AK4397 English Datahsheet

[AK4397]
AK4397
High Performance Premium 32-Bit DAC
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The AK4397 is a high performance premium 32bit DAC for the 192kHz sampling mode of DVD-Audio
including a 32bit digital filter. Using AKM's multi bit architecture for its modulator the AK4397 delivers a
wide dynamic range while preserving linearity for improved THD+N performance. The AK4397 has full
differential SCF outputs, removing the need for AC coupling capacitors and increasing performance for
systems with excessive clock jitter. The AK4397 accepts 192kHz PCM data and 1-bit DSD data, ideal for
a wide range of applications including DVD-Audio and SACD. The AK4397 has a functional compatibility
with the AK4393/4/5 and lower power dissipation.
FEATURES
• 128x Over sampling
• Sampling Rate: 30kHz ∼ 216kHz
• 32Bit 8x Digital Filter (Slow-roll-off option)
Ripple: ±0.005dB, Attenuation: 75dB
• High Tolerance to Clock Jitter
• Low Distortion Differential Output
• DSD data input available
• Digital De-emphasis for 32, 44.1, 48kHz sampling
• Soft Mute
• Digital Attenuator (Linear 256 steps)
• THD+N: −103dB
• DR, S/N: 120dB
• I/F Format: 24/32bit MSB justified, 16/20/24/32bit LSB justified, I2S, DSD
• Master Clock: Normal Speed: 256fs, 384fs, 512fs, 768fs or 1152fs
Double Speed: 128fs, 192fs, 256fs or 384fs
Quad Speed: 128fs or 192fs
DSD:
512fs or 768fs
• Power Supply: 4.75 ∼ 5.25V
• TTL Level Digital I/F
• Package: 44pin LQFP
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
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[AK4397]
■ Block Diagram
DVDD VSS4 PDN SMUTE DFS0 AVDD VSS3 VDDL VSS2 VREFLH VREFLL
ACKS
BICK/DCLK
LRCK/DSDR
SDATA/DSDL
PCM
Data
Interface
De-emphasis
DATT
Soft Mute
8X
Interpolator
ΔΣ
Modulator
SCF
De-emphasis
DATT
Soft Mute
8X
Interpolator
ΔΣ
Modulator
SCF
AOUTL-
DIF0/DCLK
AOUTR+
AOUTRVDDR
DSD
Data
Interface
DIF1/DSDL
DIF2/DSDR
CAD0
CAD1
AOUTL+
Control Register
VSS1
VREFHR
Clock Divider
CSN CCLK CDTI P/S
MCLK
De-emphasis
Control
VREFLR
DEM0 DEM1 TST1/DZFL
Block Diagram
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
■ Ordering Guide
−10 ∼ +70°C
44pin LQFP (0.8mm pitch)
Evaluation Board for AK4397
AK4397EQ
AKD4397
AOUTLN
VSS2
VDDL
VREFHL
VREFLL
NC
VREFLR
VREFHR
VDDR
VSS1
AOUTRN
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
■ Pin Layout
AOUTLP
34
22
AOUTRP
NC
35
21
NC
NC
36
20
NC
NC
37
19
NC
NC
38
18
NC
NC
39
17
TST2/CAD1
VSS3
40
16
TST1/DZFL
AK4397EQ
Top View
7
8
9
10
11
DFS0/CAD0
DEM0/CCLK
DEM1/CDT1
DIF0/DCLK
DIF1/DSDL
DIF2/DSDR
6
12
5
44
LRCK/DSDR
NC
SMUTE/CSN
NC
4
13
SDATA/DSDL
43
3
VSS4
2
P/S
PDN
ACKS/DZFR
14
BICK/DCLK
15
42
1
41
DVDD
AVDD
MCLK
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[AK4397]
PIN/FUNCTION
No.
Pin Name
I/O
1
DVDD
-
2
PDN
I
BICK
DCLK
SDATA
DSDL
LRCK
DSDR
I
I
I
I
I
I
SMUTE
I
CSN
DFS0
CAD0
DEM0
CCLK
DEM1
CDTI
DIF0
DCLK
DIF1
DSDL
DIF2
DSDR
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
NC
-
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Function
Digital Power Supply Pin, 4.75 ∼ 5.25V
Power-Down Mode Pin
When at “L”, the AK4397 is in power-down mode and is held in reset.
The AK4397 should always be reset upon power-up.
Audio Serial Data Clock Pin in PCM Mode
DSD Clock Pin in DSD mode
Audio Serial Data Input Pin in PCM Mode
DSD Lch Data Input Pin in DSD Mode
L/R Clock Pin in PCM Mode
DSD Rch Data Input Pin in DSD Mode
Soft Mute Pin in Parallel Mode
When this pin goes “H”, soft mute cycle is initiated.
When returning “L”, the output mute releases.
Chip Select Pin in Serial Mode
Sampling Speed Mode Select Pin in Parallel Mode (Internal pull-down pin)
Chip Address 0 Pin in Serial Mode
(Internal pull-down pin)
De-emphasis Enable 0 Pin in Parallel Mode
Control Data Clock Pin in Serial Mode
De-emphasis Enable 1 Pin in Parallel Mode
Control Data Input Pin in Serial Mode
Digital Input Format 0 Pin in PCM Mode
DSD Clock Pin in DSD Mode
Digital Input Format 1 Pin in PCM Mode
DSD Lch Data Input Pin in DSD Mode
Digital Input Format 2 Pin in PCM Mode
DSD Rch Data Input Pin in DSD Mode
No internal bonding.
