DS90CR283/DS90CR284 28-Bit Channel Link-66 MHz General Description The DS90CR283 transmitter converts 28 bits of CMOS/TTL data into four LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) data streams. A phase-locked transmit clock is transmitted in parallel with the data streams over a fifth LVDS link. Every cycle of the transmit clock 28 bits of input data are sampled and transmitted. The DS90CR284 receiver converts the LVDS data streams back into 28 bits of CMOS/TTL data. At a transmit clock frequency of 66 MHz, 28 bits of TTL data are transmitted at a rate of 462 Mbps per LVDS data channel. Using a 66 MHz clock, the data throughput is 1.848 Gbit/s (231 Mbytes/s). The multiplexing of the data lines provides a substantial cable reduction. Long distance parallel single-ended buses typically require a ground wire per active signal (and have very limited noise rejection capability). Thus, for a 28-bit wide data bus and one clock, up to 58 conductors are required. With the Channel Link chipset as few as 11 conductors (4 data pairs, 1 clock pair and a minimum of one ground) are needed. This provides a 80% reduction in required cable width, which provides a system cost savings, reduces connector physical size and cost, and reduces shielding requirements due to the cables’ smaller form factor. The 28 CMOS/TTL inputs can support a variety of signal combinations. For example, 7 4-bit nibbles or 3 9-bit (byte + parity) and 1 control. Features n n n n n n n n n n n 66 MHz clock support Up to 231 Mbytes/s bandwidth Low power CMOS design ( < 610 mW) Power Down mode ( < 0.5 mW total) Up to 1.848 Gbit/s data throughput Narrow bus reduces cable size and cost 290 mV swing LVDS devices for low EMI PLL requires no external components Low profile 56-lead TSSOP package Rising edge data strobe Compatible with TIA/EIA-644 LVDS Standard Block Diagrams DS90CR283 DS90CR284 DS012889-27 Order Number DS90CR283MTD See NS Package Number MTD56 DS012889-1 Order Number DS90CR284MTD See NS Package Number MTD56 TRI-STATE ® is a registered trademark of National Semiconductor Corporation. © 1998 National Semiconductor Corporation DS012889 www.national.com DS90CR283/DS90CR284 28-Bit Channel Link-66 MHz July 1997 Pin Diagrams DS90CR283 DS90CR284 DS012889-21 DS012889-22 Typical Application DS012889-23 www.national.com 2 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) DS90CR283 1.63W DS90CR284 1.61W Package Derating: DS90CR283 12.5 mW/˚C above +25˚C DS90CR284 12.4 mW/˚C above +25˚C This device does not meet 2000V ESD rating (Note 4) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Supply Voltage (VCC) −0.3V to +6V CMOS/TTL Input Voltage −0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) CMOS/TTL Ouput Voltage −0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) LVDS Receiver Input Voltage −0.3V to (V CC + 0.3V) LVDS Driver Output Voltage −0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) LVDS Output Short Circuit Duration Continuous Junction Temperature +150˚C Storage Temperature Range −65˚C to +150˚C Lead Temperature (Soldering, 4 sec.) +260˚C Maximum Package Power Dissipation @ +25˚C MTD56(TSSOP) Package: Recommended Operating Conditions Supply Voltage (VCC) Operating Free Air Temperature (TA) Receiver Input Range Supply Noise Voltage (VCC) Min 4.75 Nom 5.0 Max 5.25 Units V −10 0 +25 +70 2.4 ˚C V 100 mVP-P Electrical Characteristics Over recommended operating supply and temperature ranges unless otherwise specified Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Units CMOS/TTL DC SPECIFICATIONS VIH High Level Input Voltage 2.0 VCC V VIL Low Level Input Voltage GND 0.8 V VOH High Level Output Voltage VOL Low Level Output Voltage 0.1 0.3 V VCL Input Clamp Voltage −0.79 −1.5 V IIN Input Current ± 5.1 ± 10 µA IOS Output Short Circuit Current −120 mA 450 mV 35 mV IOH = −0.4 mA IOL = 2 mA 3.8 ICL = −18 mA VIN = VCC, GND, 2.5V or 0.4V VOUT = 0V 4.9 V LVDS DRIVER DC SPEClFlCATIONS VOD Differential Output Voltage ∆VOD Change in VOD between RL = 100Ω 250 290 Complementary Output States VOS Offset Voltage ∆VOS Change in Magnitude of VOS between Complementary Output States IOS Output Short Circuit Current IOZ Output TRI-STATE ® Current 1.1 VOUT = OV, R L = 100Ω Power Down = 0V, VOUT = 0V or VCC 1.25 1.375 V 35 mV −2.9 −5 mA ±1 ± 10 µA +100 mV LVDS RECEIVER DC SPECIFlCATIONS VTH Differential Input High