bit, CREN (RCSTA<4>). Data is
sampled on the RC7/RX/DT pin on the falling edge of
the clock. If enable bit SREN is set, then only a single
word is received. If enable bit CREN is set, the reception is continuous until CREN is cleared. If both bits are
set, CREN takes precedence. After clocking the last bit,
the received data in the Receive Shift Register (RSR)
is transferred to the RCREG register (if it is empty).
When the transfer is complete, interrupt flag bit, RCIF
(PIR1<5>), is set. The actual interrupt can be enabled/
disabled by setting/clearing enable bit, RCIE
(PIE1<5>). Flag bit RCIF is a read-only bit which is
reset by the hardware. In this case, it is reset when the
RCREG register has been read and is empty. The
RCREG is a double-buffered register (i.e., it is a twodeep FIFO). It is possible for two bytes of data to be
received and transferred to the RCREG FIFO and a
third byte to begin shifting into the RSR register. On the
clocking of the last bit of the third byte, if the RCREG
register is still full, then Overrun Error bit, OERR
(RCSTA<1>), is set. The word in the RSR will be lost.
The RCREG register can be read twice to retrieve the
two bytes in the FIFO. Bit OERR has to be cleared in
software (by clearing bit CREN). If bit OERR is set,
transfers from the RSR to the RCREG are inhibited, so
it is essential to clear bit OERR if it is set. The ninth
receive bit is buffered the same way as the receive
When setting up a Synchronous Master Reception:
1.
Initialize the SPBRG register for the appropriate
baud rate (see Section 11.1 “AUSART Baud
Rate Generator (BRG)”).
2. Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC.
3. Ensure bits CREN and SREN are clear.
4. If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
RCIE.
5. If 9-bit reception is desired, then set bit RX9.
6. If a single reception is required, set bit SREN.
For continuous reception, set bit CREN.
7. Interrupt flag bit RCIF will be set when reception
is complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
8. Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
9. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
10. If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
bit CREN.
11. If using interrupts, ensure that GIE and PEIE
(bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set.
TABLE 11-11: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION
Address
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
PIR1
18h
RCSTA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
TXIF
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000
0000 0000
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000
0000 0000
CREN ADDEN
1Ah
RCREG
AUSART Receive Register
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
99h
SPBRG
Legend:
Note 1:
Baud Rate Generator Register
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous master reception.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
DS30498D-page 146
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 11-11:
SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN)
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
RC7/RX/DT pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 3
bit 4
bit 5
bit 6
bit 7
RC6/TX/CK pin
Write to
bit SREN
SREN bit
CREN bit
‘0’
‘0’
RCIF bit
(Interrupt)
Read
RXREG
Note: Timing diagram demonstrates Sync Master mode with bit SREN = 1 and bit BRG = 0.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 147
PIC16F7X7
11.4
AUSART Synchronous Slave
Mode
When setting up a Synchronous Slave Transmission,
follow these steps:
1.
Synchronous Slave mode differs from the Master mode
in the fact that the shift clock is supplied externally at
the RC6/TX/CK pin (instead of being supplied internally
in Master mode). This allows the device to transfer or
receive data while in Sleep mode. Slave mode is
entered by clearing bit, CSRC (TXSTA<7>).
11.4.1
2.
3.
4.
5.
AUSART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
TRANSMIT
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes is identical, except in the case of Sleep mode.
6.
If two words are written to the TXREG and then the
SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur:
7.
a)
8.
b)
c)
d)
e)
The first word will immediately transfer to the
TSR register and transmit.
The second word will remain in the TXREG
register.
Flag bit TXIF will not be set.
When the first word has been shifted out of TSR,
the TXREG register will transfer the second word
to the TSR and flag bit TXIF will now be set.
If enable bit TXIE is set, the interrupt will wake
the chip from Sleep and if the global interrupt is
enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt
vector (0004h).
Enable the synchronous slave serial port by
setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit
CSRC.
Clear bits CREN and SREN.
If interrupts are desired, then set enable bit
TXIE.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, then set bit TX9.
Enable the transmission by setting enable bit
TXEN.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in bit TX9D.
Start transmission by loading data to the TXREG
register.
If using interrupts, ensure that GIE and PEIE
(bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set.
TABLE 11-12: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION
Address
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Ch
PIR1
18h
RCSTA
19h
TXREG
8Ch
PIE1
98h
TXSTA
99h
SPBRG
Legend:
Note 1:
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
Value on
all other
Resets
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x
0000 000u
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000
CREN
ADDEN
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x
0000 0000
0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000
0000 0000
AUSART Transmit Data Register
(1)
PSPIE
CSRC
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
Baud Rate Generator Register
0000 0000
0000 000x
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010
0000 -010
0000 0000
0000 0000
x = unknown, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave transmission.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices; always maintain these bits clear.
DS30498D-page 148
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
11.4.2
AUSART SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE
RECEPTION
When setting up a Synchronous Slave Reception,
follow these steps:
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes is identical, except in the case of Sleep mode.
Bit SREN is a “don’t care” in Slave mode.
1.
If receive is enabled by setting bit CREN prior to the
SLEEP instruction, then a word may be received during
Sleep. On completely receiving the word, the RSR
register will transfer the data to the RCREG register
and if enable bit RCIE bit is set, the interrupt generated
will wake the chip from Sleep. If the global interrupt is
enabled, the program will branch to the interrupt vector
(0004h).
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC and SPEN and clearing bit
CSRC.
If interrupts are desired, set enable bit RCIE.
If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit RX9.
To enable reception, set enable bit CREN.
Flag bit RCIF will be set when reception is
complete and an interrupt will be generated if
enable bit RCIE was set.
Read the RCSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCREG register.
If any error occurred, clear the error by clearing
bit CREN.
If using interrupts, ensure that GIE and PEIE
(bits 7 and 6) of the INTCON register are set.
TABLE 11-13: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION
Address
Name
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
Bit 7
Bit 6
GIE
PEIE
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
SPEN
RX9
SREN
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
Bit 4
TMR0IE INT0IE
0Ch
PIR1
18h
RCSTA
1Ah
RCREG
AUSART Receive Data Register
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
98h
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
99h
SPBRG
Legend:
Note 1:
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 3
Bit 5
Baud Rate Generator Register
TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
RX9D
0000 000x 0000 000x
0000 0000 0000 0000
CCP1IE TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 -010 0000 -010
0000 0000 0000 0000
x = unknown, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for synchronous slave reception.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on 28-pin devices, always maintain these bits clear.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 149
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 150
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
12.0
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (A/D) MODULE
The Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter module has
11 inputs for the PIC16F737 and PIC16F767 devices
and 14 for the PIC16F747 AND PIC16F777 devices.
The A/D converter allows conversion of an analog input
signal to a corresponding 10-bit digital number.
A new feature for the A/D converter is the addition of
programmable acquisition time. This feature allows the
user to select a new channel for conversion and to set
the GO/DONE bit immediately. When the GO/DONE bit
is set, the selected channel is sampled for the
programmed acquisition time before a conversion is
actually started. This removes the firmware overhead
required to allow for an acquisition (sampling) period
(see Register 12-3 and Section 12.2 “Selecting and
Configuring Automatic Acquisition Time”).
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
The module has five registers:
•
•
•
•
•
A/D Result High Register (ADRESH)
A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL)
A/D Control Register 0 (ADCON0)
A/D Control Register 1 (ADCON1)
A/D Control Register 2 (ADCON2)
The ADCON0 register, shown in Register 12-1, controls
the operation of the A/D module and clock source. The
ADCON1 register, shown in Register 12-2, configures
the functions of the port pins, justification and voltage
reference sources. The ADCON2, shown in
Register 12-3, configures the programmed acquisition
time.
Additional information on using the A/D module can be
found in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference
Manual” (DS33023) and in Application Note AN546
“Using the Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter”
(DS00546).
DS30498D-page 151
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 12-1:
ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 0 (ADDRESS 1Fh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADCS1
ADCS0
CHS2
CHS1
CHS0
GO/DONE
CHS3
ADON
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-6
ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
If ADCS2 = 0:
000 = FOSC/2
001 = FOSC/8
010 = FOSC/32
011 = FRC (clock derived from an RC oscillation)
If ADCS2 = 1:
00 = FOSC/4
01 = FOSC/16
10 = FOSC/64
11 = FRC (clock derived from an RC oscillation)
bit 5-3
CHS<2:0>: Analog Channel Select bits
0000 = Channel 00 (AN0)
0001 = Channel 01 (AN1)
0010 = Channel 02 (AN2)
0011 = Channel 03 (AN3)
0100 = Channel 04 (AN4)
0101 = Channel 05 (AN5)(1)
0110 = Channel 06 (AN6)(1)
0111 = Channel 07 (AN7)(1)
1000 = Channel 08 (AN8)
1001 = Channel 09 (AN9)
1010 = Channel 10 (AN10)
1011 = Channel 11 (AN11)
1100 = Channel 12 (AN12)
1101 = Channel 13 (AN13)
111x = Unused
Note 1: Selecting AN5 through AN7 on the 28-pin product variant (PIC16F737 and
PIC16F767) will result in a full-scale conversion as unimplemented channels are
connected to VDD.
bit 2
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
1 = A/D conversion cycle in progress. Setting this bit starts an A/D conversion cycle. This bit is
automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion has completed.
0 = A/D conversion completed/not in progress
bit 1
CHS<3>: Analog Channel Select bit (see bit 5-3 for bit settings)
bit 0
ADON: A/D Conversion Status bit
1 = A/D converter module is operating
0 = A/D converter is shut-off and consumes no operating current
Legend:
DS30498D-page 152
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 12-2:
ADCON1: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 9Fh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
ADFM
ADCS2
VCFG1
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
ADFM: A/D Result Format Select bit
1 = Right justified. Six Most Significant bits of ADRESH are read as ‘0’.
0 = Left justified. Six Least Significant bits of ADRESL are read as ‘0’.
bit 6
ADCS2: A/D Clock Divide by 2 Select bit
1 = A/D clock source is divided by two when system clock is used
0 = Disabled
bit 5
VCFG1: Voltage Reference Configuration bit 1
0 = VREF- is connected to VSS
1 = VREF- is connected to external VREF- (RA2)
bit 4
VCFG0: Voltage Reference Configuration bit 0
0 = VREF+ is connected to VDD
1 = VREF+ is connected to external VREF+ (RA3)
bit 3-0
PCFG<3:0>: A/D Port Configuration bits
AN13 AN12 AN11 AN10 AN9 AN8 AN7 AN6 AN5 AN4 AN3 AN2 AN1 AN0
0000
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0001
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0010
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0011
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0100
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0101
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0110
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0111
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
1000
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
1001
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
A
1010
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
A
1011
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
A
1100
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
A
1101
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
A
1110
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
A
1111
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Legend:
Note:
A
A = Analog input, D = Digital I/O
AN5 through AN7 are only available on the 40-pin product variant (PIC16F747 and
PIC16F777).
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 153
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 12-3:
ADCON2: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 2 (ADDRESS 9Bh)
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
ACQT2
ACQT1
ACQT0
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-3
ACQT<2:0>: A/D Acquisition Time Select bits
000 = 0(1)
001 = 2 TAD
010 = 4 TAD
011 = 6 TAD
100 = 8 TAD
101 = 12TAD
110 = 16 TAD
111 = 20 TAD
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D
clock starts. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be executed.
bit 2-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
The analog reference voltage is software selectable
to either the device’s positive and negative supply
voltage (VDD and VSS) or the voltage level on the
RA3/AN3/VREF+ and RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pins.
The A/D converter has a unique feature of being able
to operate while the device is in Sleep mode. To
operate in Sleep, the A/D conversion clock must be
derived from the A/D’s internal RC oscillator.
The output of the sample and hold is the input into the
converter which generates the result via successive
approximation.
DS30498D-page 154
x = Bit is unknown
A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state.
This forces the A/D module to be turned off and any
conversion in progress is aborted.
Each port pin associated with the A/D converter can be
configured as an analog input or as a digital I/O. The
ADRESH and ADRESL registers contain the result of
the A/D conversion. When the A/D conversion is complete, the result is loaded into the ADRESH/ADRESL
registers, the GO/DONE bit (ADCON0 register) is
cleared and A/D Interrupt Flag bit, ADIF, is set. The block
diagram of the A/D module is shown in Figure 12-1.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
The value in the ADRESH/ADRESL registers is not
modified for a Power-on Reset. The ADRESH/
ADRESL registers will contain unknown data after a
Power-on Reset.
2.
After the A/D module has been configured as desired,
the selected channel must be acquired before the
conversion is started. The analog input channels must
have their corresponding TRIS bits selected as an
input. To determine acquisition time, see Section 12.1
“A/D Acquisition Requirements”. After this acquisition time has elapsed, the A/D conversion can be
started. An acquisition time can be programmed to
occur between setting the GO/DONE bit and the actual
start of the conversion.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The following steps should be followed to do an A/D
conversion:
1.
7.
Configure the A/D module:
• Configure analog pins, voltage reference and
digital I/O (ADCON1)
• Select A/D input channel (ADCON0)
• Select A/D acquisition time (ADCON2)
• Select A/D conversion clock (ADCON0)
• Turn on A/D module (ADCON0)
FIGURE 12-1:
Configure A/D interrupt (if desired):
• Clear ADIF bit
• Set ADIE bit
• Set PEIE bit
• Set GIE bit
Wait the required acquisition time (if required).
Start conversion:
• Set GO/DONE bit (ADCON0 register)
Wait for A/D conversion to complete, by either:
• Polling for the GO/DONE bit to be cleared
OR
• Waiting for the A/D interrupt
Read A/D Result registers (ADRESH:ADRESL);
clear bit ADIF (if required).
For next conversion, go to step 1 or step 2 as
required. The A/D conversion time per bit is
defined as TAD. A minimum wait of 2 TAD is
required before the next acquisition starts.
A/D BLOCK DIAGRAM
CHS<3:0>
1101
1100
AN13
AN12
1011
S
S
AN11
0011
AN3/VREF+
0010
VIN
AN2/VREF-
(Input Voltage)
0001
AN1
VDD
A/D
Converter
0000
AN0
VREF+
(Reference
Voltage)
VCFG<1:0>
VREF(Reference
Voltage)
VSS
VCFG<1:0>
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 155
PIC16F7X7
12.1
A/D Acquisition Requirements
For the A/D converter to meet its specified accuracy, the
charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to
fully charge to the input channel voltage level. The
analog input model is shown in Figure 12-2. The source
impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS)
impedance directly affect the time required to charge the
capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS) impedance
varies over the device voltage (VDD), see Figure 12-2.
The maximum recommended impedance for analog
sources is 2.5 k. As the impedance is decreased, the
acquisition time may be decreased. After the analog
input channel is selected (changed), this acquisition
must be done before the conversion can be started.
EQUATION 12-1:
TACQ
TC
TACQ
To calculate the minimum acquisition time,
Equation 12-1 may be used. This equation assumes
that 1/2 LSb error is used (1024 steps for the A/D). The
1/2 LSb error is the maximum error allowed for the A/D
to meet its specified resolution.
To calculate the minimum acquisition time, TACQ, see
the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual”
(DS33023).
ACQUISITION TIME
= Amplifier Settling Time + Hold Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
TAMP + TC + TCOFF
2 s + TC + [(Temperature – 25°C)(0.05 s/°C)]
CHOLD (RIC + RSS + RS) In(1/2047)
-120 pF (1 k + 7 k + 10 k) In(0.0004885)
16.47 s
2 s + 16.47 s + [(50°C – 25C)(0.05 s/C)
19.72 s
Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no effect on the equation since it cancels itself out.
2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is not discharged after each conversion.
3: The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 k. This is required to meet the pin
leakage specification.
4: After a conversion has completed, a 2.0 TAD delay must complete before acquisition can begin again.
During this time, the holding capacitor is not connected to the selected A/D input channel.
FIGURE 12-2:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
RS
VA
ANx
CPIN
5 pF
VT = 0.6V
VT = 0.6V
Sampling
Switch
RIC  1K SS RSS
CHOLD
= DAC Capacitance
= 120 pF
ILEAKAGE
±500 nA
VSS
Legend: CPIN
= Input Capacitance
VT
= Threshold Voltage
ILEAKAGE = Leakage Current at the pin due to
various junctions
RIC
= Interconnect Resistance
SS
= Sampling Switch
CHOLD
= Sample/Hold Capacitance (from DAC)
DS30498D-page 156
6V
5V
VDD 4V
3V
2V
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Sampling Switch
(k)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
12.2
Selecting and Configuring
Automatic Acquisition Time
12.3
The ADCON2 register allows the user to select an
acquisition time that occurs each time the GO/DONE
bit is set.
Selecting the A/D Conversion
Clock
The A/D conversion time per bit is defined as TAD. The
A/D conversion requires a minimum 12 TAD per 10-bit
conversion. The source of the A/D conversion clock is
software selected. The seven possible options for TAD
are:
When the GO/DONE bit is set, sampling is stopped and
a conversion begins. The user is responsible for ensuring the required acquisition time has passed between
selecting the desired input channel and setting the
GO/DONE bit. This occurs when the ACQT2:ACQT0
bits (ADCON2<5:3>) remain in their Reset state (‘000’)
and is compatible with devices that do not offer
programmable acquisition times.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
If desired, the ACQT bits can be set to select a
programmable acquisition time for the A/D module.
When the GO/DONE bit is set, the A/D module continues to sample the input for the selected acquisition
time, then automatically begins a conversion. Since the
acquisition time is programmed, there may be no need
to wait for an acquisition time between selecting a
channel and setting the GO/DONE bit.
2 TOSC
4 TOSC
8 TOSC
16 TOSC
32 TOSC
64 TOSC
Internal A/D module, RC oscillator (2-6 s)
For correct A/D conversions, the A/D conversion clock
(TAD) must be selected to ensure a minimum TAD time
of 1.6 s.
Table 12-1 shows the resultant TAD times derived from
the device operating frequencies and the A/D clock
source selected.
In either case, when the conversion is completed, the
GO/DONE bit is cleared, the ADIF flag is set and the
A/D begins sampling the currently selected channel
again. If an acquisition time is programmed, there is
nothing to indicate if the acquisition time has ended or
if the conversion has begun.
TABLE 12-1:
TAD vs. MAXIMUM DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES (STANDARD DEVICES (F))
AD Clock Source (TAD)
Note 1:
2:
3:
Maximum Device Frequency
Operation
ADCS2:ADCS1:ADCS0
2 TOSC
000
1.25 MHz
4 TOSC
100
2.5 MHz
8 TOSC
001
5 MHz
16 TOSC
101
10 MHz
32 TOSC
010
20 MHz
64 TOSC
110
20 MHz
RC(1,2,3)
x11
(Note 1)
The RC source has a typical TAD time of 4 s but can vary between 2-6 s.
When the device frequencies are greater than 1 MHz, the RC A/D conversion clock source is only
recommended for Sleep operation.
For extended voltage devices (LF), please refer to Section 18.0 “Electrical Characteristics”.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 157
PIC16F7X7
12.4
Operation in Power-Managed
Modes
The selection of the automatic acquisition time and
A/D conversion clock is determined in part by the clock
source and frequency while in a power-managed
mode.
If the A/D is expected to operate while the device is in
a power-managed mode, the ACQT2:ACQT0
(ADCON2<5:3>) and ADCS2:ADCS0 (ADCON1<6>,
ADCON0<7:6>) bits should be updated in accordance
with the power-managed mode clock that will be used.
After the power-managed mode is entered (either of
the power-managed Run modes), an A/D acquisition or
conversion may be started. Once an acquisition or
conversion is started, the device should continue to be
clocked by the same power-managed mode clock
source until the conversion has been completed.
If the power-managed mode clock frequency is less
than 1 MHz, the A/D RC clock source should be
selected.
Operation in Sleep mode requires the A/D RC clock to
be selected. If bits ACQT2:ACQT0 are set to ‘000’ and
a conversion is started, the conversion will be delayed
one instruction cycle to allow execution of the SLEEP
instruction and entry to Sleep mode.
DS30498D-page 158
12.5
Configuring Analog Port Pins
The ADCON1, TRISA, TRISB and TRISE registers
control the operation of the A/D port pins. The port pins
that are desired as analog inputs must have their
corresponding TRIS bits set (input). If the TRIS bit is
cleared (output), the digital output level (VOH or VOL)
will be converted.
The A/D operation is independent of the state of the
CHS2:CHS0 bits and the TRIS bits.
Note 1: When reading the Port register, all pins
configured as analog input channels will
read as cleared (a low level). Pins configured as digital inputs will convert an
analog input. Analog levels on a digitally
configured input will not affect the
conversion accuracy.
2: Analog levels on any pin that is defined as
a digital input, but not as an analog input,
may cause the digital input buffer to
consume current that is out of the
device’s specification.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
12.6
A/D Conversions
Clearing the GO/DONE bit during a conversion will
abort the current conversion. The A/D Result register
pair will NOT be updated with the partially completed
A/D
conversion
sample.
This
means
the
ADRESH:ADRESL registers will continue to contain
the value of the last completed conversion (or the last
value written to the ADRESH:ADRESL registers).
Figure 12-3 shows the operation of the A/D converter
after the GO/DONE bit has been set and the
ACQT2:ACQT0 bits are cleared. A conversion is
started after the following instruction to allow entry into
Sleep mode before the conversion begins.
Figure 12-4 shows the operation of the A/D converter
after the GO/DONE bit has been set, the
ACQT2:ACQT0 bits are set to ‘010’ and a 4 TAD
acquisition time is selected before the conversion
starts.
After the A/D conversion is completed or aborted, a
2 TAD wait is required before the next acquisition can be
started. After this wait, acquisition on the selected
channel is automatically started.
Note:
FIGURE 12-3:
The GO/DONE bit should NOT be set in
the same instruction that turns on the A/D.
A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES (ACQT<2:0> = 000, TACQ = 0)
TCY - TAD TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 TAD10 TAD11
b4
b1
b0
b6
b7
b2
b9
b8
b3
b5
Conversion starts
Holding capacitor is disconnected from analog input (typically 100 ns)
Set GO/DONE bit
Next Q4: ADRESH/ADRESL is loaded, GO/DONE bit is cleared,
ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is connected to analog input.
FIGURE 12-4:
A/D CONVERSION TAD CYCLES (ACQT<2:0> = 010, TACQ = 4 TAD)
TAD Cycles
TACQT Cycles
1
2
3
Automatic
Acquisition
Time
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
b9
b8
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Conversion starts
(Holding capacitor is disconnected)
Set GO/DONE bit
(Holding capacitor continues
acquiring input)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Next Q4: ADRESH:ADRESL is loaded, GO/DONE bit is cleared,
ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is reconnected to analog input.
DS30498D-page 159
PIC16F7X7
12.7
A/D Operation During Sleep
12.8
The A/D module can operate during Sleep mode. This
requires that the A/D clock source be set to RC
(ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). When the RC clock source is
selected, the A/D module waits one instruction cycle
before starting the conversion. This allows the SLEEP
instruction to be executed which eliminates all digital
switching noise from the conversion. When the conversion is completed, the GO/DONE bit will be cleared and
the result loaded into the ADRESH register. If the A/D
interrupt is enabled, the device will wake-up from
Sleep. If the A/D interrupt is not enabled, the A/D
module will then be turned off, although the ADON bit
will remain set.
When the A/D clock source is another clock option (not
RC), a SLEEP instruction will cause the present conversion to be aborted and the A/D module to be turned off,
though the ADON bit will remain set.
Turning off the A/D places the A/D module in its lowest
current consumption state.
Note:
For the A/D module to operate in Sleep,
the A/D clock source must be set to RC
(ADCS1:ADCS0 = 11). To perform an A/D
conversion in Sleep, ensure the SLEEP
instruction immediately follows the
instruction that sets the GO/DONE bit.
TABLE 12-2:
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state.
The A/D module is disabled and any conversion in
progress is aborted. All A/D input pins are configured
as analog inputs.
The ADRESH register will contain unknown data after
a Power-on Reset.
12.9
Use of the CCP Trigger
An A/D conversion can be started by the “special event
trigger” of the CCP2 module. This requires that the
CCP2M3:CCP2M0
bits
(CCP2CON<3:0>)
be
programmed as ‘1011’ and that the A/D module is
enabled (ADON bit is set). When the trigger occurs, the
GO/DONE bit will be set, starting the A/D conversion
and the Timer1 counter will be reset to zero. Timer1 is
reset to automatically repeat the A/D acquisition period
with minimal software overhead (moving the ADRESH
to the desired location). The appropriate analog input
channel must be selected and an appropriate acquisition time should pass before the “special event trigger”
sets the GO/DONE bit (starts a conversion).
If the A/D module is not enabled (ADON is cleared),
then the “special event trigger” will be ignored by the
A/D module but will still reset the Timer1 counter.