Threshold VTL Differential Input Low Threshold IIN Input Current VCM = +1.2V −100 mV ± 10 ± 10 µA 49 63 mA 51 64 mA 70 84 mA 1 25 µA VIN = +2.4V, VCC = 5.0V VIN = 0V, VCC = 5.0V µA TRANSMITTER SUPPLY CURRENT ICCTW Transmitter Supply Current, RL = 100Ω, C Worst Case Worst Case Pattern L = 5 pF, (Figures 1, 2) ICCTZ f = 32.5 MHz f = 37.5 MHz f = 66 MHz Transmitter Supply Current, Power Down = Low Power Down Driver Outputs in TRI-STATE under Power Down Mode 3 www.national.com Electrical Characteristics (Continued) Over recommended operating supply and temperature ranges unless otherwise specified Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Units 64 77 mA 70 85 mA 110 140 mA 1 10 µA RECEIVER SUPPLY CURRENT ICCRW CL = 8 pF, Receiver Supply Current, Worst Case Worst Case Pattern (Figures 1, 3) ICCRZ f = 32.5 MHz f = 37.5 MHz f = 66 MHz Receiver Supply Current, Power Down = Low Power Down Receiver Outputs in Previous State during Power Down Mode Note 1: “Absolute Maximum Ratings” are those values beyond which the safety of the device cannot be guaranteed. They are not meant to imply that the device should be operated at these limits. The tables of “Electrical Characteristics” specify conditions for device operation. Note 2: Typical values are given for VCC = 5.0V and TA = +25˚C. Note 3: Current into device pins is defined as positive. Current out of device pins is defined as negative. Voltages are referenced to ground unless otherwise specified (except VOD and ∆V OD). Note 4: ESD Rating: HBM (1.5 kΩ, 100 pF) PLL VCC ≥ 1000V All other pins ≥ 2000V EIAJ (0Ω, 200 pF) ≥ 150V Note 5: VOS previously referred as VCM. Transmitter Switching Characteristics Over recommended operating supply and temperature ranges unless otherwise specified Symbol Typ Max Units LLHT LVDS Low-to-High Transition Time (Figure 2) 0.75 1.5 ns LHLT LVDS High-to-Low Transition Time (Figure 2) 0.75 1.5 ns TCIT TxCLK IN Transition Time (Figure 4) TCCS TxOUT Channel-to-Channel Skew (Note 6) (Figure 5) Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 0 f = 66 MHz TPPos0 Parameter Min (Figure 16) −0.30 8 ns 350 ps 0 0.30 ns TPPos1 Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 1 1.70 (1/7)Tclk 2.50 ns TPPos2 Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 2 3.60 (2/7)Tclk 4.50 ns TPPos3 Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 3 5.90 (3/7)Tclk 6.75 ns TPPos4 Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 4 8.30 (4/7)Tclk 9.00 ns TPPos5 Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 5 10.40 (5/7)Tclk 11.10 ns TPPos6 Transmitter Output Pulse Position for Bit 6 12.70 (6/7)Tclk 13.40 TCIP TxCLK IN Period (Figure 6) 15 T 50 ns TCIH TxCLK IN High Time (Figure 6) 0.35T 0.5T 0.65T ns 0.65T ns TCIL TxCLK IN Low Time (Figure 6) 0.35T 0.5T TSTC TxIN Setup to TxCLK IN (Figure 6) 5 3.5 ns THTC TxIN Hold to TxCLK IN (Figure 6) 2.5 1.5 ns TCCD TxCLK IN to TxCLK OUT Delay @ 25˚C, VCC = 5.0V (Figure 8) 3.5 8.5 ns TPLLS Transmitter Phase Lock Loop Set (Figure 10) 10 ms TPDD Transmitter Power Down Delay (Figure 14) 100 ns Note 6: This limit based on bench characterization. www.national.com 4 Receiver Switching Characteristics Over recommended operating supply and temperature ranges unless otherwise specified Typ Max Units CLHT Symbol CMOS/TTL Low-to-High Transition Time (Figure 3) 2.5 4.0 ns CHLT CMOS/TTL High-to-Low Transition Time (Figure 3) RxIN Skew Margin (Note 7), f = 40 MHz VCC = 5V, TA = 25˚C (Figure 17) f = 66 MHz 2.0 4.0 ns 700 RCOP RxCLK OUT Period (Figure 7) 15 RCOH RxCLK OUT High Time (Figure 7) RSKM RCOL RSRC Parameter RxCLK OUT Low Time (Figure 7) RxOUT Setup to RxCLK OUT (Figure 7) RHRC RxOUT Hold to RxCLK OUT (Figure 7) RCCD RxCLK IN to RxCLK OUT Delay @ 25˚C, VCC = 5.0V (Figure 9) Min f = 40 MHz f = 66 MHz f = 40 MHz f = 66 MHz f = 40 MHz f = 66 MHz f = 40 MHz f = 66 MHz ps 600 ps T 50 6 4.3 ns 5 ns 9 ns 10.5 7.0 ns 4.5 2.5 ns 4.2 ns 6.5 4 ns ns 5.2 6.4 ns 10.7 ns RPLLS Receiver Phase Lock Loop Set (Figure 11) 10 ms RPDD Receiver Power Down Delay (Figure 11) 1 µs Note 7: Receiver Skew Margin is defined as the valid data sampling region at the receiver inputs. This margin takes into account transmitter output skew (TCCS) and the setup and hold time (internal data sampling window), allowing for LVDS cable skew dependent on type/length and source clock (TxCLK IN) jitter. RSKM ≥ cable skew (type, length) + source clock jitter (cycle to cycle) AC Timing Diagrams DS012889-2 FIGURE 1. “WORST CASE” Test Pattern DS012889-3 DS012889-4 FIGURE 2. DS90CR283 (Transmitter) LVDS Output Load and Transition Timing DS012889-5 DS012889-6 FIGURE 3. DS90CR284 (Receiver) CMOS/TTL Output Load and Transition Timing 5 www.national.com AC Timing Diagrams (Continued) DS012889-7 FIGURE 4. DS90CR283 (Transmitter) Input Clock Transition Time DS012889-8 Note 8: Measurements at Vdiff = 0V Note 9: TCCS measured between earliest and latest initial LVDS edges. Note 10: TxCLK OUT Differential Low → High Edge FIGURE 5. DS90CR283 (Transmitter) Channel-to-Channel Skew DS012889-9 FIGURE 6. DS90CR283 (Transmitter) Setup/Hold and High/Low Times DS012889-10 FIGURE 7. DS90CR284 (Receiver) Setup/Hold and High/Low Times www.national.com 6 AC Timing Diagrams (Continued) DS012889-11 FIGURE 8. DS90CR283 (Transmitter) Clock In to Clock Out Delay DS012889-12 FIGURE 9. DS90CR284 (Receiver) Clock In to Clock Out Delay DS012889-13 FIGURE 10. DS90CR283 (Transmitter) Phase Lock Loop Set Time DS012889-14 FIGURE 11. DS90CR284 (Receiver) Phase Lock Loop Set Time 7 www.national.com AC Timing Diagrams (Continued) DS012889-15 FIGURE 12. Seven Bits of LVDS in One Clock Cycle DS012889-16 FIGURE 13. 28 Parallel TTL Data Inputs Mapped to LVDS Outputs (DS90CR283) DS012889-17 FIGURE 14. Transmitter Powerdown Delay DS012889-18 FIGURE 15. Receiver Powerdown Delay www.national.com 8 AC Timing Diagrams (Continued) DS012889-19 FIGURE 16. Transmitter LVDS Output Pulse Position Measurement DS012889-20 SW — Setup and Hold Time (Internal data sampling window) TCCS — Transmitter Output Skew RSKM ≥ Cable Skew (type, length) + Source Clock Jitter (cycle to cycle) Cable Skew — typically 10 ps–40 ps per foot. FIGURE 17. Receiver LVDS Input Skew Margin 9 www.national.com DS90CR283 Pin Description — Channel Link Transmitter I/O No. TxIN Pin Name I 28 Description TxOUT+ O 4 Positive LVDS differential data output TxOUT− O 4 Negative LVDS differential data output TxCLK IN I 1 TTL level clock input. The rising edge acts as data strobe TxCLK OUT+ O 1 Positive LVDS differential clock output TxCLK OUT− O 1 Negative LVDS differential clock output PWR DOWN I 1 TTL level input. Assertion (low input) TRI-STATES the outputs, ensuring low current at power down VCC I 4 Power supply pins for TTL inputs GND I 5 Ground pins for TTL inputs PLL VCC I 1 Power supply pin for PLL PLL GND I 2 Ground pins for PLL LVDS VCC I 1 Power supply pin for LVDS outputs LVDS GND I 3 Ground pins for LVDS outputs TTL Level inputs DS90CR284 Pin Description — Channel Link Receiver Pin Name RxIN+ I/O I No. 4 Description Positive LVDS differential data inputs RxIN− I 4 RxOUT O 28 Negative LVDS differential data inputs RxCLK IN+ I 1 Positive LVDS differential clock input RxCLK IN− I 1 Negative LVDS differential clock input RxCLK OUT O 1 TTL level clock output. The rising edge acts as data strobe PWR DOWN I 1 TTL level input. Assertion (low input) maintains the receiver outputs in the previous state VCC I 4 Power supply pins for TTL outputs GND I 5 Ground pins for TTL outputs TTL level outputs PLL VCC I 1 Power supply for PLL PLL GND I 2 Ground pin for PLL LVDS VCC I 1 Power supply pin for LVDS inputs LVDS GND I 3 Ground pins for LVDS inputs Applications Information AN = #### The Channel Link devices are intended to be used in a wide variety of data transmission applications. Depending upon the application the interconnecting media may vary. For example, for lower data rate (clock rate) and shorter cable lengths ( < 2m), the media electrical performance is less critical. For higher speed/long distance applications the media’s performance becomes more critical. Certain cable constructions provide tighter skew (matched electrical length between the conductors and pairs). Twin-coax for example, has been demonstrated at distances as great as 5 meters and with the maximum data transfer of 1.848 Gbit/s. Additional applications information can be found in the following National Interface Application Notes: AN-905 Transmission Line Calculations and Differential Impedance AN-916 Cable Information AN = #### Introduction to Channel Link AN-1035 PCB Design Guidelines for LVDS and Link Devices AN-806 Transmission Line Theory www.national.com CABLES: A cable interface between the transmitter and