SUMMARY OF A/D REGISTERS
Value on
all other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on:
POR, BOR
0Bh,8Bh,
INTCON
10Bh, 18Bh
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INT0IE
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
PSPIF(1)
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF TMR1IF 0000 0000 0000 0000
Address
0Ch
PIR1
0Dh
PIR2
OSFIF
CMIF
LVDIF
—
BCLIF
—
CCP3IF CCP2IF 000- 0-00 000- 0-00
8Ch
PIE1
PSPIE(1)
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE TMR1IE 0000 0000 0000 0000
OSFIE
CMIE
LVDIE
—
BCLIE
—
CCP3IE CCP2IE 000- 0-00 000- 0-00
8Dh
PIE2
1Eh
ADRESH A/D Result Register High Byte
1Fh
ADCON0
ADCS1
ADCS0
9Fh
ADCON1
ADFM
ADCS2 VCFG1
05h
PORTA
85h
TRISA
09h
PORTE(2)
—
—
89h
TRISE(2)
IBF
OBF
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for A/D conversion.
Bits PSPIE and PSPIF are reserved on the PIC16F737/767 devices; always maintain these bits clear.
These registers are reserved on the PIC16F737/767 devices.
RE3 is an input only. The state of the TRISE3 bit has no effect and will always read ‘1’.
DS30498D-page 160
RA7
RA6
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS3
ADON
VCFG0
PCFG3
PCFG2
PCFG1
PCFG0
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
xx0x 0000 uu0u 0000
—
—
RE3(3)
RE2
RE1
RE0
---- x000 ---- x000
IBOV
PSPMODE
—(3)
CHS2
CHS1
RA5
CHS0 GO/DONE
PORTA Data Direction Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 000
0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
PORTE Data Direction bits
0000 1111 0000 1111
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
13.0
COMPARATOR MODULE
The comparator module contains two analog comparators. The inputs to the comparators are
multiplexed with I/O port pins, RA0 through RA3, while
the outputs are multiplexed to pins RA4 and RA5. The
on-chip voltage reference (Section 14.0 “Comparator
Voltage Reference Module”) can also be an input to
the comparators.
REGISTER 13-1:
The CMCON register (Register 13-1) controls the
comparator input and output multiplexers. A block
diagram of the various comparator configurations is
shown in Figure 13-1.
CMCON: COMPARATOR MODULE CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 9Ch)
R-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
C2OUT: Comparator 2 Output bit
When C2INV = 0:
1 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN0 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VINWhen C2INV = 1:
1 = C2 VIN+ < C2 VIN0 = C2 VIN+ > C2 VIN-
bit 6
C1OUT: Comparator 1 Output bit
When C1INV = 0:
1 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN0 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VINWhen C1INV = 1:
1 = C1 VIN+ < C1 VIN0 = C1 VIN+ > C1 VIN-
bit 5
C2INV: Comparator 2 Output Inversion bit
1 = C2 output inverted
0 = C2 output not inverted
bit 4
C1INV: Comparator 1 Output Inversion bit
1 = C1 output inverted
0 = C1 output not inverted
bit 3
CIS: Comparator Input Switch bit
When CM2:CM0 = 110:
1 = C1 VIN- connects to RA3/AN3
C2 VIN- connects to RA2/AN2
0 = C1 VIN- connects to RA0/AN0
C2 VIN- connects to RA1/AN1
bit 2-0
CM2:CM0: Comparator Mode bits
Figure 13-1 shows the Comparator modes and CM2:CM0 bit settings.
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 161
PIC16F7X7
13.1
Comparator Configuration
There are eight modes of operation for the comparators. The CMCON register is used to select these
modes. Figure 13-1 shows the eight possible modes.
The TRISA register controls the data direction of the
comparator pins for each mode. If the Comparator
mode is changed, the comparator output level may not
FIGURE 13-1:
A
VINVIN+
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/ A
VREF-/CVREF
VIN+
A
RA3/AN3/ A
VREF+
D
VIN-
RA3/AN3/ D
VREF+
VIN+
D
VIN-
RA2/AN2/ D
VREF-/CVREF
VIN+
RA0/AN0
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
RA1/AN1
VIN-
RA0/AN0
A
VIN-
VIN+
RA3/AN3/ A
VREF+
VIN+
C1
C1
Off (Read as ‘0’)
C2
Off (Read as ‘0’)
Two Independent Comparators with Outputs
CM2:CM0 = 011
Two Independent Comparators
CM2:CM0 = 010
RA0/AN0
Comparator interrupts should be disabled
during a Comparator mode change.
Otherwise, a false interrupt may occur.
Comparators Off (POR Default Mode)
CM2:CM0 = 111
RA3/AN3/ A
VREF+
RA1/AN1
Note:
COMPARATOR I/O OPERATING MODES
Comparators Reset
CM2:CM0 = 000
RA0/AN0
be valid for the specified mode change delay shown in
the electrical specifications (Section 18.0 “Electrical
Characteristics”).
C1OUT
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/ A
VIN+
RA1/AN1
C2
C2OUT
VREF-/CVREF
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/ A
VREF-/CVREF
VIN+
RA1/AN1
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
Two Common Reference Comparators
CM2:CM0 = 100
RA0/AN0
A
RA3/AN3/ A
VREF+
Two Common Reference Comparators with Outputs
CM2:CM0 = 101
VINVIN+
C1
C1OUT
RA0/AN0
A
VIN-
RA3/AN3/
VREF+
A
VIN+
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
A
VIN-
RA2/AN2/ D
VREF-/CVREF
VIN+
RA1/AN1
C2
C2OUT
A
VIN-
D
RA2/AN2/
VREF-/CVREF
VIN+
RA1/AN1
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT
Four Inputs Multiplexed to Two Comparators
CM2:CM0 = 110
One Independent Comparator with Output
CM2:CM0 = 001
A
VIN-
RA3/AN3/ A
VREF+
VIN+
RA0/AN0
RA0/AN0
C1
C1OUT
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
D
VIN-
RA2/AN2/ D
VREF-/CVREF
VIN+
RA1/AN1
RA3/AN3/ A
VREF+
RA1/AN1
C2
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
VINVIN+
C1
C1OUT
C2
C2OUT
A
RA2/AN2/ A
VREF-/CVREF
CIS = 0
CIS = 1
VINVIN+
Off (Read as ‘0’)
A = Analog Input, port reads zeros always
DS30498D-page 162
A
CVREF From Comparator
VREF Module
D = Digital Input
CIS (CMCON<3>) is the Comparator Input Switch
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
13.2
13.3.2
Comparator Operation
INTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL
A single comparator is shown in Figure 13-2, along with
the relationship between the analog input levels and
the digital output. When the analog input at VIN+ is less
than the analog input VIN-, the output of the comparator
is a digital low level. When the analog input at VIN+ is
greater than the analog input VIN-, the output of the
comparator is a digital high level. The shaded areas of
the output of the comparator in Figure 13-2 represent
the uncertainty due to input offsets and response time.
The comparator module also allows the selection of an
internally generated voltage reference for the comparators. Section 14.0 “Comparator Voltage Reference
Module” contains a detailed description of the comparator voltage reference module that provides this
signal. The internal reference signal is used when
comparators are in mode CM<2:0> = 110 (Figure 13-1).
In this mode, the internal voltage reference is applied to
the VIN+ pin of both comparators.
13.3
13.4
Comparator Reference
An external or internal reference signal may be used
depending on the comparator operating mode. The
analog signal present at VIN- is compared to the signal
at VIN+ and the digital output of the comparator is
adjusted accordingly (Figure 13-2).
FIGURE 13-2:
SINGLE COMPARATOR
Response time is the minimum time after selecting a
new reference voltage, or input source, before the
comparator output has a valid level. If the internal
reference is changed, the maximum delay of the internal voltage reference must be considered when using
the comparator outputs. Otherwise, the maximum
delay of the comparators should be used (Section 18.0
“Electrical Characteristics”).
13.5
VIN+
+
VIN-
–
Output
VIN
VIN–
VIN
+
VIN+
Comparator Response Time
Comparator Outputs
The comparator outputs are read through the CMCON
register. These bits are read-only. The comparator
outputs may also be directly output to the RA4 and RA5
I/O pins. When enabled, multiplexors in the output path
of the RA4 and RA5 pins will switch and the output of
each pin will be the unsynchronized output of the
comparator. The uncertainty of each of the
comparators is related to the input offset voltage and
the response time given in the specifications.
Figure 13-3 shows the comparator output block
diagram.
The TRISA bits will still function as an output enable/
disable for the RA4 and RA5 pins while in this mode.
Output
Output
The polarity of the comparator outputs can be changed
using the C2INV and C1INV bits (CMCON<5:4:>).
13.3.1
EXTERNAL REFERENCE SIGNAL
When external voltage references are used, the
comparator module can be configured to have the comparators operate from the same or different reference
sources. However, threshold detector applications may
require the same reference. The reference signal must
be between VSS and VDD and can be applied to either
pin of the comparator(s).
Note 1: When reading the Port register, all pins
configured as analog inputs will read as a
‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will
convert an analog input according to the
Schmitt Trigger input specification.
2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a
digital input may cause the input buffer to
consume more current than is specified.
3: RA4 is an open collector I/O pin. When
used as an output, a pull-up resistor is
required.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 163
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 13-3:
COMPARATOR OUTPUT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Port pins
MULTIPLEX
+
CxINV
To RA4 or
RA5 pin
Bus
Data
Q
Read CMCON
Set
CMIF
bit
D
EN
Q
From
other
Comparator
D
EN
CL
Read CMCON
Reset
13.6
Comparator Interrupts
The comparator interrupt flag is set whenever there is
a change in the output value of either comparator.
Software will need to maintain information about the
status of the output bits, as read from CMCON<7:6>, to
determine the actual change that occurred. The CMIF
bit (PIR2 register) is the Comparator Interrupt Flag. The
CMIF bit must be reset by clearing it (‘0’). Since it is
also possible to write a ‘1’ to this register, a simulated
interrupt may be initiated.
The CMIE bit (PIE2 register) and the PEIE bit (INTCON
register) must be set to enable the interrupt. In addition,
the GIE bit must also be set. If any of these bits are
clear, the interrupt is not enabled, though the CMIF bit
will still be set if an interrupt condition occurs.
DS30498D-page 164
Note:
If a change in the CMCON register
(C1OUT or C2OUT) should occur when a
read operation is being executed (start of
the Q2 cycle), then the CMIF (PIR2
register) interrupt flag may not get set.
The user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the
interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Any read or write of CMCON will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit CMIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit CMIF.
Reading CMCON will end the mismatch condition and
allow flag bit CMIF to be cleared.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
13.7
Comparator Operation
During Sleep
13.9
When a comparator is active and the device is placed
in Sleep mode, the comparator remains active and the
interrupt is functional if enabled. This interrupt will
wake-up the device from Sleep mode when enabled.
While the comparator is powered up, higher Sleep
currents than shown in the power-down current
specification will occur. Each operational comparator
will consume additional current as shown in the comparator specifications. To minimize power consumption
while in Sleep mode, turn off the comparators
(CM<2:0> = 111) before entering Sleep. If the device
wakes up from Sleep, the contents of the CMCON
register are not affected.
13.8
Analog Input Connection
Considerations
A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in
Figure 13-4. Since the analog pins are connected to a
digital output, they have reverse biased diodes to VDD
and VSS. The analog input, therefore, must be between
VSS and VDD. If the input voltage deviates from this
range by more than 0.6V in either direction, one of the
diodes is forward biased and a latch-up condition may
occur. A maximum source impedance of 10 k is
recommended for the analog sources. Any external
component connected to an analog input pin, such as
a capacitor or a Zener diode, should have very little
leakage current.
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset forces the CMCON register to its Reset
state, causing the comparator module to be in the
Comparator Off mode, CM<2:0> = 111. This ensures
compatibility to the PIC16F87X devices.
FIGURE 13-4:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
VT = 0.6V
RS < 10K
RIC
AIN
CPIN
5 pF
VA
Legend:
TABLE 13-1:
Address
CPIN
VT
ILEAKAGE
RIC
RS
VA
=
=
=
=
=
=
ILEAKAGE
±500 nA
VT = 0.6V
VSS
Input Capacitance
Threshold Voltage
Leakage Current at the pin due to various junctions
Interconnect Resistance
Source Impedance
Analog Voltage
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR MODULE
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
9Ch
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0111 0000 0111
9Dh
CVRCON CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
—
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
000- 0000 000- 0000
RBIE
TMR0IF
INT0IF
RBIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
BCLIF
—
CCP3IF
CCP2IF
000- 0-00 000- 0-00
0Bh, 8Bh, INTCON
10Bh,18Bh
0Dh
PEIE
PIR2
OSFIF
CMIF
LVDIF
OSFIE
CMIE
LVDIE
—
BCLIE
—
CCP3IE
CCP2IE
000- 0-00 000- 0-00
RA7
RA6
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
xx0x 0000 uu0u 0000
8Dh
PIE2
05h
PORTA
85h
TRISA
Legend:
TMR0IE INT0IE
GIE
PORTA Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are unused by the comparator module.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 165
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 166
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
14.0
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE
REFERENCE MODULE
The comparator voltage reference generator is a 16-tap
resistor ladder network that provides a fixed voltage
reference when the comparators are in mode ‘110’. A
programmable register controls the function of the
reference generator. Register 14-1 lists the bit functions
of the CVRCON register.
As shown in Figure 14-1, the resistor ladder is segmented to provide two ranges of CVREF values and has
a power-down function to conserve power when the
reference is not being used. The comparator reference
REGISTER 14-1:
supply voltage (also referred to as CVRSRC) comes
directly from VDD. It should be noted, however, that the
voltage at the top of the ladder is CVRSRC – VSAT,
where VSAT is the saturation voltage of the power
switch transistor. This reference will only be as
accurate as the values of CVRSRC and VSAT.
The output of the reference generator may be
connected to the RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pin. This can
be used as a simple D/A function by the user if a very
high-impedance load is used. The primary purpose of
this function is to provide a test path for testing the
reference generator function.
CVRCON: COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER
(ADDRESS 9Dh)
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
U-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
—
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
CVREN: Comparator Voltage Reference Enable bit
1 = CVREF circuit powered on
0 = CVREF circuit powered down
bit 6
CVROE: Comparator VREF Output Enable bit
1 = CVREF voltage level is output on RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pin
0 = CVREF voltage level is disconnected from RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF pin
bit 5
CVRR: Comparator VREF Range Selection bit
1 = 0 to 0.625 CVRSRC, with CVRSRC/24 step size
0 = 0.25 CVRSRC to 0.72 CVRSRC, with CVRSRC/32 step size
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-0
CVR3:CVR0: Comparator VREF Value Selection bits 0  CVR3:CVR0  15
When CVRR = 1:
CVREF = (CVR<3:0>/24)  (CVRSRC)
When CVRR = 0:
CVREF = 1/4  (CVRSRC) + (CVR3:CVR0/32)  (CVRSRC)
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 167
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 14-1:
COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDD
16 Stages
CVREN
8R
R
R
R
R
8R
CVRR
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF
CVROE
CVREF
Input to
Comparator
TABLE 14-1:
Address
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
16:1 Analog MUX
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR VOLTAGE REFERENCE
Value on
POR
Value on
all other
Resets
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
9Dh
CVRCON
CVREN
CVROE
CVRR
—
CVR3
CVR2
CVR1
CVR0
000- 0000 000- 0000
9Ch
CMCON
C2OUT
C1OUT
C2INV
C1INV
CIS
CM2
CM1
CM0
0000 0111 0000 0111
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
Shaded cells are not used with the comparator voltage reference.
DS30498D-page 168
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
15.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF
THE CPU
These devices have a host of features intended to
maximize system reliability, minimize cost through elimination of external components, provide power-saving
operating modes and offer code protection:
• Reset
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
- Brown-out Reset (BOR)
- Low-Voltage Detect (LVD)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• Two-Speed Start-up
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
• Sleep
• Code Protection
• ID Locations
• In-Circuit Serial Programming
Sleep mode is designed to offer a very low-current
power-down mode. The user can wake-up from Sleep
through external Reset, Watchdog Timer wake-up or
through an interrupt.
Several oscillator options are also made available to
allow the part to fit the application. The RC oscillator
option saves system cost while the LP crystal option
saves power. Configuration bits are used to select the
desired oscillator mode.
Additional information on special features is available
in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manual” (DS33023).
15.1
Configuration Bits
The configuration bits can be programmed (read as ‘0’)
or left unprogrammed (read as ‘1’) to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped in
program memory locations 2007h and 2008h.
The user will note that address 2007h is beyond the
user program memory space which can be accessed
only during programming.
There are two timers that offer necessary delays on
power-up. One is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST),
intended to keep the chip in Reset until the crystal
oscillator is stable. The other is the Power-up Timer
(PWRT) which provides a fixed delay of 72 ms
(nominal) on power-up only. It is designed to keep the
part in Reset while the power supply stabilizes and is
enabled or disabled using a configuration bit. With
these two timers on-chip, most applications need no
external Reset circuitry.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 169
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 15-1:
R/P-1 R/P-1
CP
CONFIGURATION WORD REGISTER 1 (ADDRESS 2007h)
R/P-1
CCPMX DEBUG
U-1
U-1
—
—
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
R/P-1
BORV1 BORV0 BOREN MCLRE FOSC2 PWRTEN WDTEN FOSC1 FOSC0
bit 13
bit 0
bit 13
CP: Flash Program Memory Code Protection bits
1 = Code protection off
0 = 0000h to 1FFFh code-protected for PIC16F767/777 and 0000h to 0FFFh for PIC16F737/747 (all protected)
bit 12
CCPMX: CCP2 Multiplex bit
1 = CCP2 is on RC1
0 = CCP2 is on RB3
bit 11
DEBUG: In-Circuit Debugger Mode bit
1 = In-Circuit Debugger disabled, RB6 and RB7 are general purpose I/O pins
0 = In-Circuit Debugger enabled, RB6 and RB7 are dedicated to the debugger
bit 10-9 Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 8-7
BORV<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Voltage bits
11 = VBOR set to 2.0V
10 = VBOR set to 2.7V
01 = VBOR set to 4.2V
00 = VBOR set to 4.5V
bit 6
BOREN: Brown-out Reset Enable bit
BOREN combines with BORSEN to control when BOR is enabled and how it is controlled.
BOREN:BORSEN:
11 = BOR enabled and always on
10 = BOR enabled during operation and disabled during Sleep by hardware
01 = BOR controlled by software bit SBOREN – refer to Register 2-8 (PCON<2>)
00 = BOR disabled
bit 5
MCLRE: MCLR/VPP/RE3 Pin Function Select bit
1 = MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin function is MCLR
0 = MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin function is digital input only, MCLR gated to ‘1’
bit 3
PWRTEN: Power-up Timer Enable bit
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 2
WDTEN: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 4, 1-0 FOSC2:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
111 = EXTRC oscillator; CLKO function on OSC2/CLKO/RA6
110 = EXTRC oscillator; port I/O function on OSC2/CLKO/RA6
101 = INTRC oscillator; CLKO function on OSC2/CLKO/RA6 and port I/O function on OSC1/CLKI/RA7
100 = INTRC oscillator; port I/O function on OSC1/CLKI/RA7 and OSC2/CLKO/RA6
011 = EXTCLK; port I/O function on OSC2/CLKO/RA6
010 = HS oscillator
001 = XT oscillator
000 = LP oscillator
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
DS30498D-page 170
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 15-2:
CONFIGURATION WORD REGISTER 2 (ADDRESS 2008h)
U-1
U-1
U-1
U-1
U-1
U-1
U-1
R/P-1
U-1
U-1
U-1
U-1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BORSEN
—
—
—
—
R/P-1
R/P-1
IESO FCMEN
bit 13
bit 0
bit 13-7 Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 6
BORSEN: Brown-out Reset Software Enable bit
Refer to Configuration Word Register 1, bit 6 for the function of this bit.
bit 5-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 1
IESO: Internal External Switchover bit
1 = Internal External Switchover mode enabled
0 = Internal External Switchover mode disabled
bit 0
FCMEN: Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Enable bit
1 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor enabled
0 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor disabled
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
x = Bit is unknown
DS30498D-page 171
PIC16F7X7
15.2
Reset
The PIC16F7X7 differentiates between various kinds of
Reset:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during Sleep
WDT Reset during normal operation
WDT Wake-up during Sleep
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Some registers are not affected in any Reset condition.
Their status is unknown on POR and unchanged in any
other Reset. Most other registers are reset to a “Reset
state” on Power-on Reset (POR), on the MCLR and
WDT Reset, on MCLR Reset during Sleep and Brownout Reset (BOR). They are not affected by a WDT
wake-up which is viewed as the resumption of normal
operation. The TO and PD bits are set or cleared
differently in different Reset situations, as indicated in
Table 15-3. These bits are used in software to
determine the nature of the Reset. Upon a POR, BOR
or wake-up from Sleep, the CPU requires approximately 5-10 s to become ready for code execution.
This delay runs in parallel with any other timers. See
Table 15-4 for a full description of Reset states of all
registers.
A simplified block diagram of the On-Chip Reset Circuit
is shown in Figure 15-1.
FIGURE 15-1:
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin
Sleep
WDT
Time-out
Reset
WDT
Module
VDD Rise
Detect
Power-on Reset
VDD
Brown-out
Detect
BOREN
BORSEN
S
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
10-bit Ripple Counter
R
Q
OSC1/
CLKI pin
PWRT
INTRC(1)
11-bit Ripple Counter
Enable PWRT
Enable OST
Note 1:
This is the 32 kHz INTRC oscillator. See Section 4.0 “Oscillator Configurations” for more information.
DS30498D-page 172
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
15.3
MCLR
15.5
PIC16F7X7 devices have a noise filter in the MCLR
Reset path. This filter will detect and ignore small
pulses.
It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not drive
MCLR pin low.
The behavior of the ESD protection on the MCLR pin
has been altered from previous devices of this family.
Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification
can result in both MCLR and excessive current, beyond
the device specification, during the ESD event. For this
reason, Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin no
longer be tied directly to VDD. The use of an
RC network, as shown in Figure 15-2, is suggested.
The MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin can be configured for MCLR
(default) or as an input pin (RE3). This is configured
through the MCLRE bit in Configuration Word
Register 1.
FIGURE 15-2:
RECOMMENDED MCLR
CIRCUIT
VDD
PIC16F7X7
R1
1 k (or greater)
MCLR
C1
0.1 F
(optional, not critical)
15.4
Power-on Reset (POR)
A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when
VDD rise is detected (in the range of 1.2V-1.7V). To take
advantage of the POR, tie the MCLR pin to VDD as
described in Section 15.3 “MCLR”. A maximum rise
time for VDD is specified. See Section 18.0 “Electrical
Characteristics” for details.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
Reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature, ...) must be met to ensure
operation. If these conditions are not met, the device
must be held in Reset until the operating conditions are
met. For more information, see Application Note
AN607 “Power-up Trouble Shooting” (DS00607).
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Power-up Timer (PWRT)
The Power-up Timer (PWRT) of the PIC16F7X7 is a
counter that uses the INTRC oscillator as the clock
input. This yields a count of 72 ms. While the PWRT is
counting, the device is held in Reset.
The power-up time delay depends on the INTRC and
will vary from chip-to-chip due to temperature and
process variation. See DC parameter #33 for details.
The PWRT is enabled by clearing configuration bit
PWRTEN.
15.6
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides a 1024
oscillator cycle (from OSC1 input) delay after the
PWRT delay is over (if enabled). This helps to ensure
that the crystal oscillator or resonator has started and
stabilized.
The OST time-out is invoked only for XT, LP and HS
modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up from
Sleep.
15.7
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Three configuration bits (BOREN – Configuration Word
Register 1, bit 6; BORSEN – Configuration Word
Register 2, bit 6; SBOREN – PCON register, bit 2)
together disable or enable the Brown-out Reset circuit
in one of its three operating modes.
If VDD falls below VBOR (defined by BORV<1:0> bits in
Configuration Word Register 1) for longer than TBOR
(parameter #35, about 100 s), the brown-out situation
will reset the device. If VDD falls below VBOR for less
than TBOR, a Reset may not occur.
Once the brown-out occurs, the device will remain in
Brown-out Reset until VDD rises above VBOR. The
Power-up Timer (if enabled) will keep the device in
Reset for TPWRT (parameter #33, about 72 ms). If VDD
should fall below VBOR during TPWRT, the Brown-out
Reset process will restart when VDD rises above VBOR
with the Power-up Timer Reset. Unlike previous PIC16
devices, the PWRT is no longer automatically enabled
when the Brown-out Reset circuit is enabled. The
PWRTEN and BOREN configuration bits are
independent of each other.
DS30498D-page 173
PIC16F7X7
15.8
Low-Voltage Detect
In many applications, the ability to determine if the
device voltage (VDD) is below a specified voltage level
is a desirable feature. A window of operation for the
application can be created where the application
software can do “housekeeping tasks” before the
device voltage exits the valid operating range. This can
be done using the Low-Voltage Detect module.