receiver needs to support the differential LVDS pairs. The 21-bit CHANNEL LINK chipset (DS90CR213/214) requires four pairs of signal wires and the 28-bit CHANNEL LINK chipset (DS90CR283/284) requires five pairs of signal wires. The ideal cable/connector interface would have a constant 100Ω differential impedance throughout the path. It is also recommended that cable skew remain below 350 ps ( @ 66 MHz clock rate) to maintain a sufficient data sampling window at the receiver. In addition to the four or five cable pairs that carry data and clock, it is recommended to provide at least one additional conductor (or pair) which connects ground between the transmitter and receiver. This low impedance ground provides a common mode return path for the two devices. Some of the more commonly used cable types for point-to-point ap- Topic AN-1041 Topic 10 Applications Information ensure that the differential trace impedance match the differential impedance of the selected physical media (this impedance should also match the value of the termination resistor that is connected across the differential pair at the receiver’s input). Finally, the location of the CHANNEL LINK TxOUT/ RxIN pins should be as close as possible to the board edge so as to eliminate excessive pcb runs. All of these considerations will limit reflections and crosstalk which adversely effect high frequency performance and EMI. UNUSED INPUTS: All unused inputs at the TxIN inputs of the transmitter must be tied to ground. All unused outputs at the RxOUT outputs of the receiver must then be left floating. TERMINATION: Use of current mode drivers requires a terminating resistor across the receiver inputs. The CHANNEL LINK chipset will normally require a single 100Ω resistor between the true and complement lines on each differential pair of the receiver input. The actual value of the termination resistor should be selected to match the differential mode characteristic impedance (90Ω to 120Ω typical) of the cable. Figure 18 shows an example. No additional pull-up or pull-down resistors are necessary as with some other differential technologies such as PECL. Surface mount resistors are recommended to avoid the additional inductance that accompanies leaded resistors. These resistors should be placed as close as possible to the receiver input pins to reduce stubs and effectively terminate the differential lines. DECOUPLING CAPACITORS: Bypassing capacitors are needed to reduce the impact of switching noise which could limit performance. For a conservative approach three parallel-connected decoupling capacitors (Multi-Layered Ceramic type in surface mount form factor) between each VCC and the ground plane(s) are recommended. The three capacitor values are 0.1 µF, 0.01µF and 0.001 µF. An example is shown in Figure 19. The designer should employ wide traces for power and ground and ensure each capacitor has its own via to the ground plane. If board space is limiting the number of bypass capacitors, the PLL VCC should receive the most filtering/bypassing. Next would be the LVDS VCC pins and finally the logic VCC pins. (Continued) plications include flat ribbon, flex, twisted pair and Twin-Coax. All are available in a variety of configurations and options. Flat ribbon cable, flex and twisted pair generally perform well in short point-to-point applications while Twin-Coax is good for short and long applications. When using ribbon cable, it is recommended to place a ground line between each differential pair to act as a barrier to noise coupling between adjacent pairs. For Twin-Coax cable applications, it is recommended to utilize a shield on each cable pair. All extended point-to-point applications should also employ an overall shield surrounding all cable pairs regardless of the cable type. This overall shield results in improved transmission parameters such as faster attainable speeds, longer distances between transmitter and receiver and reduced problems associated with EMS or EMI. The high-speed transport of LVDS signals has been demonstrated on several types of cables with excellent results. However, the best overall performance has been seen when using Twin-Coax cable. Twin-Coax has very low cable skew and EMI due to its construction and double shielding. All of the design considerations discussed here and listed in the supplemental application