This module is a software programmable circuitry
where a device voltage trip point can be specified.
When the voltage of the device becomes lower then the
specified point, an interrupt flag is set. If the interrupt is
enabled, the program execution will branch to the
interrupt vector address and the software can then
respond to that interrupt source.
The Low-Voltage Detect circuitry is completely under
software control. This allows the circuitry to be turned
off by the software which minimizes the current
consumption for the device.
Figure 15-3 shows a possible application voltage curve
(typically for batteries). Over time, the device voltage
decreases. When the device voltage equals voltage VA,
the LVD logic generates an interrupt. This occurs at
The block diagram for the LVD module is shown in
Figure 15-4. A comparator uses an internally generated reference voltage as the set point. When the
selected tap output of the device voltage crosses the
set point (is lower than), the LVDIF bit is set.
Each node in the resistor divider represents a “trip
point” voltage. The “trip point” voltage is the minimum
supply voltage level at which the device can operate
before the LVD module asserts an interrupt. When the
supply voltage is equal to the trip point, the voltage
tapped off of the resistor array is equal to the 1.2V
internal reference voltage generated by the voltage
reference module. The comparator then generates an
interrupt signal setting the LVDIF bit. This voltage is
software programmable to any one of 16 values (see
Figure 15-4). The trip point is selected by programming
the LVDL3:LVDL0 bits (LVDCON<3:0>).
TYPICAL LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT APPLICATION
Voltage
FIGURE 15-3:
time TA. The application software then has the time,
until the device voltage is no longer in valid operating
range, to shut-down the system. Voltage point VB is the
minimum valid operating voltage specification. This
occurs at time TB. The difference, TB – TA, is the total
time for shutdown.
VA
VB
Legend:
VA = LVD trip point
VB = Minimum valid device
operating voltage
Time
DS30498D-page 174
TA
TB
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 15-4:
LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT (LVD) BLOCK DIAGRAM
LVDIN
LVD Control
Register
16-to-1 MUX
VDD
Internally Generated
Reference Voltage
1.2V
LVDEN
The LVD module has an additional feature that allows
the user to supply the sense voltage to the module
from an external source. This mode is enabled when
bits LVDL3:LVDL0 are set to ‘1111’. In this state, the
comparator input is multiplexed from the external input
FIGURE 15-5:
LVDIF
pin, LVDIN (Figure 15-5). This gives users flexibility
because it allows them to configure the Low-Voltage
Detect interrupt to occur at any voltage in the valid
operating range.
LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT (LVD) WITH EXTERNAL INPUT BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDD
VDD
LVD Control
Register
16-to-1 MUX
LVDIN
Externally Generated
Trip Point
LVDEN
LVD
LVDEN
BODEN
EN
BGAP
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 175
PIC16F7X7
15.9
Control Register
The Low-Voltage Detect Control register controls the
operation of the Low-Voltage Detect circuitry.
REGISTER 15-3:
LVDCON: LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 109h)
U-0
U-0
R-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-1
—
—
IRVST
LVDEN
LVDL3
LVDL2
LVDL1
LVDL0
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
IRVST: Internal Reference Voltage Stable Flag bit
1 = Indicates that the Low-Voltage Detect logic will generate the interrupt flag at the specified
voltage range
0 = Indicates that the Low-Voltage Detect logic will not generate the interrupt flag at the
specified voltage range and the LVD interrupt should not be enabled
bit 4
LVDEN: Low-Voltage Detect Power Enable bit
1 = Enables LVD, powers up LVD circuit
0 = Disables LVD, powers down LVD circuit
bit 3-0
LVDL3:LVDL0: Voltage Detection Limit bits
1111 = External analog input is used (input comes from the LVDIN pin)
1110 = Maximum setting
.
.
.
0001 = Minimum setting
Note:
See Table 18-3 in Section 18.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for the specifications.
Legend:
DS30498D-page 176
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
15.10 Operation
The following steps are needed to set up the LVD
module:
Depending on the power source for the device voltage,
the voltage normally decreases relatively slowly. This
means that the LVD module does not need to be
constantly operating. To decrease the current requirements, the LVD circuitry only needs to be enabled for
short periods where the voltage is checked. After doing
the check, the LVD module may be disabled.
1.
2.
3.
Each time that the LVD module is enabled, the circuitry
requires some time to stabilize. After the circuitry has
stabilized, all status flags may be cleared. The module
will then indicate the proper state of the system.
4.
5.
6.
Write the value to the LVDL3:LVDL0 bits
(LVDCON register) which selects the desired
LVD trip point.
Ensure that LVD interrupts are disabled (the
LVDIE bit is cleared or the GIE bit is cleared).
Enable the LVD module (set the LVDEN bit in
the LVDCON register).
Wait for the LVD module to stabilize (the IRVST
bit to become set).
Clear the LVD interrupt flag, which may have
falsely become set, until the LVD module has
stabilized (clear the LVDIF bit).
Enable the LVD interrupt (set the LVDIE and the
GIE bits).
Figure 15-6 shows the typical waveforms that the LVD
module may be used to detect.
FIGURE 15-6:
LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT WAVEFORMS
CASE 1:
LVDIF may not be set
VDD
VLVD
LVDIF
Enable LVD
Internally Generated
Reference Stable
TIRVST
LVDIF cleared in software
CASE 2:
VDD
VLVD
LVDIF
Enable LVD
Internally Generated
Reference Stable
TIRVST
LVDIF cleared in software
LVDIF cleared in software,
LVDIF remains set since LVD condition still exists
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 177
PIC16F7X7
15.10.1
REFERENCE VOLTAGE SET POINT
The internal reference voltage of the LVD module may
be used by other internal circuitry (the Programmable
Brown-out Reset). If these circuits are disabled (lower
current consumption), the reference voltage circuit
requires a time to become stable before a low-voltage
condition can be reliably detected. This time is invariant
of system clock speed. This start-up time is specified in
electrical specification parameter #36. The low-voltage
interrupt flag will not be enabled until a stable reference
voltage is reached. Refer to the waveform in Figure 15-6.
15.10.2
CURRENT CONSUMPTION
When the module is enabled, the LVD comparator and
voltage divider are enabled and will consume static current. The voltage divider can be tapped from multiple
places in the resistor array. Total current consumption,
when enabled, is specified in electrical specification
parameter #D022B.
15.11 Operation During Sleep
When enabled, the LVD circuitry continues to operate
during Sleep. If the device voltage crosses the trip
point, the LVDIF bit will be set and the device will wakeup from Sleep. Device execution will continue from the
interrupt vector address if interrupts have been globally
enabled.
15.12 Effects of a Reset
15.13 Time-out Sequence
On power-up, the time-out sequence is as follows: the
PWRT delay starts (if enabled) when a POR occurs;
then, OST starts counting 1024 oscillator cycles when
PWRT ends (LP, XT, HS); when the OST ends, the
device comes out of Reset.
If MCLR is kept low long enough, all delays will expire.
Bringing MCLR high will begin execution immediately.
This is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize
more than one PIC16F7X7 device operating in parallel.
Table 15-3 shows the Reset conditions for the Status,
PCON and PC registers, while Table 15-4 shows the
Reset conditions for all the registers.
15.14 Power Control/Status Register
(PCON)
The Power Control/Status register, PCON, has two bits
to indicate the type of Reset that last occurred.
Bit 0 is Brown-out Reset status bit, BOR. Bit BOR is
unknown on a Power-on Reset. It must then be set by
the user and checked on subsequent Resets to see if
bit BOR cleared, indicating a Brown-out Reset
occurred. When the Brown-out Reset is disabled, the
state of the BOR bit is unpredictable.
Bit 1 is Power-on Reset Status bit, POR. It is cleared on
a Power-on Reset and unaffected otherwise. The user
must set this bit following a Power-on Reset.
A device Reset forces all registers to their Reset state.
This forces the LVD module to be turned off.
Note:
If the LVD is enabled and the BOR module
is not enabled, the band gap will require a
start-up time of no more than 50 s before
the band gap reference is stable. Before
enabling the LVD interrupt, the user
should ensure that the band gap reference
voltage is stable by monitoring the IRVST
bit in the LVDCON register. The LVD could
cause erroneous interrupts before the
band gap is stable.
DS30498D-page 178
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 15-1:
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS
Power-up
Oscillator
Configuration
PWRTE = 0
TPWRT
XT, HS, LP
EXTRC, INTRC
+ 1024 • TOSC
Note 1:
PWRTE = 1
PWRTE = 0
PWRTE = 1
Wake-up from
Sleep
1024 • TOSC
TPWRT + 1024 • TOSC
1024 • TOSC
1024 • TOSC
5-10 s
TPWRT
T1OSC
Brown-out Reset
—
(1)
5-10 s
TPWRT
—
—
—
(1)
5-10 s(1)
5-10 s(1)
CPU start-up is always invoked on POR, BOR and wake-up from Sleep. The 5 s-10 s delay is based on
a 1 MHz system clock.
TABLE 15-2:
STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
POR
BOR
TO
PD
0
x
1
1
Power-on Reset
0
x
0
x
Illegal, TO is set on POR
0
x
x
0
Illegal, PD is set on POR
1
0
1
1
Brown-out Reset
1
1
0
1
WDT Reset
1
1
0
0
WDT Wake-up
1
1
u
u
MCLR Reset during normal operation
1
1
1
0
MCLR Reset during Sleep or Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown
TABLE 15-3:
RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS
Program
Counter
Status
Register
PCON
Register
Power-on Reset
000h
0001 1xxx
---- -10x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
---- -uuu
MCLR Reset during Sleep
000h
0001 0uuu
---- -uuu
000h
0000 1uuu
---- -uuu
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
---- -uuu
Condition
WDT Reset
WDT Wake-up
Brown-out Reset
Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep
000h
0001 1xxx
---- -1u0
PC + 1(1)
uuu1 0uuu
---- -uuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 179
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 15-4:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS
Register
W
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT or
Interrupt
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INDF
N/A
N/A
N/A
TMR0
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
0000h
0000h
PC + 1(2)
PCL
STATUS
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(3)
uuuq quuu(3)
FSR
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTA
xx0x 0000
uu0u 0000
uuuu uuuu
PORTB
xx00 0000
uu00 0000
uuuu uuuu
PORTC
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTD
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PORTE (PIC16F737/767)
PORTE (PIC16F747/777)
---- x------ x000
---- u------ u000
---- u------ uuuu
PCLATH
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(1)
PIR1
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu(1)
PIR2
000- 0-00
000- 0-00
uuu- u-uu
TMR1L
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TMR1H
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
T1CON
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
TMR2
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
T2CON
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
SSPBUF
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
SSPCON
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSPCON2
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1L
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR1H
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCP1CON
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
CCP2CON
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
CCP3CON
--00 0000
--00 0000
uuuu uuuu
CCPR2L
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR2H
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR3L
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
CCPR3H
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
RCSTA
0000 000x
0000 000x
uuuu uuuu
TXREG
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
RCREG
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ADRESH
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON0
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
OPTION_REG
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and PR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
3: See Table 15-3 for Reset value for specific condition.
DS30498D-page 180
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 15-4:
INITIALIZATION CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS (CONTINUED)
Power-on Reset,
Brown-out Reset
MCLR Reset,
WDT Reset
Wake-up via WDT or
Interrupt
TRISA
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISB
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISC
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISD
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
TRISE (PIC16F737/767)
TRISE (PIC16F747/777)
---- 1--0000 1111
---- u--0000 1111
---- 1--uuuu uuuu
PIE1
0000 0000
0000 0000
-uuu uuuu
PIE2
000- 0-00
000- 0-00
uuu- u-uu
PCON
---- -1qq
---- -uuu
---- -uuu
OSCCON
-000 1000
-000 1000
-uuu uuuu
OSCTUNE
--00 0000
--00 0000
--uu uuuu
PR2
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
SSPADD
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
SSPSTAT
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TXSTA
0000 -010
0000 -010
uuuu -u1u
SPBRG
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
CMCON
0000 0111
0000 0111
uuuu uuuu
CVRCON
000- 0000
000- 0000
uuu- uuuu
WDTCON
---0 1000
---0 1000
---u uuuu
ADRESL
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
ADCON1
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
ADCON2
--00 0---
--00 0---
uuuu uuuu
PMDATA
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PMADR
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PMDATH
--xx xxxx
--uu uuuu
--uu uuuu
PMADRH
---- xxxx
---- uuuu
---- uuuu
PMCON1
1--- ---0
1--- ---u
1--- ---u
LVDCON
--00 0101
--00 0101
--uu uuuu
Register
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, — = unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition.
Note 1: One or more bits in INTCON, PIR1 and PR2 will be affected (to cause wake-up).
2: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
3: See Table 15-3 for Reset value for specific condition.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 181
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 15-7:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD THROUGH
PULL-UP RESISTOR)
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
FIGURE 15-8:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD THROUGH
RC NETWORK): CASE 1
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
FIGURE 15-9:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD THROUGH
RC NETWORK): CASE 2
VDD
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
DS30498D-page 182
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 15-10:
SLOW RISE TIME (MCLR TIED TO VDD THROUGH RC NETWORK)
5V
VDD
1V
0V
MCLR
Internal POR
TPWRT
PWRT Time-out
TOST
OST Time-out
Internal Reset
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 183
PIC16F7X7
15.15 Interrupts
The PIC16F7X7 has up to 17 sources of interrupt. The
Interrupt Control register (INTCON) records individual
interrupt requests in flag bits. It also has individual and
global interrupt enable bits.
Note:
Individual interrupt flag bits are set regardless of the status of their corresponding
mask bit or the GIE bit.
A Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>),
enables (if set) all unmasked interrupts or disables (if
cleared) all interrupts. When bit GIE is enabled and an
interrupt’s flag bit and mask bit are set, the interrupt will
vector immediately. Individual interrupts can be
disabled through their corresponding enable bits in
various registers. Individual interrupt bits are set
regardless of the status of the GIE bit. The GIE bit is
cleared on Reset.
The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
the interrupt routine as well as sets the GIE bit which
re-enables interrupts.
The peripheral interrupt flags are contained in the
Special Function Register, PIR1. The corresponding
interrupt enable bits are contained in Special Function
Register, PIE1 and the peripheral interrupt enable bit is
contained in Special Function Register, INTCON.
When an interrupt is serviced, the GIE bit is cleared to
disable any further interrupt, the return address is
pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h.
Once in the Interrupt Service Routine, the source(s) of
the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt
flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in
software before re-enabling interrupts to avoid
recursive interrupts.
For external interrupt events, such as the INT pin or
PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt latency will be
three or four instruction cycles. The exact latency
depends on when the interrupt event occurs relative to
the current Q cycle. The latency is the same for one or
two-cycle instructions. Individual interrupt flag bits are
set regardless of the status of their corresponding
mask bit, PEIE bit or the GIE bit.
The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt
and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in
the INTCON register.
FIGURE 15-11:
INTERRUPT LOGIC
PSPIF(1)
PSPIE(1)
OSFIF
OSFIE
BCLIF
BCLIE
ADIF
ADIE
RCIF
RCIE
Wake-up (If in Sleep mode)
TMR0IF
TMR0IE
TXIF
TXIE
SSPIF
SSPIE
CCP1IF
CCP1IE
INT0IF
INT0IE
Interrupt to CPU
RBIF
RBIE
PEIE
GIE
CCP2IF
CCP2IE
CCP3IF
CCP3IE
TMR2IF
TMR2IE
TMR1IF
TMR1IE
CMIF
CMIE
Note 1:
PSP interrupt is implemented only on PIC16F747/777 devices.
DS30498D-page 184
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
15.15.1
INT INTERRUPT
15.15.3
External interrupt on the RB0/INT pin is edge-triggered,
either rising if bit INTEDG (OPTION_REG<6>) is set or
falling if the INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge
appears on the RB0/INT pin, flag bit INT0IF
(INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by
clearing enable bit, INT0IE (INTCON<4>). Flag bit
INT0IF must be cleared in software in the Interrupt
Service Routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The
INT interrupt can wake-up the processor from Sleep if
bit INT0IE was set prior to going into Sleep. The status
of Global Interrupt Enable bit, GIE, decides whether or
not the processor branches to the interrupt vector
following wake-up. See Section 15.18 “Power-Down
Mode (Sleep)” for details on Sleep mode.
15.15.2
TMR0 INTERRUPT
An overflow (FFh  00h) in the TMR0 register will set
flag bit, TMR0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit,
TMR0IE (INTCON<5>), see Section 6.0 “Timer0
Module”.
EXAMPLE 15-1:
PORTB INTCON CHANGE
An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit, RBIF
(INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit, RBIE (INTCON<4>), see
Section 2.2 “Data Memory Organization”.
15.16 Context Saving During Interrupts
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users may wish to save key
registers during an interrupt (i.e., W, Status registers).
Since the upper 16 bytes of each bank are common in
the PIC16F7X7 devices, temporary holding registers,
W_TEMP, STATUS_TEMP and PCLATH_TEMP,
should be placed in here. These 16 locations don’t
require banking and therefore, make it easier for
context save and restore. The same code shown in
Example 15-1 can be used.
SAVING STATUS AND W REGISTERS IN RAM
MOVWF
SWAPF
CLRF
MOVWF
:
:(ISR)
:
SWAPF
W_TEMP
STATUS, W
STATUS
STATUS_TEMP
MOVWF
SWAPF
SWAPF
STATUS
W_TEMP, F
W_TEMP, W
;Copy
;Swap
;bank
;Save
W to TEMP register
status to be saved into W
0, regardless of current bank, Clears IRP,RP1,RP0
status to bank zero STATUS_TEMP register
;Insert user code here
STATUS_TEMP, W
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
;Swap STATUS_TEMP register into W
;(sets bank to original state)
;Move W into STATUS register
;Swap W_TEMP
;Swap W_TEMP into W
DS30498D-page 185
PIC16F7X7
15.17 Watchdog Timer (WDT)
A new prescaler has been added to the path between
the internal RC and the multiplexors used to select the
path for the WDT. This prescaler is 16 bits and can be
programmed to divide the internal RC by 32 to 65536,
giving the time base used for the WDT a nominal range
of 1 ms to 2.097s.
For PIC16F7X7 devices, the WDT has been modified
from previous PIC16 devices. The new WDT is code
and functionally backward compatible with previous
PIC16 WDT modules and allows the user to have a
scaler value for the WDT and TMR0 at the same time.
In addition, the WDT time-out value can be extended to
268 seconds, using the prescaler with the postscaler
when the PSA bit is set to ‘1’.
15.17.1
15.17.2
The WDTEN bit is located in Configuration Word
Register 1 and when this bit is set, the WDT runs
continuously.
WDT OSCILLATOR
The SWDTEN bit is in the WDTCON register. When the
WDTEN bit in the Configuration Word Register 1 is set,
the SWDTEN bit has no effect. If WDTEN is clear, then
the SWDTEN bit can be used to enable and disable the
WDT. Setting the bit will enable it and clearing the bit
will disable it.
The WDT derives its time base from the 31.25 kHz
INTRC; therefore, the accuracy of the 31.25 kHz will be
the same accuracy for the WDT time-out period.
The value of WDTCON is ‘---0 1000’ on all Resets.
This gives a nominal time base of 16.38 ms which is
compatible with the time base generated with previous
PIC16 microcontroller versions.
Note:
The PSA and PS<2:0> bits (OPTION_REG) have the
same function as in previous versions of the PIC16
family of microcontrollers.
When the OST is invoked, the WDT is held
in Reset because the WDT ripple counter
is used by the OST to perform the oscillator delay count. When the OST count has
expired, the WDT will begin counting (if
enabled).
FIGURE 15-12:
WDT CONTROL
WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From TMR0 Clock Source
0
Postscaler
16-bit Programmable Prescaler WDT
1
8
PSA
31.25 kHz
INTRC Clock
PS<2:0>
WDTPS<3:0>
To TMR0
0
1
PSA
WDTEN from Configuration Word Register 1
SWDTEN from WDTCON Register
WDT Time-out
TABLE 15-5:
PRESCALER/POSTSCALER BIT STATUS
Conditions
Prescaler
Postscaler (PSA = 1)
Cleared
Cleared
WDTEN = 0
CLRWDT Command
Oscillator Fail Detected
Exit Sleep + System Clock = T1OSC, EXTRC, INTRC, EXTCLK
Exit Sleep + System Clock = XT, HS, LP
DS30498D-page 186
Cleared at end of OST
Cleared at end of OST
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
REGISTER 15-4:
WDTCON: WATCHDOG TIMER CONTROL REGISTER (ADDRESS 105h)
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0
—
—
—
WDTPS3
R/W-1
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
WDTPS2 WDTPS1 WDTPS0 SWDTEN
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4-1
WDTPS<3:0>: Watchdog Timer Period Select bits
0000 = 1:32 Prescale rate
0001 = 1:64 Prescale rate
0010 = 1:128 Prescale rate
0011 = 1:256 Prescale rate
0100 = 1:512 Prescale rate
0101 = 1:1024 Prescale rate
0110 = 1:2048 Prescale rate
0111 = 1:4096 Prescale rate
1000 = 1:8192 Prescale rate
1001 = 1:16394 Prescale rate
1010 = 1:32768 Prescale rate
1011 = 1:65536 Prescale rate
1100 = 1:1 Prescale rate
bit 0
SWDTEN: Software Enable/Disable for Watchdog Timer bit(1)
1 = WDT is turned on
0 = WDT is turned off
Note 1: If WDTEN configuration bit = 1, then WDT is always enabled irrespective of this
control bit. If WDTEN configuration bit = 0, then it is possible to turn WDT on/off with
this control bit.
Legend:
TABLE 15-6:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
SUMMARY OF WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTERS
Value on
all other
Resets
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
81h, 181h OPTION_REG RBPU INTEDG T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111 1111 1111
Address
Name
2007h
Configuration
bits(1)
105h
WDTCON
Legend:
Note 1:
Bit 7
Bit 6
BORV0 BOREN MCLRE FOSC2 PWRTEN WDTEN
—
—
—
FOSC1
FOSC0 1111 1111 1111 1111
WDTPS3 WDTPS2 WSTPS1 WDTPS0 SWDTEN ---0 1000 ---0 1000
Shaded cells are not used by the Watchdog Timer.
See Register 15-1 for operation of these bits.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 187
PIC16F7X7
15.17.3
TWO-SPEED CLOCK
START-UP MODE
Two-Speed Start-up minimizes the latency between
oscillator start-up and code execution that may be
selected with the IESO (Internal/External Switchover)
bit in Configuration Word Register 2. This mode is
achieved by initially using the INTRC for code
execution until the primary oscillator is stable.
If this mode is enabled and any of the following conditions exist, the system will begin execution with the
INTRC oscillator. This results in almost immediate
code execution with a minimum of delay.
• POR and after the Power-up Timer has expired (if
PWRTEN = 0)
• or following a wake-up from Sleep
• or a Reset, when running from T1OSC or INTRC
(after a Reset, SCS<1:0> are always set to ‘00’).
Note:
Following any Reset, the IRCF bits are
zeroed and the frequency selection is
forced to 31.25 kHz. The user can modify
the IRCF bits to select a higher internal
oscillator frequency.
If the primary oscillator is configured to be anything
other than XT, LP or HS, then Two-Speed Start-up is
disabled because the primary oscillator will not require
any time to become stable after POR or an exit from
Sleep.
If the IRCF bits of the OSCCON register are configured
to a non-zero value prior to entering Sleep mode, the
secondary system clock frequency will come from the
output of the INTOSC. The IOFS bit in the OSCCON
register will be clear until the INTOSC is stable. This
will allow the user to determine when the internal
oscillator can be used for time critical applications.
FIGURE 15-13:
Checking the state of the OSTS bit will confirm
whether the primary clock configuration is engaged. If
not, the OSTS bit will remain clear.
When the device is auto-configured in INTRC mode
following a POR or wake-up from Sleep, the rules for
entering other oscillator modes still apply, meaning the
SCS<1:0> bits in OSCCON can be modified before the
OST time-out has occurred. This would allow the
application to wake-up from Sleep, perform a few
instructions using the INTRC as the clock source and
go back to Sleep without waiting for the primary
oscillator to become stable.
Note:
15.17.3.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Executing a SLEEP instruction will abort
the oscillator start-up time and will cause
the OSTS bit to remain clear.
Two-Speed Start-up Sequence
Wake-up from Sleep, Reset or POR.
OSCON bits configured to run from INTRC
(31.25 kHz).
Instructions begin execution by INTRC
(31.25 kHz).
OST enabled to count 1024 clock cycles.
OST timed out, wait for falling edge of INTRC.
OSTS is set.
System clock held low for eight falling edges of
new clock (LP, XT or HS).
System clock is switched to primary source (LP,
XT or HS).
The software may read the OSTS bit to determine
when the switchover takes place so that any software
timing edges can be adjusted.
TWO-SPEED START-UP
CPU Start-up
Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
0003h
0004h
INTRC
OSC1
TOST
OSC2
System Clock
Sleep
OSTS
Program
Counter
PC
DS30498D-page 188
0000h
0001h
0005h
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
15.17.4
FAIL-SAFE OPTION
The Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) is designed to
allow the device to continue to operate even in the
event of an oscillator failure.
FIGURE 15-14:
FSCM BLOCK DIAGRAM
Clock Monitor
Latch (CM)
(edge-triggered)
Peripheral
Clock
S
INTRC
Oscillator
÷ 64
31.25 kHz
(32 s)
488 Hz
(2.048 ms)
C
Q
Q
Clock
Failure
Detected
The FSCM function is enabled by setting the FCMEN
bit in Configuration Word Register 2.
In the event of an oscillator failure, the FSCM will
generate an oscillator fail interrupt and will switch the
system clock over to the internal oscillator. The system
will continue to come from the internal oscillator until
the Fail-Safe condition is exited. The Fail-Safe
condition is exited with either a Reset, the execution of
a SLEEP instruction or a write to the SCS bits of a
different value.
The frequency of the internal oscillator will depend
upon the value contained in the IRCF bits. Another
clock source can be selected via the IRCF and the
SCS bits of the OSCCON register.
FIGURE 15-15:
The FSCM sample clock is generated by dividing the
INTRC clock by 64. This will allow enough time
between FSCM sample clocks for a system clock edge
to occur.
On the rising edge of the postscaled clock, the
monitoring latch (CM = 0) will be cleared. On a falling
edge of the primary or secondary system clock, the
monitoring latch will be set (CM = 1). In the event that
a falling edge of the postscaled clock occurs and the
monitoring latch is not set, a clock failure has been
detected.
While in Fail-Safe mode, a Reset will exit the Fail-Safe
condition. If the primary clock source is configured for
a crystal, the OST timer will wait for the 1024 clock
cycles for the OST time-out and the device will
continue running from the internal oscillator until the
OST is complete. A SLEEP instruction, or a write to the
SCS bits (where SCS bits do not = 00), can be
performed to put the device into a low-power mode.
If Reset occurs while in Fail-Safe mode and the
primary clock source is EC or RC, then the device will
immediately switch back to EC or RC mode.
Note:
Two-Speed Start-up is automatically
enabled when the Fail-Safe option is
enabled.
15.17.4.1
Fail-Safe in Low-Power Mode
A change of SCS<1:0> or the SLEEP instruction will
end the Fail-Safe condition. The system clock will
default to the source selected by the SCS bits, which
is either T1OSC, INTRC or none (Sleep mode). However, the FSCM will continue to monitor the system
clock. If the secondary clock fails, the device will
immediately switch to the internal oscillator clock. If
OSFIE is set, an interrupt will be generated.
FSCM TIMING DIAGRAM
Sample Clock
(488 Hz)
System
Clock
Output
Oscillator
Failure
CM Output
(Q)
Failure
Detected
OSCFIF
CM Test
Note:
CM Test
CM Test
The system clock is normally at a much higher frequency than the sample clock. The relative frequencies in
this example have been chosen for clarity.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 189
PIC16F7X7
15.17.4.2
FSCM and the Watchdog Timer
15.18.1
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
When a clock failure is detected, SCS<1:0> will be
forced to ‘10’ which will reset the WDT (if enabled).
The device can wake-up from Sleep through one of the
following events:
15.17.4.3
1.
2.
POR or Wake from Sleep
The FSCM is designed to detect oscillator failure at any
point after the device has exited Power-on Reset
(POR) or low-power Sleep mode. When the primary
system clock is EC, RC or INTRC modes, monitoring
can begin immediately following these events.
For oscillator modes involving a crystal or resonator
(HS, LP or XT), the situation is somewhat different.
Since the oscillator may require a start-up time considerably longer than the FSCM sample clock time, a false
clock failure may be detected. To prevent this, the
internal oscillator block is automatically configured as
the system clock and functions until the primary clock
is stable (the OST and PLL timers have timed out). This
is identical to Two-Speed Start-up mode. Once the
primary clock is stable, the INTRC returns to its role as
the FSCM source.
Note:
The same logic that prevents false
oscillator failure interrupts on POR, or
wake from Sleep, will also prevent the
detection of the oscillator’s failure to start
at all following these events. This can be
avoided by monitoring the OSTS bit and
using a timing routine to determine if the
oscillator is taking too long to start. Even
so, no oscillator failure interrupt will be
flagged.
15.18 Power-Down Mode (Sleep)
Power-Down mode is entered by executing a SLEEP
instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer will be cleared but
keeps running, the PD bit (Status<3>) is cleared, the
TO (Status<4>) bit is set and the oscillator driver is
turned off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had
before the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving
high, low or high-impedance).
For lowest current consumption in this mode, place all
I/O pins at either VDD or VSS, ensure no external circuitry
is drawing current from the I/O pin, power-down the A/D
and disable external clocks. Pull all I/O pins that are
high-impedance inputs, high or low externally, to avoid
switching currents caused by floating inputs. The T0CKI
input should also be at VDD or VSS for lowest current
consumption. The contribution from on-chip pull-ups on
PORTB should also be considered.
3.
External Reset input on MCLR pin.
Watchdog Timer wake-up (if WDT was
enabled).
Interrupt from INT pin, RB port change or a
peripheral interrupt.
External MCLR Reset will cause a device Reset. All
other events are considered a continuation of program
execution and cause a “wake-up”. The TO and PD bits
in the Status register can be used to determine the
cause of the device Reset. The PD bit, which is set on
power-up, is cleared when Sleep is invoked. The TO bit
is cleared if a WDT time-out occurred and caused
wake-up.
The following peripheral interrupts can wake the device
from Sleep:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
TMR1 interrupt. Timer1 must be operating as an
asynchronous counter.
CCP Capture mode interrupt.
Special event trigger (Timer1 in Asynchronous
mode using an external clock).
SSP (Start/Stop) bit detect interrupt.
SSP transmit or receive in Slave mode (SPI/I2C).
A/D conversion (when A/D clock source is RC).
EEPROM write operation completion.
Comparator output changes state.
AUSART RX or TX (Synchronous Slave mode).
Other peripherals cannot generate interrupts, since
during Sleep, no on-chip clocks are present.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is prefetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up
occurs regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE
bit is clear (disabled), the device continues execution at
the instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit
is set (enabled), the device executes the instruction
after the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the
interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the execution of the instruction following SLEEP is not desirable,
the user should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC).
DS30498D-page 190
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
15.18.2
WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will
complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT
prescaler and postscaler (if enabled) will not be
cleared, the TO bit will not be set and the PD bit
will not be cleared.
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the
execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will
immediately wake-up from Sleep. The SLEEP
instruction will be completely executed before the
wake-up. Therefore, the WDT and WDT prescaler
and postscaler (if enabled) will be cleared, the TO
bit will be set and the PD bit will be cleared.
FIGURE 15-16:
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To
determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test
the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction
was executed as a NOP.
To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction
should be executed before a SLEEP instruction.
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
TOST(2)
CLKO(4)
INT pin
INTF Flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency
(Note 2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Processor in
Sleep
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
Instruction
Fetched
Instruction
Executed
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
PC
PC + 1
Inst(PC) = Sleep
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Inst(PC + 2)
PC + 2
Inst(PC – 1)
Sleep
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Dummy Cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP Oscillator mode assumed.
TOST = 1024 TOSC (drawing not to scale). This delay will not be there for RC Oscillator mode.
GIE = 1 assumed. In this case, after wake-up, the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = 0, execution will continue in-line.
CLKO is not available in these oscillator modes but shown here for timing reference.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 191
PIC16F7X7
15.19 In-Circuit Debugger
15.22 In-Circuit Serial Programming
When the DEBUG bit in the Configuration Word is programmed to a ‘0’, the In-Circuit Debugger functionality
is enabled. This function allows simple debugging
functions when used with MPLAB® ICD. When the
microcontroller has this feature enabled, some of the
resources are not available for general use. Table 15-7
shows which features are consumed by the background
debugger.
PIC16F7X7 microcontrollers can be serially
programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data and three
other lines for power, ground and the programming
voltage (see Figure 15-17 for an example). This allows
customers to manufacture boards with unprogrammed
devices and then program the microcontroller just
before shipping the product. This also allows the most
recent firmware or a custom firmware to be
programmed.
TABLE 15-7:
DEBUGGER RESOURCES
I/O pins
RB6, RB7
Stack
1 level
Program Memory
Address 0000h must be NOP
Last 100h words
Data Memory
FIGURE 15-17:
TYPICAL IN-CIRCUIT
SERIAL PROGRAMMING™
CONNECTION
0x070 (0x0F0, 0x170, 0x1F0)
0x165-0x16F
To use the In-Circuit Debugger function of the microcontroller, the design must implement In-Circuit Serial
Programming connections to MCLR/VPP, VDD, GND,
RB7 and RB6. This will interface to the In-Circuit
Debugger module available from Microchip or one of
the third party development tool companies.
Note:
For general information of serial programming, please
refer to the “In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™)
Guide” (DS30277).
In-Circuit Debugger operation must occur
between the operating voltage range
(VDD) of 4.75V-5.25V on PIC16F7X7
devices.
To Normal
Connections
External
Connector
Signals
*
PIC16F7X7
+5V
VDD
0V
VSS
VPP
MCLR/VPP/RE3
CLK
RB6
Data I/O
RB7
15.20 Program Verification/Code
Protection
If the code protection bit(s) have not been
programmed, the on-chip program memory can be
read out for verification purposes.
15.21 ID Locations
Four memory locations (2000h-2003h) are designated
as ID locations where the user can store checksum or
other code identification numbers. These locations are
not accessible during normal execution but are
readable and writable during program/verify. It is
recommended that only the four Least Significant bits
of the ID location are used.
DS30498D-page 192
*
*
*
VDD
To Normal
Connections
* Isolation devices (as required).
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
16.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
The PIC16 instruction set is highly orthogonal and is
comprised of three basic categories:
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
Each PIC16 instruction is a 14-bit word divided into an
opcode, which specifies the instruction type and one or
more operands, which further specify the operation of
the instruction. The formats for each of the categories
are presented in Figure 16-1, while the various opcode
fields are summarized in Table 16-1.
Table 13-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASMTM Assembler. A complete description of each
instruction is also available in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU
Family Reference Manual” (DS33023).
For byte-oriented instructions, ‘f’ represents a file
register designator and ‘d’ represents a destination
designator. The file register designator specifies which
file register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If ‘d’ is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
For bit-oriented instructions, ‘b’ represents a bit field
designator which selects the bit affected by the operation, while ‘f’ represents the address of the file in which
the bit is located.
For literal and control operations, ‘k’ represents an
eight or eleven-bit constant or literal value
One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods;
for an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, this gives a normal
instruction execution time of 1 s. All instructions are
executed within a single instruction cycle, unless a
conditional test is true, or the program counter is
changed as a result of an instruction. When this occurs,
the execution takes two instruction cycles, with the
second cycle executed as a NOP.
Note:
TABLE 16-1:
Description
f
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
W
Working register (accumulator)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
Literal field, constant data or label
x
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1).
The assembler will generate code with x = 0.
It is the recommended form of use for
compatibility with all Microchip software tools.
d
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1.
PC
Program Counter
TO
Time-out bit
PD
Power-Down bit
FIGURE 16-1:
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
0
f (FILE #)
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
0
f (FILE #)
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Literal and control operations
General
13
8
7
OPCODE
Read-Modify-Write Operations
Any instruction that specifies a file register as part of
the instruction performs a Read-Modify-Write (R-M-W)
operation. The register is read, the data is modified and
the result is stored according to either the instruction or
the destination designator ‘d’. A read operation is
performed on a register even if the instruction writes to
that register.
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
To maintain upward compatibility with
future PIC16F7X7 products, do not use
the OPTION and TRIS instructions.
All instruction examples use the format ‘0xhh’ to
represent a hexadecimal number, where ‘h’ signifies a
hexadecimal digit.
16.1
For example, a “CLRF PORTB” instruction will read
PORTB, clear all the data bits, then write the result
back to PORTB. This example would have the
unintended result that the condition that sets the RBIF
flag would be cleared for pins configured as inputs and
using the PORTB interrupt-on-change feature.
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11
OPCODE
10
0
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
DS30498D-page 193
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 16-2:
PIC16F7X7 INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
14-Bit Opcode
Description
Cycles
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xxx
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
xxxx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
C, DC, Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C, DC, Z
Z
1, 2
1, 2
2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2, 3
1, 2
1, 2, 3
1, 2
1, 2
1,2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1
1
1 (2)
1 (2)
01
01
01
01
1, 2
1, 2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
Note 1:
2:
3:
Note:
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into Standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
C, DC, Z
Z
TO, PD
Z
TO, PD
C, DC, Z
Z
When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself ( e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value
present on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is ‘1’ for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an
external device, the data will be written back with a ‘0’.
If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if
assigned to the Timer0 module.
If Program Counter (PC) is modified, or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle
is executed as a NOP.
Additional information on the mid-range instruction set is available in the “PIC® Mid-Range MCU Family
Reference Manual” (DS33023).
DS30498D-page 194
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
16.2
Instruction Descriptions
ADDLW
Add Literal and W
BCF
Bit Clear f
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDLW
Syntax:
[ label ] BCF
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
0  f  127
0b7
Operation:
(W) + k  (W)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Operation:
0  (f<b>)
Description:
The contents of the W register
are added to the eight-bit literal ‘k’
and the result is placed in the W
register.
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared.
ADDWF
Add W and f
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDWF
Syntax:
[ label ] BSF
Operands:
0  f  127
d [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
0b7
Operation:
(W) + (f)  (destination)
Operation:
1  (f<b>)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Add the contents of the W register
with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in the W register. If
‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored back
in register ‘f’.
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set.
ANDLW
AND Literal with W
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDLW
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSS f,b
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
Operation:
(W) .AND. (k)  (W)
0  f  127
0b<7
Status Affected:
Z
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Description:
The contents of W register are
ANDed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the
W register.
Status Affected:
None
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next
instruction is discarded and a NOP
is executed instead, making this a
2 TCY instruction.
BTFSC
Bit Test, Skip if Clear
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSC f,b
k
f,d
k
f,b
f,b
ANDWF
AND W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDWF
Operands:
0  f  127
d [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
0b7
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f)  (destination)
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
AND the W register with register
‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in
the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’.
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next
instruction is discarded and a NOP
is executed instead, making this a
2 TCY instruction.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
f,d
DS30498D-page 195
PIC16F7X7
CALL
Call Subroutine
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
0  k  2047
Operands:
None
Operation:
(PC) + 1  TOS,
k  PC<10:0>,
(PCLATH<4:3>)  PC<12:11>
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
00h  WDT
0  WDT prescaler,
1  TO
1  PD
Description:
Call subroutine. First, return
address (PC + 1) is pushed onto
the stack. The eleven-bit
immediate address is loaded into
PC bits<10:0>. The upper bits of
the PC are loaded from PCLATH.
CALL is a two-cycle instruction.
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
CLRWDT instruction resets the
Watchdog Timer. It also resets the
prescaler of the WDT. Status bits,
TO and PD, are set.
Clear f
COMF
Complement f
CLRF
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRF
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Operands:
0  f  127
Operands:
Operation:
00h  (f)
1Z
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f)  (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
cleared and the Z bit is set.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’.
CLRW
Clear W
DECF
Decrement f
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
Syntax:
[ label ] DECF f,d
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
00h  (W)
1Z
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – 1  (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z)
is set.
Description:
Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’,
the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
DS30498D-page 196
f
f,d
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – 1  (destination);
skip if result = 0
Operation:
(f) + 1  (destination),
skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed. If the
result is ‘0’, then a NOP is
executed instead, making it a
2 TCY instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed. If the
result is ‘0’, a NOP is executed
instead, making it a 2 TCY
instruction.
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
IORLW
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  k  2047
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
k  PC<10:0>
PCLATH<4:3>  PC<12:11>
Operation:
(W) .OR. k  (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional branch.
The eleven-bit immediate value is
loaded into PC bits<10:0>. The
upper bits of PC are loaded from
PCLATH<4:3>. GOTO is a
two-cycle instruction.
The contents of the W register are
ORed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the W
register.
INCF
Increment f
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1  (destination)
Operation:
(W) .OR. (f)  (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result
is placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with
register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is
‘1’, the result is placed back in
register ‘f’.
GOTO k
INCF f,d
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
INCFSZ f,d
Inclusive OR Literal with W
IORLW k
IORWF
f,d
DS30498D-page 197
PIC16F7X7
MOVF
Move f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
No operation
Operation:
(f)  (destination)
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
No operation.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
moved to a destination dependant
upon the status of ‘d’. If d = 0,
the destination is W register. If
d = 1, the destination is file register
‘f’ itself. d = 1 is useful to test a file
register since status flag Z is
affected.
MOVLW
Move Literal to W
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
None
Operation:
k  (W)
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
TOS  PC,
1  GIE
Description:
The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded
into W register. The don’t cares
will assemble as ‘0’s.
Status Affected:
None
MOVWF
Move W to f
RETLW
Return with Literal in W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
MOVF f,d
MOVLW k
MOVWF
f
NOP
No Operation
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
NOP
RETFIE
RETLW k
Operands:
0  f  127
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
(W)  (f)
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
k  (W);
TOS  PC
Description:
Move data from W register to
register ‘f’.
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The W register is loaded with the
eight-bit literal ‘k’. The program
counter is loaded from the top of
the stack (the return address).
This is a two-cycle instruction.
DS30498D-page 198
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
RLF
Rotate Left f through Carry
SLEEP
Enter Sleep mode
Syntax:
[ label ] RLF
Syntax:
[ label ] SLEEP
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
None
Operation:
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
C
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the left through the
Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’,
the result is stored back in register ‘f’.
00h  WDT,
0  WDT prescaler,
1  TO,
0  PD
C
f,d
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
The Power-Down status bit, PD,
is cleared. Time-out status bit,
TO, is set. Watchdog Timer and
its prescaler are cleared.
The processor is put into Sleep
mode with the oscillator stopped.
Register f
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
SUBLW
Subtract W from Literal
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ] SUBLW k
Operands:
None
Operands:
0 k 255
Operation:
TOS  PC
Operation:
k – (W) W)
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected: C, DC, Z
Description:
Return from subroutine. The stack
is POPed and the top of the stack
(TOS) is loaded into the program
counter. This is a two-cycle
instruction.
Description:
The W register is subtracted (2’s
complement method) from the
eight-bit literal ‘k’. The result is
placed in the W register.
RRF
Rotate Right f through Carry
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ] SUBWF f,d
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0 f 127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Operation:
(f) – (W) destination)
Status Affected:
C
Status Affected: C, DC, Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are
rotated one bit to the right through
the Carry flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register.
If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is placed
back in register ‘f’.
Description:
RETURN
RRF f,d
C
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Subtract (2’s complement method)
W register from register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Register f
DS30498D-page 199
PIC16F7X7
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] SWAPF f,d
Syntax:
[ label ] XORWF
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f<3:0>)  (destination<7:4>),
(f<7:4>)  (destination<3:0>)
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
The upper and lower nibbles of
register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in register ‘f’.
Exclusive OR the contents of the
W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
XORLW
Exclusive OR Literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ] XORLW k
Operands:
0 k 255
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k W)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of the W register
are XORed with the eight-bit
literal ‘k’. The result is placed in
the W register.
DS30498D-page 200
f,d
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
17.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal
controllers are supported with a full range of software
and hardware development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers
- MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device
Families
- HI-TECH C® for Various Device Families
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for
Various Device Families
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debuggers
- MPLAB ICD 3
- PICkit™ 3 Debug Express
• Device Programmers
- PICkit™ 2 Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards,
Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits
17.1
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit
microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
IAR C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either C or assembly)
• One-touch compile or assemble, and download to
emulator and simulator tools (automatically
updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (C or assembly)
- Mixed C and assembly
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 201
PIC16F7X7
17.2
MPLAB C Compilers for Various
Device Families
The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18,
PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the
dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration
capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of
use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
17.3
HI-TECH C for Various Device
Families
The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC
family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital
signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, omniscient code generation
and ease of use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple
platforms.
17.4
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
17.5
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
17.6
MPLAB Assembler, Linker and
Librarian for Various Device
Families
MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine
code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24,
PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses
the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire device instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
DS30498D-page 202
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
17.7
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers,
and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software
development tool.
17.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs
with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of
the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC
using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected
to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal
(LVDS) interconnection (CAT5).
The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware
downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of
MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new
features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers
significant advantages over competitive emulators
including low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time
variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a
ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters)
interconnection cables.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
17.9
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger
System
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware
debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU)
devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto-use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE).
The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed
USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a
connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB
REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all
MPLAB ICD 2 headers.
17.10 PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/
Programmer and
PICkit 3 Debug Express
The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a
most affordable price point using the powerful graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected
to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB
interface and can be connected to the target via an
Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with
MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector
uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming™.
The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
DS30498D-page 203
PIC16F7X7
17.11 PICkit 2 Development
Programmer/Debugger and
PICkit 2 Debug Express
17.13 Demonstration/Development
Boards, Evaluation Kits, and
Starter Kits
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is
a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash
families of microcontrollers. The full featured
Windows® programming interface supports baseline
(PIC10F,
PIC12F5xx,
PIC16F5xx),
midrange
(PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30,
dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit
microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM
products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2
enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single
steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is
embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified.
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
17.12 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file
storage and data applications.
DS30498D-page 204
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Also available are starter kits that contain everything
needed to experience the specified device. This usually
includes a single application and debug capability, all
on one board.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
for the complete list of demonstration, development
and evaluation kits.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Ambient temperature under bias.............................................................................................................-40°C to +125°C
Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR and RA4) .......................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS ............................................................................................................ -0.3 to +6.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS (Note 2) ..............................................................................................0 to +13.5V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to VSS ...................................................................................................................0 to +12V
Total power dissipation (Note 1) ...............................................................................................................................1.0W
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................300 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................250 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD) 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD)  20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ....................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum current sunk byPORTA, PORTB and PORTE (combined) (Note 3) ....................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA, PORTB and PORTE (combined) (Note 3)...............................................200 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) .................................................................200 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTC and PORTD (combined) (Note 3) ............................................................200 mA
Note 1: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD –  IOH} +  {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + (VOL x IOL)
2: Voltage spikes at the MCLR pin may cause latch-up. A series resistor of greater than 1 k should be used
to pull MCLR to VDD, rather than tying the pin directly to VDD.
3: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16F737/767 devices.
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 205
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-1:
PIC16F7X7 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH (INDUSTRIAL, EXTENDED)
6.0V
5.5V
Voltage
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
3.0V
2.5V
2.0V
16 MHz
20 MHz
Frequency
FIGURE 18-2:
PIC16LF7X7 VOLTAGE-FREQUENCY GRAPH (INDUSTRIAL)
6.0V
5.5V
Voltage
5.0V
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
3.0V
2.5V
2.0V
4 MHz
10 MHz
Frequency
FMAX = (12 MHz/V) (VDDAPPMIN – 2.5V) + 4 MHz
Note 1: VDDAPPMIN is the minimum voltage of the PIC® device in the application.
Note 2: FMAX has a maximum frequency of 10 MHz.
DS30498D-page 206
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.1
DC Characteristics: PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Sym
VDD
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
PIC16LF7X7
2.5
2.2
2.0
—
—
—
5.5
5.5
5.5
V
V
V
A/D in use, -40°C to +85°C
A/D in use, 0°C to +85°C
A/D not used, -40°C to +85°C
PIC16F7X7
4.0
VBOR*
—
—
5.5
5.5
V
V
All configurations
BOR enabled (Note 6)
Supply Voltage
D001
D001
D001A
D002*
VDR
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
—
1.5
—
V
D003
VPOR
VDD Start Voltage to
ensure internal Power-on Reset
signal
—
VSS
—
V
D004*
SVDD
VDD Rise Rate to ensure
internal Power-on Reset signal
0.05
—
—
VBOR
Brown-out Reset Voltage
BORV1:BORV0 = 11
1.96
2.06
2.16
V
BORV1:BORV0 = 10
2.64
2.78
2.92
V
BORV1:BORV0 = 01
4.11
4.33
4.55
V
4.41
4.64
4.87
V
See section on Power-on Reset for details
V/ms See section on Power-on Reset for details
PIC16LF7X7
D005
BORV1:BORV0 = 00
D005
85C  T  25C
PIC16F7X7 Industrial
BORV1:BORV0 = 1x
N.A.
—
N.A.