notes provide the subsystem communications designer with many useful guidelines. It is recommended that the designer assess the tradeoffs of each application thoroughly to arrive at a reliable and economical cable solution. BOARD LAYOUT: To obtain the maximum benefit from the noise and EMI reductions of LVDS, attention should be paid to the layout of differential lines. Lines of a differential pair should always be adjacent to eliminate noise interference from other signals and take full advantage of the noise canceling of the differential signals. The board designer should also try to maintain equal length on signal traces for a given differential pair. As with any high speed design, the impedance discontinuities should be limited (reduce the numbers of vias and no 90 degree angles on traces). Any discontinuities which do occur on one signal line should be mirrored in the other line of the differential pair. Care should be taken to DS012889-24 FIGURE 18. LVDS Serialized Link Termination 11 www.national.com Applications Information low jitter LVDS clock. These measures provide more margin for channel-to-channel skew and interconnect skew as a part of the overall jitter/skew budget. COMMON MODE vs. DIFFERENTIAL MODE NOISE MARGIN: The typical signal swing for LVDS is 300 mV centered at +1.2V. The CHANNEL LINK receiver supports a 100 mV threshold therefore providing approximately 200 mV of differential noise margin. Common mode protection is of more importance to the system’s operation due to the differential data transmission. LVDS supports an input voltage range of Ground to +2.4V. This allows for a ± 1.0V shifting of the center point due to ground potential differences and common mode noise. (Continued) POWER SEQUENCING AND POWERDOWN MODE: Outputs of the CHANNEL LINK transmitter remain in TRI-STATE until the power supply reaches 3V. Clock and data outputs will begin to toggle 10 ms after VCC has reached 4.5V and the Powerdown pin is above 2V. Either device may be placed into a powerdown mode at any time by asserting the Powerdown pin (active low). Total power dissipation for each device will decrease to 5 µW (typical). The CHANNEL LINK chipset is designed to protect itself from accidental loss of power to either the transmitter or receiver. If power to the transmit board is lost, the receiver clocks (input and output) stop. The data outputs (RxOUT) retain the states they were in when the clocks stopped. When the receiver board loses power, the receiver inputs are shorted to V CC through an internal diode. Current is limited (5 mA per input) by the fixed current mode drivers, thus avoiding the potential for latchup when powering the device. DS012889-25 FIGURE 19. CHANNEL LINK Decoupling Configuration CLOCK JITTER: The CHANNEL LINK devices employ a PLL to generate and recover the clock transmitted across the LVDS interface. The width of each bit in the serialized LVDS data stream is one-seventh the clock period. For example, a 66 MHz clock has a period of 15 ns which results in a data bit width of 2.16 ns. Differential skew (∆t within one differential pair), interconnect skew (∆t of one differential pair to another) and clock jitter will all reduce the available window for sampling the LVDS serial data streams. Care must be taken to ensure that the clock input to the transmitter be a clean low noise signal. Individual bypassing of each VCC to ground will minimize the noise passed on to the PLL, thus creating a DS012889-26 FIGURE 20. Single-Ended and Differential Waveforms www.national.com 12 13 DS90CR283/DS90CR284 28-Bit Channel Link-66 MHz Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 56-Lead Molded Thin Shrink Small Outline Package, JEDEC Order Number DS90CR283MTD or DS90CR284MTD NS Package Number MTD56 LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 2. A critical component in any component of a life support 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or sysdevice or system whose failure to perform can be reatems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into sonably expected to cause the failure of the life support the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose faildevice or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. ure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. 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