V
BORV1:BORV0 = 01
4.16
—
4.5
V
4.45
—
4.83
V
BORV1:BORV0 = 00
D005
Not in operating voltage range of device
PIC16F7X7 Extended
Legend:
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
BORV1:BORV0 = 1x
N.A.
—
N.A.
V
BORV1:BORV0 = 01
4.07
—
4.59
V
BORV1:BORV0 = 00
4.36
—
4.92
V
Not in operating voltage range of device
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of of the table.
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading and
switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current
consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from-rail to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with the
part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
For RC oscillator configuration, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
The  current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be added to the
base IDD or IPD measurement.
When BOR is enabled, the device will operate correctly until the VBOR voltage trip point is reached.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 207
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
0.1
0.4
A
-40°C
0.1
0.4
A
+25°C
0.4
1.5
A
+85°C
0.3
0.5
A
-40°C
0.3
0.5
A
+25°C
0.7
1.7
A
+85°C
0.6
1.0
A
-40°C
0.6
1.0
A
+25°C
1.2
5.0
A
+85°C
6
28
A
+125°C
Power-Down Current (IPD)(1)
PIC16LF7X7
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
Extended devices
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
VDD = 5.0V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
DS30498D-page 208
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
9
20
A
-40°C
7
15
A
+25°C
7
15
A
+85°C
16
30
A
-40°C
14
25
A
+25°C
14
25
A
+85°C
32
40
A
-40°C
26
35
A
+25°C
26
35
A
+85°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2,3)
PIC16LF7X7
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
Extended devices
35
53
A
+125°C
PIC16LF7X7
72
95
A
-40°C
76
90
A
+25°C
76
90
A
+85°C
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
Extended devices
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
138
175
A
-40°C
136
170
A
+25°C
136
170
A
+85°C
310
380
A
-40°C
290
360
A
+25°C
280
360
A
+85°C
330
500
A
+125°C
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 32 kHZ
(LP Oscillator)
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 1 MHZ
(RC Oscillator)(3)
VDD = 5.0V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 209
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
Supply Current (IDD)(2,3)
PIC16LF7X7
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
3:
A
-40°C
310
A
+25°C
285
310
A
+85°C
460
610
A
-40°C
450
600
A
+25°C
450
600
A
+85°C
900
1060
A
-40°C
890
1050
A
+25°C
890
1050
A
+85°C
.920
1.5
mA
+125°C
All devices
1.8
2.3
mA
-40°C
Extended devices
2:
315
Extended devices
All devices
Legend:
Note 1:
270
280
1.6
2.2
mA
+25°C
1.3
2.2
mA
+85°C
3.0
4.2
mA
-40°C
2.5
4.0
mA
+25°C
2.5
4.0
mA
+85°C
3.0
5.0
mA
+125°C
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 4 MHz
(RC Oscillator)(3)
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 4.0V
FOSC = 20 MHZ
(HS Oscillator)
VDD = 5.0V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
DS30498D-page 210
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
8
20
A
-40°C
7
15
A
+25°C
7
15
A
+85°C
16
30
A
-40°C
14
25
A
+25°C
14
25
A
+85°C
32
40
A
-40°C
29
35
A
+25°C
29
35
A
+85°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2,3)
PIC16LF7X7
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
Extended devices
35
45
A
+125°C
PIC16LF7X7
132
160
A
-40°C
126
155
A
+25°C
126
155
A
+85°C
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
-40°C
A
+25°C
230
300
A
+85°C
560
690
A
-40°C
500
650
A
+25°C
500
650
A
+85°C
+125°C
570
710
A
310
420
A
-40°C
300
410
A
+25°C
300
410
A
+85°C
Extended devices
3:
A
300
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
2:
310
Extended devices
PIC16LF7X7
Legend:
Note 1:
260
230
550
650
A
-40°C
530
620
A
+25°C
530
620
A
+85°C
1.2
1.5
mA
-40°C
1.1
1.4
mA
+25°C
1.1
1.4
mA
+85°C
1.3
1.6
mA
+125°C
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 31.25 kHz
(RC_RUN mode,
Internal RC Oscillator)
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 1 MHz
(RC_RUN mode,
Internal RC Oscillator)
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 4 MHz
(RC_RUN mode,
Internal RC Oscillator)
VDD = 5.0V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 211
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
.950
1.3
mA
-40°C
.930
1.2
mA
+25°C
.930
1.2
mA
+85°C
1.8
3.0
mA
-40°C
1.7
2.8
mA
+25°C
1.7
2.8
mA
+85°C
2.0
4.0
mA
+125°C
9
13
A
-10°C
9
14
A
+25°C
+70°C
Supply Current (IDD)(2,3)
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
Extended devices
PIC16LF7X7
PIC16LF7X7
All devices
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
11
16
A
12
34
A
-10°C
12
31
A
+25°C
14
28
A
+70°C
20
72
A
-10°C
20
65
A
+25°C
25
59
A
+70°C
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 8 MHz
(RC_RUN mode,
Internal RC Oscillator)
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
FOSC = 32 kHz
(SEC_RUN mode,
Timer1 as Clock)
VDD = 5.0V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
DS30498D-page 212
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
Module Differential Currents (IWDT, IBOR, ILVD, IOSCB, IAD)
D022
(IWDT)
D022A
(IBOR)
D022B
(ILVD)
Watchdog Timer
2:
3:
3.8
A
-40°C
3.8
A
+25°C
2.7
4.0
A
+85°C
VDD = 2.0V
2.3
4.6
A
-40°C
2.7
4.6
A
+25°C
3.1
4.8
A
+85°C
3.0
10.0
A
-40°C
3.3
10.0
A
+25°C
3.9
13.0
A
+85°C
Extended devices
5.0
21.0
A
+125°C
Brown-out Reset
17
35
A
-40C to +85C
47
45
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 5.0V
0
0
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 3.0V
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 3.0V
Extended devices
48
50
A
-40C to +125C
VDD = 5.0V
Low-Voltage Detect
14
25
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 2.0V
18
35
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 3.0V
21
45
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 5.0V
24
50
A
-40C to +125C
VDD = 5.0V
Extended devices
Legend:
Note 1:
1.5
2.2
BOREN:BORSEN = 10
in Sleep mode
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 213
PIC16F7X7
18.2
DC Characteristics: Power-Down and Supply Current
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
Module Differential Currents (IWDT, IBOR, ILVD, IOSCB, IAD)
D025
(IOSCB)
Timer1 Oscillator
D026
(IAD)
2:
3:
2.3
A
-40°C
2.3
A
+25°C
2.0
2.3
A
+85°C
2.2
3.8
A
-40°C
2.6
3.8
A
+25°C
2.9
3.8
A
+85°C
3.0
6.0
A
-40°C
3.2
6.0
A
+25°C
3.4
7.0
A
+85°C
VDD = 2.0V
VDD = 3.0V
32 kHz on Timer1
VDD = 5.0V
A/D Converter 0.001
2.0
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 2.0V
0.001
2.0
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 3.0V
0.003
2.0
A
-40C to +85C
VDD = 5.0V
4
8
mA
-40C to +125C
VDD = 5.0V
Extended devices
Legend:
Note 1:
1.7
1.8
A/D on, Sleep, not converting
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD or VSS and all features that add delta
current disabled (such as WDT, Timer1 Oscillator, BOR, etc.).
The supply current is mainly a function of operating voltage, frequency and mode. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type and circuit, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on
the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1 = external square wave, from rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD;
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated
by the formula Ir = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k.
DS30498D-page 214
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.3
DC Characteristics:
Internal RC Accuracy
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777
(Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
PIC16F737/747/767/777
(Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Conditions
INTOSC Accuracy @ Freq = 8 MHz, 4 MHz, 2 MHz, 1 MHz, 500 kHz, 250 kHz, 125 kHz(1)
PIC16LF7X7
-2
±1
2
%
+25°C
-5
—
5
%
-10°C to +85°C
-10
—
10
%
-40°C to +85°C
-2
±1
2
%
+25°C
-5
—
5
%
-10°C to +85°C
-10
—
10
%
-40°C to +85°C
-15
—
15
%
-40°C to +125°C
PIC16F7X7
Extended devices
INTRC Accuracy @ Freq = 31
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
VDD = 2.7V-3.3V
VDD = 4.5V-5.5V
kHz(2)
PIC16LF7X7 26.562
—
35.938
kHz
-40°C to +85°C
VDD = 2.7V-3.3V
PIC16F7X7 26.562
—
35.938
kHz
-40°C to +85°C
VDD = 4.5V-5.5V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
Frequency calibrated at 25°C. OSCTUNE register can be used to compensate for temperature drift.
INTRC is used to calibrate INTOSC.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 215
PIC16F7X7
18.4
DC Characteristics:
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
Sym
No.
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
with TTL buffer
VSS
—
0.15
VDD
V
For entire VDD range
VSS
—
0.8V
V
4.5V  VDD 5.5V
D031
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
VSS
—
0.2 VDD
V
D032
MCLR, OSC1 (in RC mode)
VSS
—
0.2 VDD
V
D033
OSC1 (in XT and LP modes)
VSS
—
0.3V
V
OSC1 (in HS mode)
VSS
—
0.3 VDD
V
VIL
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in
Section 18.1 “DC Characteristics”.
Conditions
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports:
D030
D030A
Ports RC3 and RC4:
(Note 1)
—
D034
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
VSS
—
0.3 VDD
V
For entire VDD range
D034A
with SMBus
-0.5
—
0.6
V
For VDD = 4.5 to 5.5V
VIH
Input High Voltage
I/O ports:
D040
with TTL buffer
D040A
D041
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
D042
MCLR
D042A
OSC1 (in XT and LP modes)
D043
—
2.0
—
VDD
V
4.5V  VDD 5.5V
0.25 VDD + 0.8V
—
VDD
V
For entire VDD range
0.8 VDD
—
VDD
V
For entire VDD range
0.8 VDD
—
VDD
V
1.6V
—
VDD
V
OSC1 (in HS mode)
0.7 VDD
—
VDD
V
OSC1 (in RC mode)
0.9 VDD
—
VDD
V
(Note 1)
Ports RC3 and RC4:
D044
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
0.7 VDD
—
VDD
V
For entire VDD range
D044A
with SMBus
1.4
—
5.5
V
For VDD = 4.5 to 5.5V
IPURB PORTB Weak Pull-up
Current
50
250
400
A
VDD = 5V, VPIN = VSS,
-40°C TO +85°C
D070
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16F7X7 be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified
levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input
voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
DS30498D-page 216
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
18.4
DC Characteristics:
PIC16F737/747/767/777 (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF737/747/767/777 (Industrial) (Continued)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
Sym
No.
IIL
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Operating voltage VDD range as described in
Section 18.1 “DC Characteristics”.
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Input Leakage Current(2, 3)
D060
I/O ports
—
—
1
A
VSS VPIN VDD,
pin at high-impedance
D061
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
—
—
5
A
VSS VPIN VDD
D063
OSC1
—
—
5
A
VSS VPIN VDD,
XT, HS and LP oscillator
configuration
VOL
Output Low Voltage
D080
I/O ports
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40C to +125C
D083
OSC2/CLKO
(RC oscillator configuration)
—
—
0.6
V
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40C to +125C
IOL = 1.2 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40C to +125C
VOH
Output High Voltage
D090
I/O ports (Note 3)
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40C to +125C
D092
OSC2/CLKO
(RC oscillator configuration)
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
VDD – 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40C to +125C
IOH = -1.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
-40C to +125C
—
—
12
V
RA4 pin
In XT, HS and LP modes
when external clock is used
to drive OSC1
D150* VOD
Open-Drain High Voltage
Capacitive Loading Specs
on Output Pins
D100
COSC2 OSC2 pin
—
—
15
pF
D101
CIO
All I/O pins and OSC2
(in RC mode)
—
—
50
pF
D102
CB
SCL, SDA in I2C™ mode
—
—
400
pF
Program Flash Memory
D130
EP
Endurance
100
1000
—
D131
VPR
VDD for Read
2.0
—
5.5
E/W 25C at 5V
V
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended that the
PIC16F7X7 be driven with external clock in RC mode.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified
levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input
voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 217
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 18-1:
COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 3.0V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +85°C (unless otherwise stated).
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
D300
VIOFF
Input Offset Voltage
—
± 5.0
± 10
mV
D301
VICM
Input Common Mode Voltage*
0
—
VDD – 1.5
V
D302
CMRR
Common Mode Rejection Ratio*
55
—
—
dB
300
300A
TRESP
Response Time(1)*
—
150
400
600
ns
ns
301
TMC2OV
Comparator Mode Change to
Output Valid*
—
—
10
s
*
Note 1:
Comments
PIC16F7X7
PIC16LF7X7
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Response time measured with one comparator input at (VDD – 1.5)/2, while the other input transitions from
VSS to VDD.
TABLE 18-2:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 3.0V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +85°C (unless otherwise stated).
Param
No.
Sym
Characteristics
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VDD/24
—
VDD/32
LSb
—
—
—
—
1/4
1/2
LSb
LSb
D310
VRES
Resolution
D311
VRAA
Absolute Accuracy
D312
VRUR
Unit Resistor Value (R)*
—
2k
—

310
TSET
Settling Time(1)*
—
—
10
s
*
Note 1:
Comments
Low Range (CVRR = 1)
High Range (CVRR = 0)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Settling time measured while CVRR = 1 and CVR<3:0> transition from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’.
DS30498D-page 218
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-3:
LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT CHARACTERISTICS
VDD
(LVDIF can be
cleared in software)
VLVD
(LVDIF set by hardware)
LVDIF
TABLE 18-3:
LOW-VOLTAGE DETECT CHARACTERISTICS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
D420
Symbol
VLVD
Legend:
†
Characteristic
LVD Voltage on VDD
Transition High-to-Low
LVDL<3:0> = 0000
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
N/A
N/A
N/A
V
Conditions
Reserved
LVDL<3:0> = 0001
1.96
2.06
2.16
V
T  25C
LVDL<3:0> = 0010
2.16
2.27
2.38
V
T  25C
LVDL<3:0> = 0011
2.35
2.47
2.59
V
T  25C
LVDL<3:0> = 0100
2.43
2.56
2.69
V
LVDL<3:0> = 0101
2.64
2.78
2.92
V
LVDL<3:0> = 0110
2.75
2.89
3.03
V
LVDL<3:0> = 0111
2.95
3.1
3.26
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1000
3.24
3.41
3.58
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1001
3.43
3.61
3.79
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1010
3.53
3.72
3.91
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1011
3.72
3.92
4.12
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1100
3.92
4.13
4.34
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1101
4.11
4.33
4.55
V
LVDL<3:0> = 1110
4.41
4.64
4.87
V
Shading of rows is to assist in readability of the table.
Production tested at TAMB = 25°C. Specifications over temperature limits ensured by characterization.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 219
PIC16F7X7
18.5
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created
using one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
3. TCC:ST
(I2C specifications only)
2. TppS
4. Ts
(I2C specifications only)
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKO
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O port
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (High-impedance)
L
Low
I2C only
AA
BUF
output access
Bus free
TCC:ST (I2C specifications only)
CC
HD
Hold
ST
DAT
DATA input hold
STA
Start condition
FIGURE 18-4:
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
High-impedance
High
Low
High
Low
SU
Setup
STO
Stop condition
LOAD CONDITIONS
Load Condition 1
Load Condition 2
VDD/2
RL
CL
pin
VSS
RL = 464
CL = 50 pF
15 pF
CL
pin
VSS
for all pins except OSC2, but including PORTD and PORTE outputs as ports
for OSC2 output
Note: PORTD and PORTE are not implemented on the PIC16F737/767 devices.
DS30498D-page 220
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-5:
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
4
3
4
2
CLKO
TABLE 18-4:
Param
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Symbol
FOSC
Characteristic
External CLKI Frequency
(Note 1)
Oscillator Frequency
(Note 1)
1
TOSC
External CLKI Period
(Note 1)
Oscillator Period
(Note 1)
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
DC
—
1
MHz
XT Oscillator mode
DC
—
20
MHz
HS Oscillator mode
DC
—
32
kHz
LP Oscillator mode
DC
—
4
MHz
RC Oscillator mode
0.1
—
4
MHz
XT Oscillator mode
4
5
—
—
20
200
MHz
kHz
HS Oscillator mode
LP Oscillator mode
1000
—
—
ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—
—
ns
HS Oscillator mode
5
—
—
ms
LP Oscillator mode
250
—
—
ns
RC Oscillator mode
250
—
10,000
ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—
250
ns
HS Oscillator mode
5
—
—
ms
LP Oscillator mode
2
TCY
Instruction Cycle Time
(Note 1)
200
TCY
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
3
TOSL,
TOSH
External Clock in (OSC1)
High or Low Time
500
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
4
TOSR,
TOSF
External Clock in (OSC1)
Rise or Fall Time
2.5
—
—
ms
LP oscillator
15
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
—
—
25
ns
XT oscillator
—
—
50
ns
LP oscillator
—
—
15
ns
HS oscillator
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are
based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type, under standard operating conditions, with
the device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation
and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min.” values with an
external clock applied to the OSC1/CLKI pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max.” cycle time
limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 221
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-6:
CLKO AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
CLKO
13
14
19
12
18
16
I/O pin
(Input)
15
17
I/O pin
(Output)
New Value
Old Value
20, 21
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-5:
Param
No.
CLKO AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
10*
TOSH2CKL OSC1  to CLKO 
—
75
200
ns
(Note 1)
11*
TOSH2CKH OSC1  to CLKO 
—
75
200
ns
(Note 1)
12*
TCKR
CLKO Rise Time
—
35
100
ns
(Note 1)
13*
TCKF
CLKO Fall Time
—
35
100
ns
(Note 1)
14*
TCKL2IOV
CLKO  to Port Out Valid
—
—
0.5 TCY + 20
ns
(Note 1)
15*
TIOV2CKH
Port In Valid before CLKO 
TOSC + 200
—
—
ns
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
16*
TCKH2IOI
Port In Hold after CLKO 
0
—
—
ns
17*
TOSH2IOV
OSC1  (Q1 cycle) to Port Out Valid
—
100
255
ns
18*
TOSH2IOI
OSC1  (Q2 cycle) to
Port Input Invalid (I/O in
hold time)
PIC16F7X7
100
—
—
ns
PIC16LF7X7
200
—
—
ns
0
—
—
ns
PIC16F7X7
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
—
145
ns
PIC16F7X7
—
10
40
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
—
145
ns
19*
TIOV2OSH Port Input Valid to OSC1 (I/O in setup time)
20*
TIOR
21*
TIOF
Port Output Rise Time
Port Output Fall Time
22††*
TINP
INT pin High or Low Time
TCY
—
—
ns
23††*
TRBP
RB7:RB4 Change INT High or Low Time
TCY
—
—
ns
*
†
††
Note 1:
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
These parameters are asynchronous events not related to any internal clock edges.
Measurements are taken in RC mode, where CLKO output is 4 x TOSC.
DS30498D-page 222
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-7:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND
POWER-UP TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
Oscillator
Time-out
Internal
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Reset
31
34
34
I/O pins
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
FIGURE 18-8:
BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING
VBOR
VDD
35
TABLE 18-6:
Param
No.
Sym
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER
AND BROWN-OUT RESET REQUIREMENTS
Characteristic
30
TMCL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
31*
TWDT
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(no prescaler)
32
TOST
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
33*
TPWRT
Power-up Timer Period
34
TIOZ
I/O High-Impedance from MCLR Low or
Watchdog Timer Reset
35
TBOR
Brown-out Reset Pulse Width
*
†
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
2
—
—
s
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
13.6
16
18.4
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
—
1024 TOSC
—
—
TOSC = OSC1 period
61.2
72
82.8
ms
VDD = 5V, -40°C to +85°C
—
—
2.1
s
100
—
—
s
VDD  VBOR (D005)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 223
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-9:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT
41
40
42
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI
46
45
47
48
TMR0 or TMR1
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-7:
Param
No.
40*
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Symbol
TT0H
Characteristic
T0CKI High Pulse Width
No prescaler
With prescaler
41*
TT0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
42*
TT0P
T0CKI Period
No prescaler
With prescaler
No prescaler
With prescaler
45*
TT1H
T1CKI High Time Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
Synchronous,
PIC16F7X7
Prescaler = 2, 4, 8 PIC16LF7X7
Asynchronous
46*
47*
TT1L
TT1P
T1CKI Low Time
T1CKI Input
Period
48
Max
Units
Conditions
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
Must also meet
parameter 42
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
Must also meet
parameter 42
10
—
—
ns
TCY + 40
—
—
ns
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
N = prescale
value (2, 4, ...,
256)
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
Must also meet
parameter 47
15
—
—
ns
25
—
—
ns
PIC16F7X7
30
—
—
ns
50
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
Synchronous,
PIC16F7X7
Prescaler = 2, 4, 8 PIC16LF7X7
15
—
—
ns
25
—
—
ns
Asynchronous
30
—
—
ns
PIC16LF7X7
50
—
—
ns
PIC16F7X7
Greater of:
30 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
N = prescale
value (1, 2, 4, 8)
PIC16LF7X7
Greater of:
50 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
N = prescale
value (1, 2, 4, 8)
PIC16F7X7
60
—
—
ns
PIC16LF7X7
100
—
—
ns
DC
—
200
kHz
2 TOSC
—
7 TOSC
—
Synchronous
PIC16F7X7
Timer1 Oscillator Input Frequency Range
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
TCKEZTMR1 Delay from External Clock Edge to Timer Increment
*
†
Typ†
PIC16LF7X7
Synchronous, Prescaler = 1
Asynchronous
FT1
Min
Must also meet
parameter 47
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
DS30498D-page 224
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-10:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP1 AND CCP2)
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Capture Mode)
51
50
52
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2
and RC2/CCP1
(Compare or PWM Mode)
54
53
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-8:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (ALL CCP MODULES)
Param
Symbol
No.
50*
51*
TCCL
TCCH
Characteristic
Min
Typ† Max Units
CCP1, CCP2 and No prescaler
CCP3 Input Low
With prescaler PIC16F7X7
Time
PIC16LF7X7
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
CCP1, CCP2 and No prescaler
CCP3 Input High With prescaler PIC16F7X7
Time
PIC16LF7X7
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
20
—
—
ns
3 TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
52*
TCCP
CCP1, CCP2 and CCP3 Input Period
53*
TCCR
CCP1, CCP2 and CCP3 Output
Rise Time
PIC16F7X7
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
25
50
ns
CCP1, CCP2 and CCP3 Output
Fall Time
PIC16F7X7
—
10
25
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
25
45
ns
54*
TCCF
Conditions
N = prescale
value (1, 4 or 16)
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and
are not tested.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 225
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-11:
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT TIMING (PIC16F747/777 DEVICES ONLY)
RE2/CS/AN7
RE0/RD/AN5
RE1/WR/AN6
65
RD7/PSP7:RD0/PSP0
62
64
63
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-9:
Param
No.
62
63*
PARALLEL SLAVE PORT REQUIREMENTS (PIC16F747/777 DEVICES ONLY)
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
TDTV2WRH Data In Valid before WR  or CS  (setup time)
TWRH2DTI
WR  or CS  to Data In Invalid
(hold time)
20
25
Typ† Max
—
—
—
—
Units
Conditions
ns
ns
Extended range only
PIC16F7X7
20
—
—
ns
PIC16LF7X7
35
—
—
ns
64
TRDL2DTV
RD  and CS  to Data Out Valid
—
—
—
—
80
90
ns
ns
65
TRDH2DTI
RD  or CS  to Data Out Invalid
10
—
30
ns
Extended range only
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
DS30498D-page 226
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-12:
SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0, SMP = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSb
SDO
LSb
bit 6 - - - - - -1
75, 76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
74
73
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
FIGURE 18-13:
SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1, SMP = 1)
SS
81
SCK
(CKP = 0)
71
72
79
73
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
78
SDO
MSb
LSb
bit 6 - - - - - -1
75, 76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
74
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 227
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-14:
SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
83
71
72
78
79
79
78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
MSb
SDO
LSb
bit 6 - - - - - -1
77
75, 76
SDI
bit 6 - - - -1
MSb In
LSb In
74
73
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
FIGURE 18-15:
SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
82
SS
SCK
(CKP = 0)
70
83
71
72
SCK
(CKP = 1)
80
SDO
MSb
bit 6 - - - - - -1
LSb
77
75, 76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
74
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
DS30498D-page 228
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 18-10: SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Symbol
70*
Characteristic
TSSL2SCH,
TSSL2SCL
SS  to SCK  or SCK  Input
Min
Typ†
Max Units Conditions
TCY
—
—
ns
71*
TSCH
SCK Input High Time (Slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
72*
TSCL
SCK Input Low Time (Slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
73*
TDIV2SCH,
TDIV2SCL
Setup Time of SDI Data Input to SCK Edge
100
—
—
ns
74*
TSCH2DIL,
TSCL2DIL
Hold Time of SDI Data Input to SCK Edge
100
—
—
ns
75*
TDOR
SDO Data Output Rise Time PIC16F7X7
PIC16LF7X7
—
—
10
25
25
50
ns
ns
76*
TDOF
SDO Data Output Fall Time
—
10
25
ns
77*
TSSH2DOZ
SS  to SDO Output High-Impedance
10
—
50
ns
78*
TSCR
SCK Output Rise Time
(Master mode)
—
—
10
25
25
50
ns
ns
79*
TSCF
SCK Output Fall Time (Master mode)
—
10
25
ns
80*
TSCH2DOV,
TSCL2DOV
SDO Data Output Valid after
SCK Edge
—
—
—
—
50
145
ns
ns
81*
TDOV2SCH, SDO Data Output Setup to SCK Edge
TDOV2SCL
TCY
—
—
ns
82*
TSSL2DOV
SDO Data Output Valid after SS  Edge
—
—
50
ns
83*
TSCH2SSH,
TSCL2SSH
SS after SCK Edge
1.5 TCY + 40
—
—
ns
PIC16F7X7
PIC16LF7X7
PIC16F7X7
PIC16LF7X7
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
FIGURE 18-16:
I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
91
90
93
92
SDA
Start
Condition
Stop
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 229
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 18-11: I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Param
Symbol
No.
Characteristic
90*
TSU:STA
Start Condition
91*
THD:STA
92*
TSU:STO
93
THD:STO Stop Condition
Typ
4700
—
Max Units
—
Setup Time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Start Condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
Hold Time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Stop Condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
—
Setup Time
Hold Time
*
100 kHz mode
Min
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for Repeated
Start condition
ns
After this period, the first clock
pulse is generated
ns
ns
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
FIGURE 18-17:
I2C™ BUS DATA TIMING
103
102
100
101
SCL
90
106
107
91
92
SDA
In
110
109
109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
DS30498D-page 230
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 18-12: I2C™ BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No.
100*
Symbol
THIGH
Characteristic
Clock High Time
Min
Max
Units
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 10 MHz
1.5 TCY
—
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 10 MHz
SSP module
101*
TLOW
Clock Low Time
SSP module
102*
TR
103*
TF
TSU:STA
90*
91*
THD:STA
THD:DAT
106*
107*
TSU:DAT
TSU:STO
92*
109*
TAA
110*
TBUF
CB
*
Note 1:
2:
SDA and SCL Rise 100 kHz mode
Time
400 kHz mode
1.5 TCY
—
—
1000
ns
20 + 0.1 CB
300
ns
—
300
ns
300
ns
CB is specified to be from
10-400 pF
Only relevant for Repeated
Start condition
SDA and SCL Fall
Time
100 kHz mode
Start Condition
Setup Time
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
s
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
s
Start Condition Hold 100 kHz mode
Time
400 kHz mode
4.0
—
s
0.6
—
s
400 kHz mode
20 + 0.1
CB
Data Input Hold
Time
100 kHz mode
0
—
ns
400 kHz mode
0
0.9
s
Data Input Setup
Time
100 kHz mode
250
—
ns
400 kHz mode
100
—
ns
Stop Condition
Setup Time
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
s
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
s
Output Valid from
Clock
100 kHz mode
—
3500
ns
400 kHz mode
—
—
ns
Bus Free Time
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
s
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
s
—
400
pF
Bus Capacitive Loading
CB is specified to be from
10-400 pF
After this period, the first
clock pulse is generated
(Note 2)
(Note 1)
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission
can start
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region
(min. 300 ns) of the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of Start or Stop conditions.
A Fast mode (400 kHz) I2C™ bus device can be used in a Standard mode (100 kHz) I2C bus system but
the requirement, TSU:DAT 250 ns, must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does
not stretch the LOW period of the SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the LOW period of the SCL
signal, it must output the next data bit to the SDA line, TR max. + TSU:DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns
(according to the standard mode I2C bus specification), before the SCL line is released.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 231
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-18:
RC6/TX/CK
pin
AUSART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
121
121
RC7/RX/DT
pin
120
122
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-13: AUSART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
120
Symbol
Characteristic
TCKH2DTV SYNC XMIT (MASTER & SLAVE)
Clock High to Data Out Valid
PIC16F7X7
Min
Typ†
Max
Units Conditions
—
—
80
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
—
100
ns
121
TCKRF
Clock Out Rise Time and Fall Time
(Master mode)
PIC16F7X7
—
—
45
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
—
50
ns
122
TDTRF
Data Out Rise Time and Fall Time
PIC16F7X7
—
—
45
ns
PIC16LF7X7
—
—
50
ns
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
FIGURE 18-19:
RC6/TX/CK
pin
AUSART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
125
RC7/RX/DT
pin
126
Note: Refer to Figure 18-4 for load conditions.
TABLE 18-14: AUSART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
125
TDTV2CKL
SYNC RCV (MASTER & SLAVE)
Data Setup before CK  (DT setup time)
15
—
—
ns
126
TCKL2DTL
Data Hold after CK  (DT hold time)
15
—
—
ns
Conditions
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
DS30498D-page 232
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
TABLE 18-15: A/D CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS: PIC16F7X7 (INDUSTRIAL, EXTENDED)
PIC16LF7X7 (INDUSTRIAL)
Param
Sym
No.
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
A01
NR
Resolution
—
—
10 bits
bit
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS  VAIN  VREF
A03
EIL
Integral Linearity Error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS  VAIN  VREF
A04
EDL
Differential Linearity Error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS  VAIN  VREF
A06
EOFF
Offset Error
—
—
<±2
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS  VAIN  VREF
A07
EGN
Gain Error
—
—
<±1
LSb
VREF = VDD = 5.12V,
VSS  VAIN  VREF
A10
—
Monotonicity
—
guaranteed(3)
—
—
A20
VREF
Reference Voltage
(VREF+ – VREF-)
2.0
—
VDD + 0.3
V
A21
VREF+ Reference Voltage High
AVDD – 2.5V
—
AVDD + 0.3V
V
A22
VREF- Reference Voltage Low
AVSS – 0.3V
—
VREF+ – 2.0V
V
A25
VAIN
Analog Input Voltage
VSS – 0.3V
—
VREF + 0.3V
V
A30
ZAIN
Recommended Impedance of
Analog Voltage Source
—
—
2.5
k
(Note 4)
A40
IAD
A/D Conversion
Current (VDD)
PIC16F7X7
—
220
—
A
PIC16LF7X7
—
90
—
A
Average current
consumption when A/D is on
(Note 1)
—
—
5
A
—
—
150
A
A50
IREF
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
VREF Input Current (Note 2)
VSS  VAIN  VREF
During VAIN acquisition.
Based on differential of VHOLD
to VAIN to charge CHOLD,
see Section 12.1 “A/D
Acquisition Requirements”.
During A/D conversion cycle
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
When A/D is off, it will not consume any current other than minor leakage current. The power-down current specification
includes any such leakage from the A/D module.
VREF current is from RA3 pin or VDD pin, whichever is selected as reference input.
The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the input voltage and has no missing codes.
Maximum allowed impedance for analog voltage source is 10 kThis requires higher acquisition time.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 233
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 18-20:
A/D CONVERSION TIMING
1 TCY
BSF ADCON0, GO
(TOSC/2)(1)
131
Q4
130
A/D CLK
132
9
A/D DATA
8

7

2
1
0
OLD_DATA
ADRES
NEW_DATA
ADIF
GO
DONE
Sampling Stopped
SAMPLE
Note: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the SLEEP
instruction to be executed.
TABLE 18-16: A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Param
Symbol
No.
130
TAD
Characteristic
A/D Clock Period
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
PIC16F7X7
1.6
—
—
s
TOSC based, VREF  3.0V
PIC16LF7X7
3.0
—
—
s
TOSC based, VREF  2.0V
PIC16F7X7
2.0
4.0
6.0
s
A/D RC mode
PIC16LF7X7
3.0
6.0
9.0
s
A/D RC mode
—
12
TAD
(Note 2)
40
—
s
10*
—
—
s
The minimum time is the
amplifier settling time. This may
be used if the “new” input
voltage has not changed by
more than 1 LSb (i.e., 5.0 mV @
5.12V) from the last sampled
voltage (as stated on CHOLD).
—
TOSC/2 §
—
—
If the A/D clock source is
selected as RC, a time of TCY is
added before the A/D clock
starts. This allows the SLEEP
instruction to be executed.
131
TCNV
Conversion Time (not including S/H time)
(Note 1)
132
TACQ
Acquisition Time
134
TGO
*
†
§
Note 1:
2:
Q4 to A/D Clock Start
Conditions
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
This specification ensured by design.
ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
See Section 12.1 “A/D Acquisition Requirements” for minimum conditions.
DS30498D-page 234
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
19.0
DC AND AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS AND TABLES
Note:
The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of
samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein
are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified
operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore, outside the warranted range.
“Typical” represents the mean of the distribution at 25C. “Maximum” or “minimum” represents (mean + 3) or (mean – 3)
respectively, where  is a standard deviation, over the whole temperature range.
FIGURE 19-1:
TYPICAL IDD vs. FOSC OVER VDD (HS MODE)
7
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
6
5.5V
5
5.0V
IDD (mA)
4.5V
4
4.0V
3.5V
3
3.0V
2
2.5V
2.0V
1
0
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
18
20
FOSC (MHz)
FIGURE 19-2:
MAXIMUM IDD vs. FOSC OVER VDD (HS MODE)
8
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
7
5.5V
6
5.0V
4.5V
IDD (mA)
5
4.0V
4
3.5V
3.0V
3
2.5V
2
2.0V
1
0
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
FOSC (MHz)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 235
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-3:
TYPICAL IDD vs. FOSC OVER VDD (XT MODE)
1.8
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
1.6
5.5V
1.4
5.0V
1.2
4.5V
IDD (mA)
4.0V
1.0
3.5V
0.8
3.0V
2.5V
0.6
2.0V
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
3500
4000
FOSC (MHz)
FIGURE 19-4:
MAXIMUM IDD vs. FOSC OVER VDD (XT MODE)
2.5
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
2.0
5.5V
5.0V
1.5
IDD (mA)
4.5V
4.0V
3.5V
1.0
3.0V
2.5V
2.0V
0.5
0.0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
FOSC (MHz)
DS30498D-page 236
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-5:
TYPICAL IDD vs. FOSC OVER VDD (LP MODE)
70
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
60
5.5V
5.0V
50
4.5V
IDD (A)
40
4.0V
3.5V
30
3.0V
2.5V
20
2.0V
10
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
FOSC (kHz)
FIGURE 19-6:
MAXIMUM IDD vs. FOSC OVER VDD (LP MODE)
120
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
5.5V
100
5.0V
4.5V
80
IDD (A)
4.0V
3.5V
60
3.0V
2.5V
40
2.0V
20
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
FOSC (kHz)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 237
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-7:
TYPICAL IDD vs. VDD, -40C TO +125C, 1 MHz TO 8 MHz
(RC_RUN MODE, ALL PERIPHERALS DISABLED)
1.6
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
1.4
5.5V
5.0V
1.2
4.5V
1.0
IDD (mA)
4.0V
3.5V
0.8
3.0V
0.6
2.5V
0.4
2.0V
0.2
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
FOSC (MHz)
FIGURE 19-8:
MAXIMUM IDD vs. VDD, -40C TO +125C, 1 MHz TO 8 MHz
(RC_RUN MODE, ALL PERIPHERALS DISABLED)
4.5
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
4.0
5.5V
3.5
5.0V
4.5V
IDD (mA)
3.0
4.0V
2.5
3.5V
2.0
3.0V
1.5
2.5V
2.0V
1.0
0.5
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
FOSC (MHz)
DS30498D-page 238
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-9:
IDD vs. VDD, SEC_RUN MODE, -10C TO +125C, 32.768 kHz
(XTAL 2 x 22 pF, ALL PERIPHERALS DISABLED)
45.0
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
40.0
35.0
Max (+70°C)
IDD (A)
30.0
25.0
Typ (+25°C)
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 19-10:
IPD vs. VDD, -40C TO +125C (SLEEP MODE, ALL PERIPHERALS DISABLED)
100
Max (125°C)
10
Max (85°C)
IPD (A)
1
0.1
0.01
Typ (25°C)
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
0.001
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 239
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-11:
AVERAGE FOSC vs. VDD FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF R (RC MODE, C = 20 pF, +25C)
4.5
Operation above 4 MHz is not recommended
4.0
5.1 kOhm
3.5
Freq (MHz)
3.0
2.5
10 kOhm
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
100 kOhm
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 19-12:
AVERAGE FOSC vs. VDD FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF R
(RC MODE, C = 100 pF, +25C)
2.5
2.0
3.3 kOhm
Freq (MHz)
1.5
5.1 kOhm
1.0
10 kOhm
0.5
100 kOhm
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
DS30498D-page 240
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-13:
AVERAGE FOSC vs. VDD FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF R
(RC MODE, C = 300 pF, +25C)
0.9
0.8
3.3 kOhm
0.7
0.6
Freq (MHz)
5.1 kOhm
0.5
0.4
10 kOhm
0.3
0.2
0.1
100 kOhm
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 19-14:
IPD TIMER1 OSCILLATOR, -10°C TO +70°C
(SLEEP MODE, TMR1 COUNTER DISABLED)
5.0
4.5
Max (-10°C to +70°C)
4.0
3.5
3.0
IPD (A)
Typ (+25°C)
2.5
2.0
1.5
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
1.0
0.5
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 241
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-15:
IPD WDT, -40°C TO +125°C (SLEEP MODE, ALL PERIPHERALS DISABLED)
18
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
16
14
IWDT (A)
12
10
Max (-40°C to +125°C)
8
6
Max (-40°C to +85°C)
4
2
Typ (25°C)
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 19-16:
IPD LVD vs. VDD (SLEEP MODE, LVD = 2.00V-2.12V)
50
45
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
40
Max (+125°C)
35
Max (+85°C)
IPD (A)
30
Typ (+25°C)
25
20
15
10
Low-Voltage Detection Range
5
Normal Operating Range
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
DS30498D-page 242
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-17:
IPD BOR vs. VDD, -40°C TO +125°C
(SLEEP MODE, BOR ENABLED AT 2.00V-2.16V)
40
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
35
Max (+125°C)
30
25
IPD (A)
Typ (+25°C)
20
15
10
Device may be in Reset
5
Device is Operating
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 19-18:
IPD A/D, -40C TO +125C (SLEEP MODE, A/D ENABLED – NOT CONVERTING)
12
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
10
Max
(-40°C to +125°C)
IPD (A)
8
6
4
Max
(-40°C to +85°C)
2
Typ (+25°C)
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 243
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-19:
TYPICAL, MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VOH vs. IOH (VDD = 5V, -40C TO +125C)
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
Max
3.5
VOH (V)
Typ (25°C)
3.0
2.5
Min
2.0
Typical: statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOH (-mA)
FIGURE 19-20:
TYPICAL, MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VOH vs. IOH (VDD = 3V, -40C TO +125C)
3.5
Typical: statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
3.0
2.5
Max
VOH (V)
2.0
Typ (25°C)
1.5
Min
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOH (-mA)
DS30498D-page 244
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-21:
TYPICAL, MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VOL vs. IOL (VDD = 5V, -40C TO +125C)
1.0
0.9
Max (125°C)
Typical: statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
0.8
0.7
Max (85°C)
VOL (V)
0.6
0.5
Typ (25°C)
0.4
0.3
Min (-40°C)
0.2
0.1
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (-mA)
FIGURE 19-22:
TYPICAL, MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VOL vs. IOL (VDD = 3V, -40C TO +125C)
3.0
Max (125°C)
Typical: statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
2.5
VOL (V)
2.0
1.5
Max (85°C)
1.0
Typ (25°C)
0.5
Min (-40°C)
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
IOL (-mA)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 245
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-23:
MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VIN vs. VDD (TTL INPUT, -40C TO +125C)
1.5
1.4
Typical: statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
1.3
VTH Max (-40°C)
1.2
1.1
VIN (V)
VTH Typ (25°C)
1.0
VTH Min (125°C)
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
FIGURE 19-24:
MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VIN vs. VDD (ST INPUT, -40C TO +125C)
4.0
Typical: statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
3.5
VIH Max (125°C)
3.0
VIN (V)
2.5
VIH Min (-40°C)
2.0
VIL Max (-40°C)
1.5
1.0
VIL Min (125°C)
0.5
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
DS30498D-page 246
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM VIN vs. VDD (I2C™ INPUT, -40C TO +125C)
FIGURE 19-25:
3.5
VIH Max
Typical:
statistical mean @ 25°C
Maximum: mean + 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
Minimum: mean – 3 (-40°C to +125°C)
3.0
2.5
2.0
VIN (V)
V
Max
VIL
ILMax
VIH Min
1.5
1.0
VIL Min
0.5
0.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
A/D NONLINEARITY vs. VREFH (VDD = VREFH, -40C TO +125C)
FIGURE 19-26:
4
3.5
Differential or Integral Nonlinearity (LSB)
-40°C
-40C
3
+25°C
25C
2.5
+85°C
85C
2
1.5
1
0.5
+125°C
125C
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VDD and VREFH (V)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 247
PIC16F7X7
FIGURE 19-27:
A/D NONLINEARITY vs. VREFH (VDD = 5V, -40C TO +125C)
3
Differential or Integral Nonlinearilty (LSB)
2.5
2
1.5
Max
+125°C)
Max (-40°C
(-40C toto125C)
1
Typ
Typ (+25°C)
(25C)
0.5
0
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
VREFH (V)
DS30498D-page 248
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
20.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
20.1
Package Marking Information
28-Lead SPDIP (.300”)
Example
PIC16F737-I/SP
0410017
28-Lead SOIC (7.50 mm)
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
e3
Example
PIC16F737-I/SO
0410017
e3
YYWWNNN
28-Lead SSOP (5.30 mm)
Example
PIC16F737
-I/SS e3
0410017
28-Lead QFN (6x6 mm)
PIN 1
XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
Note:
Example
PIN 1
16F737
-I/ML e3
0410017
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 249
PIC16F7X7
Package Marking Information (Continued)
40-Lead PDIP (600 mil)
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
Example
PIC16F777-I/P
0410017
Example
44-Lead TQFP (10x10x1 mm)
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
PIC16F777
-I/PT e3
0410017
44-Lead QFN (8x8x0.9 mm)
PIN 1
Example
PIN 1
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
DS30498D-page 250
e3
PIC16F777
-I/ML e3
0410017
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
20.2
Package Details
The following sections give the technical details of the
packages.
/HDG6NLQQ\3ODVWLF'XDO,Q/LQH63±PLO%RG\>63',[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
N
NOTE 1
E1
1
2 3
D
E
A2
A
L
c
b1
A1
b
e
eB
8QLWV
'LPHQVLRQ/LPLWV
1XPEHURI3LQV
,1&+(6
0,1
1
120
0$;
3LWFK
H
7RSWR6HDWLQJ3ODQH
$
±
±
0ROGHG3DFNDJH7KLFNQHVV
$
%DVHWR6HDWLQJ3ODQH
$
±
±
6KRXOGHUWR6KRXOGHU:LGWK
(
0ROGHG3DFNDJH:LGWK
(
2YHUDOO/HQJWK
'
7LSWR6HDWLQJ3ODQH
/
/HDG7KLFNQHVV
F
E
E
H%
±
±
8SSHU/HDG:LGWK
/RZHU/HDG:LGWK
2YHUDOO5RZ6SDFLQJ†
%6&
1RWHV
3LQYLVXDOLQGH[IHDWXUHPD\YDU\EXWPXVWEHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHKDWFKHGDUHD
†6LJQLILFDQW&KDUDFWHULVWLF
'LPHQVLRQV'DQG(GRQRWLQFOXGHPROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQV0ROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQVVKDOOQRWH[FHHGSHUVLGH
'LPHQVLRQLQJDQGWROHUDQFLQJSHU$60(<0
%6& %DVLF'LPHQVLRQ7KHRUHWLFDOO\H[DFWYDOXHVKRZQZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHV
0LFURFKLS 7HFKQRORJ\ 'UDZLQJ &%
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 251
PIC16F7X7
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS30498D-page 252
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 253
PIC16F7X7
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS30498D-page 254
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF6KULQN6PDOO2XWOLQH66±PP%RG\>[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
D
N
E
E1
1 2
NOTE 1
b
e
c
A2
A
φ
A1
L
L1
8QLWV
'LPHQVLRQ/LPLWV
1XPEHURI3LQV
0,//,0(7(56
0,1
1
120
0$;
3LWFK
H
2YHUDOO+HLJKW
$
±
%6&
±
0ROGHG3DFNDJH7KLFNQHVV
$
6WDQGRII
$
±
±
2YHUDOO:LGWK
(
0ROGHG3DFNDJH:LGWK
(
2YHUDOO/HQJWK
'
)RRW/HQJWK
/
)RRWSULQW
/
5()
/HDG7KLFNQHVV
F
±
)RRW$QJOH
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
/HDG:LGWK
E
±
1RWHV
3LQYLVXDOLQGH[IHDWXUHPD\YDU\EXWPXVWEHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHKDWFKHGDUHD
'LPHQVLRQV'DQG(GRQRWLQFOXGHPROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQV0ROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQVVKDOOQRWH[FHHGPPSHUVLGH
'LPHQVLRQLQJDQGWROHUDQFLQJSHU$60(<0
%6& %DVLF'LPHQVLRQ7KHRUHWLFDOO\H[DFWYDOXHVKRZQZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHV
5() 5HIHUHQFH'LPHQVLRQXVXDOO\ZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHIRULQIRUPDWLRQSXUSRVHVRQO\
0LFURFKLS 7HFKQRORJ\ 'UDZLQJ &%
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 255
PIC16F7X7
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS30498D-page 256
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF4XDG)ODW1R/HDG3DFNDJH0/±[PP%RG\>4)[email protected]
ZLWKPP&RQWDFW/HQJWK
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
D
D2
EXPOSED
PAD
e
E
b
E2
2
2
1
1
N
K
N
NOTE 1
L
BOTTOM VIEW
TOP VIEW
A
A3
A1
8QLWV
'LPHQVLRQ/LPLWV
1XPEHURI3LQV
0,//,0(7(56
0,1
1
120
0$;
3LWFK
H
2YHUDOO+HLJKW
$
6WDQGRII
$
&RQWDFW7KLFNQHVV
$
2YHUDOO:LGWK
(
([SRVHG3DG:LGWK
(
2YHUDOO/HQJWK
'
([SRVHG3DG/HQJWK
%6&
5()
%6&
%6&
'
&RQWDFW:LGWK
E
&RQWDFW/HQJWK
/
&RQWDFWWR([SRVHG3DG
.
±
1RWHV
3LQYLVXDOLQGH[IHDWXUHPD\YDU\EXWPXVWEHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHKDWFKHGDUHD
3DFNDJHLVVDZVLQJXODWHG
'LPHQVLRQLQJDQGWROHUDQFLQJSHU$60(<0
%6& %DVLF'LPHQVLRQ7KHRUHWLFDOO\H[DFWYDOXHVKRZQZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHV
5() 5HIHUHQFH'LPHQVLRQXVXDOO\ZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHIRULQIRUPDWLRQSXUSRVHVRQO\
±
0LFURFKLS 7HFKQRORJ\ 'UDZLQJ &%
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 257
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF4XDG)ODW1R/HDG3DFNDJH0/±[PP%RG\>4)[email protected]
ZLWKPP&RQWDFW/HQJWK
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
DS30498D-page 258
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF'XDO,Q/LQH3±PLO%RG\>3',[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
N
NOTE 1
E1
1 2 3
D
E
A2
A
L
c
b1
A1
b
e
eB
8QLWV
'LPHQVLRQ/LPLWV
1XPEHURI3LQV
,1&+(6
0,1
1
120
0$;
3LWFK
H
7RSWR6HDWLQJ3ODQH
$
±
±
0ROGHG3DFNDJH7KLFNQHVV
$
±
%DVHWR6HDWLQJ3ODQH
$
±
±
6KRXOGHUWR6KRXOGHU:LGWK
(
±
0ROGHG3DFNDJH:LGWK
(
±
2YHUDOO/HQJWK
'
±
7LSWR6HDWLQJ3ODQH
/
±
/HDG7KLFNQHVV
F
±
E
±
E
±
H%
±
±
8SSHU/HDG:LGWK
/RZHU/HDG:LGWK
2YHUDOO5RZ6SDFLQJ†
%6&
1RWHV
3LQYLVXDOLQGH[IHDWXUHPD\YDU\EXWPXVWEHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHKDWFKHGDUHD
†6LJQLILFDQW&KDUDFWHULVWLF
'LPHQVLRQV'DQG(GRQRWLQFOXGHPROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQV0ROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQVVKDOOQRWH[FHHGSHUVLGH
'LPHQVLRQLQJDQGWROHUDQFLQJSHU$60(<0
%6& %DVLF'LPHQVLRQ7KHRUHWLFDOO\H[DFWYDOXHVKRZQZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHV
0LFURFKLS 7HFKQRORJ\ 'UDZLQJ &%
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 259
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF7KLQ4XDG)ODWSDFN37±[[PP%RG\PP>74)[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
D
D1
E
e
E1
N
b
NOTE 1
1 2 3
NOTE 2
α
A
φ
c
β
A2
A1
L
L1
8QLWV
'LPHQVLRQ/LPLWV
1XPEHURI/HDGV
0,//,0(7(56
0,1
1
120
0$;
/HDG3LWFK
H
2YHUDOO+HLJKW
$
±
%6&
±
0ROGHG3DFNDJH7KLFNQHVV
$
6WDQGRII
$
±
)RRW/HQJWK
/
)RRWSULQW
/
5()
)RRW$QJOH
2YHUDOO:LGWK
(
ƒ
%6&
ƒ
2YHUDOO/HQJWK
'
%6&
0ROGHG3DFNDJH:LGWK
(
%6&
0ROGHG3DFNDJH/HQJWK
'
%6&
ƒ
/HDG7KLFNQHVV
F
±
/HDG:LGWK
E
0ROG'UDIW$QJOH7RS
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
0ROG'UDIW$QJOH%RWWRP
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
1RWHV
3LQYLVXDOLQGH[IHDWXUHPD\YDU\EXWPXVWEHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHKDWFKHGDUHD
&KDPIHUVDWFRUQHUVDUHRSWLRQDOVL]HPD\YDU\
'LPHQVLRQV'DQG(GRQRWLQFOXGHPROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQV0ROGIODVKRUSURWUXVLRQVVKDOOQRWH[FHHGPPSHUVLGH
'LPHQVLRQLQJDQGWROHUDQFLQJSHU$60(<0
%6& %DVLF'LPHQVLRQ7KHRUHWLFDOO\H[DFWYDOXHVKRZQZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHV
5() 5HIHUHQFH'LPHQVLRQXVXDOO\ZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHIRULQIRUPDWLRQSXUSRVHVRQO\
0LFURFKLS 7HFKQRORJ\ 'UDZLQJ &%
DS30498D-page 260
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 261
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF4XDG)ODW1R/HDG3DFNDJH0/±[PP%RG\>4)[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
D
D2
EXPOSED
PAD
e
E
E2
b
2
2
1
N
1
N
NOTE 1
TOP VIEW
K
L
BOTTOM VIEW
A
A3
A1
8QLWV
'LPHQVLRQ/LPLWV
1XPEHURI3LQV
0,//,0(7(56
0,1
1
120
0$;
3LWFK
H
2YHUDOO+HLJKW
$
6WDQGRII
$
&RQWDFW7KLFNQHVV
$
2YHUDOO:LGWK
(
([SRVHG3DG:LGWK
(
2YHUDOO/HQJWK
'
([SRVHG3DG/HQJWK
%6&
5()
%6&
%6&
'
&RQWDFW:LGWK
E
&RQWDFW/HQJWK
/
&RQWDFWWR([SRVHG3DG
.
±
1RWHV
3LQYLVXDOLQGH[IHDWXUHPD\YDU\EXWPXVWEHORFDWHGZLWKLQWKHKDWFKHGDUHD
3DFNDJHLVVDZVLQJXODWHG
'LPHQVLRQLQJDQGWROHUDQFLQJSHU$60(<0
%6& %DVLF'LPHQVLRQ7KHRUHWLFDOO\H[DFWYDOXHVKRZQZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHV
5() 5HIHUHQFH'LPHQVLRQXVXDOO\ZLWKRXWWROHUDQFHIRULQIRUPDWLRQSXUSRVHVRQO\
±
0LFURFKLS 7HFKQRORJ\ 'UDZLQJ &%
DS30498D-page 262
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
/HDG3ODVWLF4XDG)ODW1R/HDG3DFNDJH0/±[PP%RG\>4)[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
KWWSZZZPLFURFKLSFRPSDFNDJLQJ
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 263
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 264
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
APPENDIX A:
REVISION HISTORY
Revision A (June 2003)
This is a new data sheet. However, these devices are
similar to the PIC16C7X devices found in the
PIC16C7X Data Sheet (DS30390) or the PIC16F87X
devices (DS30292).
APPENDIX B:
DEVICE
DIFFERENCES
The differences between the devices in this data sheet
are listed in Table B-1.
Revision B (November 2003)
This revision includes updates to the Electrical Specifications in Section 18.0 “Electrical Characteristics”
and minor corrections to the data sheet text.
Revision C (October 2004)
This revision includes the DC and AC Characteristics
Graphs and Tables. The Electrical Specifications in
Section 19.0 “DC and AC Characteristics Graphs
and Tables” have been updated and there have been
minor corrections to the data sheet text.
Revision D (January 2013)
Added a note to each package drawing.
TABLE B-1:
DEVICE DIFFERENCES
Difference
PIC16F737
PIC16F747
PIC16F767
PIC16F777
Flash Program Memory
(14-bit words)
4K
4K
8K
8K
Data Memory (bytes)
368
368
368
368
3
5
3
5
11 channels,
10 bits
14 channels,
10 bits
11 channels,
10 bits
14 channels,
10 bits
Parallel Slave Port
No
Yes
No
Yes
Interrupt Sources
16
17
16
17
28-pin PDIP
28-pin SOIC
28-pin SSOP
28-pin QFN
40-pin PDIP
44-pin QFN
44-pin TQFP
28-pin PDIP
28-pin SOIC
28-pin SSOP
28-pin QFN
40-pin PDIP
44-pin QFN
44-pin TQFP
I/O Ports
A/D
Packages
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 265
PIC16F7X7
APPENDIX C:
CONVERSION
CONSIDERATIONS
Considerations for converting from previous versions
of devices to the ones listed in this data sheet are listed
in Table C-1.
TABLE C-1:
CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS
Characteristic
PIC16C7X
PIC16F87X
PIC16F7X7
28/40
28/40
28/40
3
3
3
11 or 12
13 or 14
16 or 17
PSP, USART, SSP
(SPI, I2C™ Master/Slave)
PSP, AUSART, MSSP
(SPI, I2C Master/Slave)
PSP, AUSART, MSSP
(SPI, I2C Master/Slave)
20 MHz
20 MHz
20 MHz
A/D
8-bit
10-bit
10-bit
CCP
2
2
3
Program Memory
4K, 8K EPROM
4K, 8K Flash
(1,000 E/W cycles)
4K, 8K Flash
(100 E/W cycles)
RAM
192, 368 bytes
192, 368 bytes
368 bytes
Pins
Timers
Interrupts
Communication
Frequency
EEPROM Data
Other
DS30498D-page 266
None
128, 256 bytes
None
—
In-Circuit Debugger,
Low-Voltage Programming
In-Circuit Debugger
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
INDEX
A
Baud Rates, Asynchronous Mode
(BRGH = 0)............................................... 136
Baud Rates, Asynchronous Mode
(BRGH = 1)............................................... 136
High Baud Rate Select (BRGH Bit) .................. 133
INTRC Baud Rates, Asynchronous Mode
(BRGH = 0)............................................... 137
INTRC Baud Rates, Asynchronous Mode
(BRGH = 1)............................................... 137
Sampling .......................................................... 135
Clock Source Select (CSRC Bit) .............................. 133
Continuous Receive Enable (CREN Bit) .................. 134
Framing Error (FERR Bit) ......................................... 134
Overrun Error (OERR Bit)......................................... 134
Receive Data, 9th Bit (RX9D Bit).............................. 134
Receive Enable, 9-Bit (RX9 Bit) ............................... 134
Serial Port Enable (SPEN Bit) .......................... 133, 134
Single Receive Enable (SREN Bit)........................... 134
Synchronous Master Mode....................................... 144
Reception ......................................................... 146
Transmission .................................................... 144
Synchronous Master Reception
Associated Registers........................................ 146
Setup ................................................................ 146
Synchronous Master Transmission
Associated Registers........................................ 145
Setup ................................................................ 144
Synchronous Slave Mode......................................... 148
Reception ......................................................... 149
Transmit............................................................ 148
Synchronous Slave Reception
Associated Registers........................................ 149
Setup ................................................................ 149
Synchronous Slave Transmission
Associated Registers........................................ 148
Setup ................................................................ 148
Transmit Data, 9th Bit (TX9D) .................................. 133
Transmit Enable (TXEN Bit) ..................................... 133
Transmit Enable, 9-Bit (TX9 Bit)............................... 133
Transmit Shift Register Status (TRMT Bit) ............... 133
A/D
A/D Converter Interrupt, Configuring ........................ 155
Acquisition Requirements ......................................... 156
ADRESH Register..................................................... 154
Analog Port Pins ......................................................... 68
Analog-to-Digital Converter....................................... 151
Associated Registers ................................................ 160
Automatic Acquisition Time....................................... 157
Calculating Acquisition Time..................................... 156
Configuring Analog Port Pins.................................... 158
Configuring the Module............................................. 155
Conversion Clock...................................................... 157
Conversion Requirements ........................................ 234
Conversion Status (GO/DONE Bit) ........................... 154
Conversions .............................................................. 159
Delays ....................................................................... 156
Effects of a Reset...................................................... 160
Internal Sampling Switch (Rss) Impedance .............. 156
Operation During Sleep ............................................ 160
Operation in Power-Managed Modes ....................... 158
Source Impedance.................................................... 156
Time Delays .............................................................. 156
Use of the CCP Trigger............................................. 160
Absolute Maximum Ratings .............................................. 205
ACKSTAT ......................................................................... 123
ACKSTAT Status Flag ...................................................... 123
ADCON0 Register
GO/DONE Bit............................................................ 154
Addressable Universal Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter. See AUSART
ADRESL Register ............................................................. 154
Application Notes
AN546 (Using the Analog-to-Digital (A/D)
Converter) ......................................................... 151
AN552 (Implementing Wake-up on Key Stroke) ......... 56
AN556 (Implementing a Table Read) ......................... 29
AN607 (Power-up Trouble Shooting)........................ 173
Assembler
MPASM Assembler................................................... 202
AUSART
Address Detect Enable (ADDEN Bit) ........................ 134
Addressable Universal Synchronous
Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter................. 133
Asynchronous
Receiver
(9-Bit Mode) .............................................. 142
Asynchronous Mode ................................................. 138
Receiver............................................................ 140
Transmitter........................................................ 138
Asynchronous Receive with Address Detect.
SeeAsynchronous Receive (9-bit Mode).
Asynchronous Reception
Associated Registers ................................ 141, 143
Setup ................................................................ 141
Asynchronous Reception with Address
Detect Setup ..................................................... 142
Asynchronous Transmission
Associated Registers ........................................ 139
Setup ................................................................ 139
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)..................................... 135
Associated Registers ........................................ 135
Baud Rate Formula........................................... 135
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
B
Banking, Data Memory ....................................................... 15
Baud Rate Generator ....................................................... 119
BF ..................................................................................... 123
BF Status Flag .................................................................. 123
Block Diagrams
A/D............................................................................ 155
Analog Input Model........................................... 156, 165
AUSART Receive ............................................. 140, 142
AUSART Transmit .................................................... 138
Baud Rate Generator ............................................... 119
Capture Mode Operation ............................................ 89
Comparator I/O Operating Modes ............................ 162
Comparator Output................................................... 164
Comparator Voltage Reference................................ 168
Compare..................................................................... 89
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor ............................................ 189
In-Circuit Serial Programming Connections ............. 192
Interrupt Logic........................................................... 184
Low-Voltage Detect (LVD)........................................ 175
Low-Voltage Detect (LVD) with External Input ......... 175
Low-Voltage Detect Characteristics ......................... 219
MSSP (I2C Master Mode)......................................... 117
DS30498D-page 267
PIC16F7X7
MSSP (I2C Mode) ..................................................... 102
MSSP (SPI Mode)....................................................... 93
On-Chip Reset Circuit ............................................... 172
OSC1/CLKI/RA7 Pin ................................................... 54
OSC2/CLKO/RA6 Pin ................................................. 53
PIC16F737 and PIC16F767.......................................... 6
PIC16F747 and PIC16F777.......................................... 7
PORTC (Peripheral Output Override)
RC<2:0>, RC<7:5> Pins ..................................... 65
PORTC (Peripheral Output Override)
RC<4:3> Pins...................................................... 65
PORTD (In I/O Port Mode).......................................... 67
PORTD and PORTE (Parallel Slave Port) .................. 70
PORTE (In I/O Port Mode) .......................................... 68
PWM Mode ................................................................. 91
RA0/AN0:RA1/AN1 Pins ............................................. 50
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF Pin......................................... 51
RA3/AN3/VREF+ Pin.................................................... 50
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT Pin .............................................. 51
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT Pin ................................ 52
RB0/INT/AN12 Pin ...................................................... 57
RB1/AN10 Pin ............................................................. 57
RB2/AN8 Pin ............................................................... 58
RB3/CCP2/AN9 Pin .................................................... 59
RB4/AN11 Pin ............................................................. 60
RB5/AN13/CCP3 Pin .................................................. 61
RB6/PGC Pin .............................................................. 62
RB7/PGD Pin .............................................................. 63
Recommended MCLR Circuit ................................... 173
System Clock .............................................................. 39
Timer0/WDT Prescaler ............................................... 73
Timer1 ......................................................................... 79
Timer2 ......................................................................... 85
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ............................................ 186
BOR. See Brown-out Reset.
BRG. See Baud Rate Generator.
BRGH Bit........................................................................... 135
Brown-out Reset (BOR) .................... 169, 172, 173, 179, 180
C
C Compilers
MPLAB C18 .............................................................. 202
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP)........................................... 87
Capture Mode ............................................................. 89
CCP Pin Configuration........................................ 89
Prescaler............................................................. 89
Compare Mode ........................................................... 89
CCP Pin Configuration........................................ 90
Software Interrupt Mode ..................................... 90
Special Event Trigger.......................................... 90
Special Event Trigger Output.............................. 90
Timer1 Mode Selection ....................................... 90
Interaction of Two CCP Modules ................................ 87
PWM Mode ................................................................. 91
Duty Cycle........................................................... 91
Example Frequencies and Resolutions .............. 92
Period.................................................................. 91
Setup for Operation............................................. 92
Registers Associated with Capture, Compare and
Timer1................................................................. 90
Registers Associated with PWM and Timer2 .............. 92
Timer Resources......................................................... 87
CCP1 Module...................................................................... 87
CCP2 Module...................................................................... 87
CCP3 Module...................................................................... 87
CCPR1H Register ............................................................... 87
DS30498D-page 268
CCPR1L Register ............................................................... 87
CCPR2H Register............................................................... 87
CCPR2L Register ............................................................... 87
CCPR3H Register............................................................... 87
CCPR3L Register ............................................................... 87
CCPxM<3:0> Bits ............................................................... 88
CCPxX and CCPxY Bits ..................................................... 88
Clock Sources..................................................................... 37
Selection Using OSCCON Register............................ 37
Clock Switching .................................................................. 37
Modes (table).............................................................. 47
Transition and the Watchdog Timer............................ 38
Code Examples
Call of a Subroutine in Page 1 from Page 0 ............... 29
Changing Between Capture Prescalers...................... 89
Changing Prescaler Assignment from WDT
to Timer0 ............................................................ 76
Flash Program Read................................................... 32
Implementing a Real-Time Clock Using a
Timer1 Interrupt Service ..................................... 82
Indirect Addressing ..................................................... 30
Initializing PORTA....................................................... 49
Loading the SSPBUF (SSPSR) Register.................... 96
Reading a 16-bit Free Running Timer ........................ 80
Saving Status and W Registers in RAM ................... 185
Writing a 16-bit Free Running Timer........................... 80
Code Protection ........................................................ 169, 192
Comparator Module .......................................................... 161
Analog Input Connection Considerations ................. 165
Associated Registers ................................................ 165
Configuration ............................................................ 162
Effects of a Reset ..................................................... 165
Interrupts .................................................................. 164
Operation .................................................................. 163
Operation During Sleep ............................................ 165
Outputs ..................................................................... 163
Reference ................................................................. 163
External Signal ................................................. 163
Internal Signal................................................... 163
Response Time......................................................... 163
Comparator Specifications................................................ 218
Comparator Voltage Reference ........................................ 167
Associated Registers ................................................ 168
Computed GOTO................................................................ 29
Configuration Bits ............................................................. 169
Conversion Considerations............................................... 266
Crystal and Ceramic Resonators ........................................ 33
Customer Change Notification Service............................. 275
Customer Notification Service .......................................... 275
Customer Support............................................................. 275
D
Data Memory ...................................................................... 15
Bank Select (RP1:RP0 Bits) ....................................... 15
General Purpose Registers ........................................ 15
Map for PIC16F737 and PIC16F767 .......................... 16
Map for PIC16F747 and PIC16F777 .......................... 17
Special Function Registers ......................................... 18
DC and AC Characteristics
Graphs and Tables ................................................... 235
DC Characteristics.................................................... 207, 216
Internal RC Accuracy................................................ 215
Power-Down and Supply Current ............................. 208
Development Support ....................................................... 201
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
Device Differences ............................................................ 265
Device Overview ................................................................... 5
Features........................................................................ 5
Direct Addressing................................................................ 30
E
Electrical Characteristics................................................... 205
Errata .................................................................................... 4
External Clock Input ............................................................ 34
F
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor............................................. 169, 189
FSR Register ...................................................................... 30
I
I/O Ports .............................................................................. 49
I2 Mode
Operation .................................................................. 106
I2 Slave Mode
Clock Stretching, 10-bit Receive
Mode (SEN = 1) ................................................ 112
Clock Stretching, 10-bit Transmit Mode.................... 112
Clock Stretching, 7-bit Receive Mode (SEN = 1) ...... 112
Clock Stretching, 7-bit Transmit Mode...................... 112
I2C Master Mode ............................................................... 117
Clock Arbitration........................................................ 120
Operation .................................................................. 118
Reception.................................................................. 123
Repeated Start Condition Timing.............................. 122
Start Condition Timing .............................................. 121
Transmission............................................................. 123
I2C Mode ........................................................................... 102
ACK Pulse......................................................... 106, 107
Acknowledge Sequence Timing................................ 126
Baud Rate Generator................................................ 119
Bus Collision
Repeated Start Condition ................................. 130
Start Condition .................................................. 128
Stop Condition .................................................. 131
Clock Synchronization and the CKP Bit.................... 113
Effect of a Reset ....................................................... 127
General Call Address Support .................................. 116
Multi-Master Communication, Bus Collision
and Arbitration .................................................. 127
Multi-Master Mode .................................................... 127
Read/Write Bit Information (R/W Bit) ........................ 107
Registers................................................................... 102
Serial Clock (RC3/SCK/SCL).................................... 107
Sleep Operation ........................................................ 127
Stop Condition Timing............................................... 126
I2C Slave Mode ................................................................. 106
Addressing ................................................................ 106
Clock Stretching........................................................ 112
Reception.................................................................. 107
Transmission............................................................. 107
ID Locations .............................................................. 169, 192
In-Circuit Debugger ........................................................... 192
In-Circuit Serial Programming ........................................... 169
In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) ............................... 192
INDF Register ..................................................................... 30
Indirect Addressing ............................................................. 30
FSR Register .............................................................. 15
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Instruction Set
Firmware Instructions ............................................... 193
General Format ........................................................ 193
Opcode Field Descriptions ....................................... 193
Read-Modify-Write Operations ................................. 193
ADDLW..................................................................... 195
ADDWF .................................................................... 195
ANDLW..................................................................... 195
ANDWF .................................................................... 195
BCF .......................................................................... 195
BSF........................................................................... 195
BTFSC...................................................................... 195
BTFSS ...................................................................... 195
CALL......................................................................... 196
CLRF ........................................................................ 196
CLRW ....................................................................... 196
CLRWDT .................................................................. 196
COMF ....................................................................... 196
DECF........................................................................ 196
DECFSZ ................................................................... 197
GOTO ....................................................................... 197
INCF ......................................................................... 197
INCFSZ..................................................................... 197
IORLW ...................................................................... 197
IORWF...................................................................... 197
MOVF ....................................................................... 198
MOVLW .................................................................... 198
MOVWF.................................................................... 198
NOP.......................................................................... 198
RETFIE..................................................................... 198
RETLW ..................................................................... 198
RETURN................................................................... 199
RLF........................................................................... 199
RRF .......................................................................... 199
SLEEP ...................................................................... 199
SUBLW..................................................................... 199
SUBWF..................................................................... 199
SWAPF..................................................................... 200
XORLW .................................................................... 200
XORWF .................................................................... 200
Summary Table ........................................................ 194
INT Interrupt (RB0/INT). See Interrupt Sources.
INTCON Register
GIE Bit ........................................................................ 23
INT0IE Bit ................................................................... 23
INT0IF Bit ................................................................... 23
PEIE Bit ...................................................................... 23
RBIF Bit ................................................................ 23, 56
TMR0IE Bit ................................................................. 23
Inter-Integrated Circuit. See I2C.
Internal Oscillator Block ...................................................... 35
INTRC Modes............................................................. 36
Internet Address ............................................................... 275
Interrupt Sources ...................................................... 169, 184
A/D Conversion Complete ........................................ 155
Interrupt-on-Change (RB7:RB4)................................. 56
RB0/INT Pin, External .............................................. 185
TMR0 Overflow......................................................... 185
Interrupts
Exiting Sleep with ....................................................... 48
Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt .............................. 25
Interrupts, Context Saving During..................................... 185
DS30498D-page 269
PIC16F7X7
Interrupts, Enable Bits
Global Interrupt Enable (GIE Bit) ........................ 23, 184
Interrupt-on-Change (RB7:RB4) Enable
(RBIE Bit) .......................................................... 185
Peripheral Interrupt Enable (PEIE Bit) ........................ 23
RB0/INT Enable (INT0IE Bit) ...................................... 23
TMR0 Overflow Enable (TMR0IE Bit) ......................... 23
Interrupts, Flag Bits
Interrupt-on Change (RB7:RB4) Flag (RBIF Bit)......... 23
Interrupt-on-Change (RB7:RB4) Flag
(RBIF Bit) .............................................. 23, 56, 185
RB0/INT Flag (INT0IF Bit)........................................... 23
TMR0 Overflow Flag (TMR0IF Bit) ........................... 185
INTRC Modes
Adjustment .................................................................. 36
L
Load Conditions ................................................................ 220
Loading of PC ..................................................................... 29
Low-Voltage Detect........................................................... 174
Characteristics .......................................................... 219
Effects of a Reset...................................................... 178
Operation .................................................................. 177
Current Consumption........................................ 178
Reference Voltage Set Point............................. 178
Operation During Sleep ............................................ 178
Time-out Sequence................................................... 178
Low-Voltage Detect (LVD) ................................................ 169
LVD. See Low-Voltage Detect. ......................................... 174
M
Master Clear (MCLR)
MCLR Reset, Normal Operation ............... 172, 179, 180
MCLR Reset, Sleep .................................. 172, 179, 180
Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP). See MSSP.
Master Synchronous Serial Port. See MSSP
MCLR/VPP/RE3 Pin............................................................... 8
MCLRpp/RE3 Pin................................................................ 11
Memory Organization.......................................................... 15
Data Memory .............................................................. 15
Program Memory ........................................................ 15
Program Memory and Stack Maps ............................. 15
Microchip Internet Web Site .............................................. 275
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian ................... 202
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software............................................... 201
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer..................................... 204
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System................. 203
MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian ................ 202
MSSP .................................................................................. 93
I2C Mode. See I2C
SPI Mode. See SPI
MSSP Module
Control Registers (General) ........................................ 93
Overview ..................................................................... 93
Multi-Master Mode ............................................................ 127
O
OPTION_REG Register
INTEDG Bit ................................................................. 22
PS2:PS0 Bits .............................................................. 22
PSA Bit........................................................................ 22
RBPU Bit ..................................................................... 22
T0CS Bit...................................................................... 22
T0SE Bit ...................................................................... 22
OSC1/CLKI/RA7 Pin ....................................................... 8, 11
DS30498D-page 270
OSC2/CLKO/RA6 Pin ..................................................... 8, 11
Oscillator Configuration ...................................................... 33
ECIO ........................................................................... 33
EXTRC ..................................................................... 179
HS....................................................................... 33, 179
INTIO1 ........................................................................ 33
INTIO2 ........................................................................ 33
INTRC....................................................................... 179
LP ....................................................................... 33, 179
RC ........................................................................ 33, 35
RCIO........................................................................... 33
XT ....................................................................... 33, 179
Oscillator Control Register
Modifying IRCF Bits .................................................... 39
Clock Transition Sequence................................. 40
Oscillator Delay upon Power-up, Wake-up and
Clock Switching .......................................................... 40
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ................................ 169, 173
Oscillator Switching ............................................................ 37
P
Packaging ......................................................................... 249
Details....................................................................... 251
Marking Information .................................................. 249
Paging, Program Memory................................................... 29
Parallel Slave Port
Associated Registers .................................................. 71
Parallel Slave Port (PSP).............................................. 67, 70
RE0/RD/AN5 Pin ........................................................ 68
RE1/WR/AN6 Pin........................................................ 68
RE2/CS/AN7 Pin......................................................... 68
Select (PSPMODE Bit) ......................................... 67, 68
PCL Register ...................................................................... 29
PCLATH Register ............................................................... 29
PCON Register ................................................................. 178
POR Bit....................................................................... 28
Peripheral Interrupt (PEIE Bit) ............................................ 23
Pinout Descriptions
PIC16F737/PIC16F767 .......................................... 8–10
PIC16F747/PIC16F777 ........................................ 11–14
PMADR Register ................................................................ 31
POP .................................................................................... 29
POR. See Power-on Reset.
PORTA ........................................................................... 8, 11
Associated Registers .................................................. 55
PORTA Register ......................................................... 49
TRISA Register........................................................... 49
PORTA Register ................................................................. 49
PORTB ........................................................................... 9, 12
Associated Registers .................................................. 64
PORTB Register ......................................................... 56
Pull-up Enable (RBPU Bit).......................................... 22
RB0/INT Edge Select (INTEDG Bit) ........................... 22
RB0/INT Pin, External............................................... 185
RB7:RB4 Interrupt-on-Change ................................. 185
RB7:RB4 Interrupt-on-Change Enable
(RBIE Bit).......................................................... 185
RB7:RB4 Interrupt-on-Change Flag
(RBIF Bit).............................................. 23, 56, 185
TRISB Register........................................................... 56
PORTB Register ................................................................. 56
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
PORTC ......................................................................... 10, 13
Associated Registers .................................................. 66
PORTC Register ......................................................... 65
RC3/SCK/SCL Pin .................................................... 107
RC6/TX/CK Pin ......................................................... 134
RC7/RX/DT Pin................................................. 134, 135
TRISC Register................................................... 65, 133
PORTC Register ................................................................. 65
PORTD ............................................................................... 14
Associated Registers .................................................. 67
Parallel Slave Port (PSP) Function ............................. 67
PORTD Register ......................................................... 67
TRISD Register........................................................... 67
PORTD Register ................................................................. 67
PORTE................................................................................ 14
Analog Port Pins ......................................................... 68
Associated Registers .................................................. 68
Input Buffer Full Status (IBF Bit) ................................. 69
Input Buffer Overflow (IBOV Bit) ................................. 69
PORTE Register ......................................................... 68
PSP Mode Select (PSPMODE Bit) ....................... 67, 68
RE0/RD/AN5 Pin......................................................... 68
RE1/WR/AN6 Pin........................................................ 68
RE2/CS/AN7 Pin......................................................... 68
TRISE Register ........................................................... 68
PORTE Register ................................................................. 68
Postscaler, WDT
Assignment (PSA Bit) ................................................. 22
Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ........................................ 22
Power-Down Mode (Sleep) ............................................... 190
Power-Down Mode. See Sleep.
Power-Managed Modes ...................................................... 41
RC_RUN ..................................................................... 41
SEC_RUN................................................................... 42
SEC_RUN/RC_RUN to Primary Clock Source ........... 43
Power-on Reset (POR) ..................... 169, 172, 173, 179, 180
POR Status (POR Bit)................................................. 28
Power Control/Status (PCON) Register.................... 178
Power-Down (PD Bit)................................................ 172
Time-out (TO Bit) ................................................ 21, 172
Power-up Timer (PWRT) .......................................... 169, 173
PR2 Register....................................................................... 85
Prescaler, Timer0
Assignment (PSA Bit) ................................................. 22
Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ........................................ 22
Program Counter
Reset Conditions....................................................... 179
Program Memory
Flash
Associated Registers .......................................... 32
Interrupt Vector ........................................................... 15
Memory and Stack Maps ............................................ 15
Operation During Code-Protect .................................. 32
Organization................................................................ 15
Paging......................................................................... 29
PMADR Register......................................................... 31
PMADRH Register ...................................................... 31
Reading....................................................................... 31
Reading Flash............................................................. 32
Reading, PMADR Register ......................................... 31
Reading, PMADRH Register....................................... 31
Reading, PMCON1 Register....................................... 31
Reading, PMDATA Register ....................................... 31
Reading, PMDATH Register ....................................... 31
Reset Vector ............................................................... 15
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Program Verification ......................................................... 192
Programming, Device Instructions.................................... 193
PUSH.................................................................................. 29
R
RA0/AN0 Pin .................................................................. 8, 11
RA1/AN1 Pin .................................................................. 8, 11
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF Pin ............................................ 8, 11
RA3/AN3/VREF+ Pin ....................................................... 8, 11
RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT Pin .................................................. 8, 11
RA5/AN4/LVDIN/SS/C2OUT Pin .................................... 8, 11
RAM. See Data Memory.
RB0/INT/AN12 Pin.......................................................... 9, 12
RB1/AN10 Pin ................................................................ 9, 12
RB2/AN8 Pin .................................................................. 9, 12
RB3/CCP2/AN9 Pin ........................................................ 9, 12
RB4/AN11 Pin ................................................................ 9, 12
RB5/AN13/CCP3 Pin ...................................................... 9, 12
RB6/PGC Pin.................................................................. 9, 12
RB7/PGD Pin.................................................................. 9, 12
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI Pin ................................................ 10, 13
RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 Pin .................................................. 10, 13
RC2/CCP1 Pin.............................................................. 10, 13
RC3/SCK/SCL Pin ........................................................ 10, 13
RC4/SDI/SDA Pin ......................................................... 10, 13
RC5/SDO Pin................................................................ 10, 13
RC6/TX/CK Pin............................................................. 10, 13
RC7/RX/DT Pin............................................................. 10, 13
RCIO Oscillator................................................................... 35
RCSTA Register
ADDEN Bit................................................................ 134
CREN Bit .................................................................. 134
FERR Bit................................................................... 134
OERR Bit .................................................................. 134
RX9 Bit ..................................................................... 134
RX9D Bit ................................................................... 134
SPEN Bit........................................................... 133, 134
SREN Bit .................................................................. 134
RD0/PSP0 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD1/PSP1 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD2/PSP2 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD3/PSP3 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD4/PSP4 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD5/PSP5 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD6/PSP6 Pin .................................................................... 14
RD7/PSP7 Pin .................................................................... 14
RE0/RD/AN5 Pin ................................................................ 14
RE1/WR/AN6 Pin................................................................ 14
RE2/CS/AN7 Pin................................................................. 14
Reader Response............................................................. 276
Register File........................................................................ 15
Registers
ADCON0 (A/D Control 0).......................................... 152
ADCON1 (A/D Control 1).......................................... 153
ADCON2 (A/D Control 2).......................................... 154
CCPxCON (CCPx Control)......................................... 88
CMCON (Comparator Control) ................................. 161
CVRCON (Comparator Voltage
Reference Control) ........................................... 167
Initialization Conditions (table).......................... 180–181
INTCON (Interrupt Control) ........................................ 23
LVDCON (Low-Voltage Detect Control) ................... 176
OPTION_REG (Option Control) ........................... 22, 75
OSCCON (Oscillator Control)..................................... 38
OSCTUNE (Oscillator Tuning).................................... 36
PCON (Power Control/Status).................................... 28
DS30498D-page 271
PIC16F7X7
PIE1 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 1) ........................... 24
PIE2 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 2) ........................... 26
PIR1 (Peripheral Interrupt Request (Flag) 1) .............. 25
PIR2 (Peripheral Interrupt Request (Flag) 2) .............. 27
PMCON1 (Program Memory Control 1) ...................... 31
RCSTA (Receive Status and Control)....................... 134
Special Function, Summary .................................. 18–20
SSPCON (MSSP Control Register 1,
I2C Mode).......................................................... 104
SSPCON (MSSP Control Register 1,
SPI Mode) ........................................................... 95
SSPCON2 (MSSP Control Register 2,
I2C Mode).......................................................... 105
SSPSTAT (MSSP Status, I2C Mode)........................ 103
SSPSTAT (MSSP Status, SPI Mode) ......................... 94
Status .......................................................................... 21
T1CON (Timer1 Control)............................................. 78
T2CON (Timer2 Control)............................................. 86
TRISE ......................................................................... 69
TXSTA (Transmit Status and Control) ...................... 133
WDTCON (Watchdog Timer Control)........................ 187
Reset......................................................................... 169, 172
Brown-out Reset (BOR). See Brown-out Reset (BOR).
MCLR Reset. See MCLR.
Power-on Reset (POR). See Power-on Reset (POR).
Reset Conditions for All Registers .................... 180, 181
Reset Conditions for PCON Register........................ 179
Reset Conditions for Program Counter ..................... 179
Reset Conditions for Status Register ........................ 179
WDT Reset. See Watchdog Timer (WDT).
Revision History ................................................................ 265
S
SCI. See AUSART
SCK..................................................................................... 93
SDI ...................................................................................... 93
SDO .................................................................................... 93
Serial Clock, SCK................................................................ 93
Serial Communication Interface. See AUSART.
Serial Data In, SDI .............................................................. 93
Serial Data Out, SDO.......................................................... 93
Serial Peripheral Interface. See SPI.
Slave Select, SS ................................................................. 93
Sleep ................................................................. 169, 172, 190
Software Simulator (MPLAB SIM)..................................... 203
Special Features of the CPU............................................. 169
Special Function Registers ..................................... 18, 18–20
SPI Master Mode ................................................................ 98
SPI Mode ............................................................................ 93
Associated Registers ................................................ 101
Bus Mode Compatibility ............................................ 101
Clock ........................................................................... 98
Effects of a Reset...................................................... 101
Enabling SPI I/O ......................................................... 97
Master/Slave Connection ............................................ 97
Serial Clock ................................................................. 93
Serial Data In .............................................................. 93
Serial Data Out ........................................................... 93
Slave Select ................................................................ 93
Slave Select Synchronization ..................................... 99
Sleep Operation ........................................................ 101
Typical Connection ..................................................... 97
SPI Slave Mode .................................................................. 99
SS ....................................................................................... 93
SSPBUF.............................................................................. 98
SSPIF Bit............................................................................. 25
DS30498D-page 272
SSPOV ............................................................................. 123
SSPOV Status Flag .......................................................... 123
SSPSR................................................................................ 98
SSPSTAT Register
R/W Bit ..................................................................... 107
Stack................................................................................... 29
Overflows.................................................................... 29
Underflows.................................................................. 29
Status Register
C Bit ............................................................................ 21
DC Bit ......................................................................... 21
IRP Bit ........................................................................ 21
PD Bit ................................................................. 21, 172
TO Bit ................................................................. 21, 172
Z Bit ............................................................................ 21
Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Flag Bit (SSPIF)............ 25
T
T1CKPS0 Bit....................................................................... 78
T1CKPS1 Bit....................................................................... 78
T1OSCEN Bit...................................................................... 78
T1SYNC Bit ........................................................................ 78
T2CKPS0 Bit....................................................................... 86
T2CKPS1 Bit....................................................................... 86
TAD.................................................................................... 157
Timer0................................................................................. 73
Associated Registers .................................................. 76
Clock Source Edge Select (T0SE Bit) ........................ 22
Clock Source Select (T0CS Bit).................................. 22
Interrupt ...................................................................... 73
Operation .................................................................... 73
Overflow Enable (TMR0IE Bit).................................... 23
Overflow Flag (TMR0IF Bit) ...................................... 185
Overflow Interrupt ..................................................... 185
Prescaler .................................................................... 74
T0CKI ......................................................................... 74
Use with External Clock.............................................. 74
Timer1................................................................................. 77
Associated Registers .................................................. 83
Asynchronous Counter Mode ..................................... 80
Reading and Writing ........................................... 80
Capacitor Selection..................................................... 81
Counter Operation ...................................................... 79
Operation .................................................................... 77
Operation in Synchronized Counter Mode.................. 79
Operation in Timer Mode ............................................ 79
Oscillator..................................................................... 81
Oscillator Layout Considerations ................................ 81
Prescaler .................................................................... 82
Resetting Timer1 Register Pair................................... 82
Resetting Using a CCP Trigger Output....................... 81
Use as a Real-Time Clock .......................................... 82
Timer2................................................................................. 85
Associated Registers .................................................. 86
Output ......................................................................... 85
Postscaler ................................................................... 85
Prescaler .................................................................... 85
Prescaler and Postscaler............................................ 85
Timing Diagrams
A/D Conversion......................................................... 234
Acknowledge Sequence ........................................... 126
Asynchronous Master Transmission......................... 139
Asynchronous Master Transmission
(Back to Back) .................................................. 139
Asynchronous Reception.......................................... 140
Asynchronous Reception with Address Byte First .... 143
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
Asynchronous Reception with Address Detect ......... 143
AUSART Synchronous Receive (Master/Slave) ....... 232
AUSART Synchronous Transmission
(Master/Slave) .................................................. 232
Baud Rate Generator with Clock Arbitration ............. 120
BRG Reset Due to SDA Arbitration During
Start Condition .................................................. 129
Brown-out Reset ....................................................... 223
Bus Collision During a Repeated Start
Condition (Case 1) ............................................ 130
Bus Collision During a Repeated Start
Condition (Case 2) ............................................ 130
Bus Collision During a Stop Condition (Case 1) ....... 131
Bus Collision During a Stop Condition (Case 2) ....... 131
Bus Collision During Start Condition (SCL = 0) ........ 129
Bus Collision During Start Condition (SDA Only)...... 128
Bus Collision for Transmit and Acknowledge............ 127
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP1 and CCP2) ............. 225
CLKO and I/O ........................................................... 222
Clock Synchronization .............................................. 113
External Clock........................................................... 221
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor............................................. 189
First Start Bit ............................................................. 121
I2C Bus Data ............................................................. 230
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits.............................................. 229
I2C Master Mode (Reception, 7-bit Address) ............ 125
I2C Master Mode (Transmission, 7 or
10-bit Address) ................................................. 124
I2C Slave Mode (Transmission, 10-bit Address)....... 111
I2C Slave Mode (Transmission, 7-bit Address)......... 109
I2C Slave Mode with SEN = 0 (Reception,
10-bit Address) ................................................. 110
I2C Slave Mode with SEN = 0 (Reception,
7-bit Address) ................................................... 108
I2C Slave Mode with SEN = 1 (Reception,
10-bit Address) ................................................. 115
I2C Slave Mode with SEN = 1 (Reception,
7-bit Address) ................................................... 114
Low-Voltage Detect................................................... 177
LP Clock to Primary System Clock after
Reset (EC, RC, INTRC) ...................................... 46
LP Clock to Primary System Clock after
Reset (HS, XT, LP) ............................................. 45
Parallel Slave Port .................................................... 226
Parallel Slave Port Read............................................. 71
Parallel Slave Port Write ............................................. 71
PWM Output ............................................................... 91
Repeated Start Condition.......................................... 122
Reset, Watchdog Timer, Oscillator Start-up
Timer and Power-up Timer ............................... 223
Slave Mode General Call Address Sequence
(7 or 10-bit Address Mode) ............................... 116
Slave Synchronization (SPI Mode) ............................. 99
Slow Rise Time (MCLR Tied to VDD
Through RC Network) ....................................... 183
SPI Master Mode (CKE = 0, SMP = 0) ..................... 227
SPI Master Mode (CKE = 1, SMP = 1) ..................... 227
SPI Mode (Master Mode)............................................ 98
SPI Mode (Slave Mode with CKE = 0) ...................... 100
SPI Mode (Slave Mode with CKE = 1) ...................... 100
SPI Slave Mode (CKE = 0) ....................................... 228
SPI Slave Mode (CKE = 1) ....................................... 228
Stop Condition Receive or Transmit Mode ............... 126
Switching to SEC_RUN Mode .................................... 42
Synchronous Reception (Master Mode, SREN) ....... 147
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Synchronous Transmission ...................................... 145
Synchronous Transmission (Through TXEN) ........... 145
Time-out Sequence on Power-up (MCLR
Tied to VDD Through Pull-up Resistor) ............. 182
Time-out Sequence on Power-up (MCLR
Tied to VDD Through RC Network): Case 1...... 182
Time-out Sequence on Power-up (MCLR
Tied to VDD Through RC Network): Case 2...... 182
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock ........................... 224
Timer1 Incrementing Edge ......................................... 79
Transition Between SEC_RUN/RC_RUN
and Primary Clock .............................................. 44
Two-Speed Start-up ................................................. 188
Wake-up from Sleep via Interrupt............................. 191
XT, HS, LP, EC, EXTRC to RC_RUN Mode .............. 41
Timing Parameter Symbology .......................................... 220
Timing Requirements
AUSART Synchronous Receive ............................... 232
AUSART Synchronous Transmission....................... 232
Capture/Compare/PWM (All CCP Modules)............. 225
CLKO and I/O ........................................................... 222
External Clock .......................................................... 221
I2C Bus Data............................................................. 231
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits ............................................. 230
Parallel Slave Port .................................................... 226
Reset, Watchdog Timer, Oscillator Start-up Timer,
Power-up Timer and Brown-out Reset ............. 223
SPI Mode.................................................................. 229
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock ........................... 224
TMR1CS Bit........................................................................ 78
TMR1ON Bit ....................................................................... 78
TMR2ON Bit ....................................................................... 86
TOUTPS<3:0> Bits ............................................................. 86
TRISA Register................................................................... 49
TRISB Register................................................................... 56
TRISC Register................................................................... 65
TRISD Register................................................................... 67
TRISE Register................................................................... 68
IBF Bit......................................................................... 69
IBOV Bit...................................................................... 69
PSPMODE Bit ...................................................... 67, 68
Two-Speed Clock Start-up Mode...................................... 188
Two-Speed Start-up.......................................................... 169
TXSTA Register
BRGH Bit .................................................................. 133
CSRC Bit .................................................................. 133
TRMT Bit .................................................................. 133
TX9 Bit...................................................................... 133
TX9D Bit ................................................................... 133
TXEN Bit ................................................................... 133
V
Voltage Reference Specifications..................................... 218
DS30498D-page 273
PIC16F7X7
W
Wake-up from Sleep ................................................. 169, 190
Interrupts ........................................................... 179, 180
WDT Reset ............................................................... 180
Wake-up Using Interrupts ................................................. 191
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ............................................ 169, 186
Associated Registers ................................................ 187
WDT Reset, Normal Operation ................. 172, 179, 180
WDT Reset, Sleep .................................... 172, 179, 180
WCOL ....................................................... 121, 122, 123, 126
WCOL Status Flag .................................... 121, 122, 123, 126
WWW Address.................................................................. 275
WWW, On-Line Support........................................................ 4
DS30498D-page 274
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means
to make files and information easily available to
customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet
browser, the web site contains the following
information:
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance
through several channels:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata,
application notes and sample programs, design
resources, user’s guides and hardware support
documents, latest software releases and archived
software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ), technical support requests,
online discussion groups, Microchip consultant
program member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and
ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases,
listing of seminars and events, listings of
Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory
representatives
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Customers
should
contact
their
distributor,
representative or field application engineer (FAE) for
support. Local sales offices are also available to help
customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is
included in the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site
at: http://microchip.com/support
CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION
SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep
customers current on Microchip products. Subscribers
will receive e-mail notification whenever there are
changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a
specified product family or development tool of interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at
www.microchip.com. Under “Support”, click on
“Customer Change Notification” and follow the
registration instructions.
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS30498D-page 275
PIC16F7X7
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip
product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our
documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at
(480) 792-4150.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document.
TO:
Technical Publications Manager
RE:
Reader Response
Total Pages Sent ________
From: Name
Company
Address
City / State / ZIP / Country
Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________
FAX: (______) _________ - _________
Application (optional):
Would you like a reply?
Y
N
Device: PIC16F7X7
Literature Number: DS30498D
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
DS30498D-page 276
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F7X7
PIC16F7X7 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
Device
X
Temperature
Range
/XX
XXX
Package
Pattern
Examples:
a)
b)
Device
PIC16F7X7(1), PIC16F7X7T(1); VDD range 4.0V to 5.5V
PIC16LF7X7(1), PIC16LF7X7T(1); VDD range 2.0V to 5.5V
Temperature Range
I
E
=
=
c)
PIC16F777-I/P 301 = Industrial temp., PDIP
package, normal VDD limits, QTP pattern #301.
PIC16LF767-I/SO = Industrial temp., SOIC
package, extended VDD limits.
PIC16F747-E/P = Extended temp., PDIP
package, normal VDD limits.
-40C to +85C (Industrial)
-40C to +125C (Extended)
Note 1:
Package
ML
PT
SO
SP
P
SS
=
=
=
=
=
=
QFN (Micro Lead Frame)
TQFP (Thin Quad Flatpack)
SOIC
Skinny Plastic DIP
PDIP
SSOP
Pattern
QTP, SQTP, Code or Special Requirements
(blank otherwise)
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
2:
F = CMOS Flash
LF = Low-Power CMOS Flash
T = in tape and reel – SOIC, SSOP,
TQFP packages only.
DS30498D-page 277
PIC16F7X7
NOTES:
DS30498D-page 278
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability
arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip
devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at
the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and
hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims,
suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
FlashFlex, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro,
PICSTART, PIC32 logo, rfPIC, SST, SST Logo, SuperFlash
and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology
Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MTP, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions
Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology
Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Silicon Storage Technology is a registered trademark of
Microchip Technology Inc. in other countries.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, BodyCom,
chipKIT, chipKIT logo, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM,
dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPF, MPLAB
Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, SQI, Serial Quad I/O,
Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock, ZENA
and Z-Scale are trademarks of Microchip Technology
Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
GestIC and ULPP are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Germany II GmbH & Co. & KG, a subsidiary of
Microchip Technology Inc., in other countries.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2003-2013, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in
the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 9781620769386
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
CERTIFIED BY DNV
== ISO/TS 16949 ==
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
DS30498D-page 279
Worldwide Sales and Service
AMERICAS
ASIA/PACIFIC
ASIA/PACIFIC
EUROPE
Corporate Office
2355 West Chandler Blvd.
Chandler, AZ 85224-6199
Tel: 480-792-7200
Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support:
http://www.microchip.com/
support
Web Address:
www.microchip.com
Asia Pacific Office
Suites 3707-14, 37th Floor
Tower 6, The Gateway
Harbour City, Kowloon
Hong Kong
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
India - Bangalore
Tel: 91-80-3090-4444
Fax: 91-80-3090-4123
India - New Delhi
Tel: 91-11-4160-8631
Fax: 91-11-4160-8632
Austria - Wels
Tel: 43-7242-2244-39
Fax: 43-7242-2244-393
Denmark - Copenhagen
Tel: 45-4450-2828
Fax: 45-4485-2829
India - Pune
Tel: 91-20-2566-1512
Fax: 91-20-2566-1513
France - Paris
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20
Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Japan - Osaka
Tel: 81-6-6152-7160
Fax: 81-6-6152-9310
Germany - Munich
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Atlanta
Duluth, GA
Tel: 678-957-9614
Fax: 678-957-1455
Boston
Westborough, MA
Tel: 774-760-0087
Fax: 774-760-0088
Chicago
Itasca, IL
Tel: 630-285-0071
Fax: 630-285-0075
Cleveland
Independence, OH
Tel: 216-447-0464
Fax: 216-447-0643
Dallas
Addison, TX
Tel: 972-818-7423
Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
Farmington Hills, MI
Tel: 248-538-2250
Fax: 248-538-2260
Indianapolis
Noblesville, IN
Tel: 317-773-8323
Fax: 317-773-5453
Los Angeles
Mission Viejo, CA
Tel: 949-462-9523
Fax: 949-462-9608
Santa Clara
Santa Clara, CA
Tel: 408-961-6444
Fax: 408-961-6445
Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
Australia - Sydney
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8569-7000
Fax: 86-10-8528-2104
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
China - Chongqing
Tel: 86-23-8980-9588
Fax: 86-23-8980-9500
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
China - Hangzhou
Tel: 86-571-2819-3187
Fax: 86-571-2819-3189
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
China - Hong Kong SAR
Tel: 852-2943-5100
Fax: 852-2401-3431
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859
China - Nanjing
Tel: 86-25-8473-2460
Fax: 86-25-8473-2470
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068
China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-5778-366
Fax: 886-3-5770-955
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8864-2200
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-213-7828
Fax: 886-7-330-9305
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2508-8600
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
DS30498D-page 280
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Japan - Tokyo
Tel: 81-3-6880- 3770
Fax: 81-3-6880-3771
11/29/12
 2003-2013 Microchip Technology Inc.