Connect to GND.
Note: All input pins except internal pull-up/down pins should not be left floating.
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[AK4397]
Parallel/Serial Select Pin
(Internal pull-up pin)
“L”: Serial Mode, “H”: Parallel Mode
ACKS
I
Master Clock Auto Setting Mode Pin in Parallel Mode
15
DZFR
O
Rch Zero Input Detect Pin in Serial Mode
Test 1 Pin in Parallel Mode
TST1
O
Should be open.
16
DZFL
O
Lch Zero Input Detect Pin in Serial Mode
Test 2 Pin in Parallel Mode
(Internal pull-down pin)
TST2
I
Connect to GND.
17
CAD1
I
Chip Address 1 Pin in Serial Mode
(Internal pull-down pin)
No internal bonding.
18 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
19 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
20 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
21 NC
Connect to GND.
22 AOUTRP
O
Rch Positive Analog Output Pin
23 AOUTRN
O
Rch Negative Analog Output Pin
24 VSS1
Ground Pin
25 VDDR
Rch Analog Power Supply Pin, 4.75 ∼ 5.25V
26 VREFHR
I
Rch High Level Voltage Reference Input Pin
27 VREFLR
I
Rch Low Level Voltage Reference Input Pin
No internal bonding.
28 NC
Connect to GND.
29 VREFLL
I
Lch Low Level Voltage Reference Input Pin
30 VREFHL
I
Lch High Level Voltage Reference Input Pin
31 VDDL
Lch Analog Power Supply Pin, 4.75 ∼ 5.25V
32 VSS2
Ground Pin
33 AOUTLN
O
Lch Negative Analog Output Pin
34 AOUTLP
O
Lch Positive Analog Output Pin
No internal bonding.
35 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
36 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
37 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
38 NC
Connect to GND.
No internal bonding.
39 NC
Connect to GND.
40 VSS3
Ground Pin
41 AVDD
Analog Power Supply Pin, 4.75 ∼ 5.25V
42 MCLK
I
Master Clock Input Pin
43 VSS4
Ground Pin
No internal bonding.
44 NC
Connect to GND.
Note: All input pins except internal pull-up/down pins should not be left floating.
14
P/S
I
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[AK4397]
■ Handling of Unused Pin
The unused I/O pins should be processed appropriately as below.
(1) Parallel Mode (PCM Mode only)
Classification
Pin Name
Setting
These pins should be open.
AOUTLP, AOUTLN
AOUTRP, AOUTRN
SMUTE
TST1
TST2
Analog
Digital
These pins should be open.
This pin should be connected to VSS4.
This pin should be open.
This pin should be connected to VSS4.
(2) Serial Mode
1. PCM Mode
Classification
Analog
Digital
Pin Name
AOUTLP, AOUTLN
AOUTRP, AOUTRN
DIF2, DIF1, DIF0
DZFL, DZFR
Setting
These pins should be open.
These pins should be open.
These pins should be connected to VSS4.
These pins should be open.
2. DSD Mode
• In case of using #3(DCLK), #4(DSDL) and #5(DSDR) pins
Classification
Analog
Digital
Pin Name
Setting
These pins should be open.
AOUTLP, AOUTLN
AOUTR+, AOUTR−
DCLK(#10), DSDL(#11), DSDR(#12)
DZFL, DZFR
These pins should be open.
These pins should be connected to VSS4.
These pins should be open.
• In case of using #10(DCLK), #11(DSDL) and #12(DSDR) pins
Classification
Analog
Digital
Pin Name
AOUTLP, AOUTLN
AOUTRP, AOUTRN
DCLK(#3), DSDL(#4), DSDR(#5)
DZFL, DZFR
MS0616-E-03
Setting
These pins should be open.
These pins should be open.
These pins should be connected to VSS4.
These pins should be open.
2012/11
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[AK4397]
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
(VSS1-4 = 0V; Note 1)
Parameter
Power Supplies:
Analog
Analog
Digital
Input Current, Any pin Except Supplies
Digital Input Voltage
Ambient Temperature (Power applied)
Storage Temperature
Symbol
AVDD
VDDL/R
DVDD
IIN
VIND
Ta
Tstg
min
−0.3
−0.3
−0.3
−0.3
−10
−65
max
6.0
6.0
6.0
±10
DVDD+0.3
70
150
Unit
V
V
V
mA
V
°C
°C
Note 1. All voltages with respect to ground.
Note 2. VSS1-4 must be connected to the same analog ground plane.
WARNING: Operation at or beyond these limits may result in permanent damage to the device.
Normal operation is not guaranteed at these extremes.
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
(VSS1-4 =0V; Note 1)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
Analog
Power Supplies:
AVDD
4.75
5.0
Analog
(Note 3)
VDDL/R
4.75
5.0
Digital
DVDD
4.75
5.0
“H” voltage reference
Voltage Reference
VREFHL/R
AVDD-0.5
“L” voltage reference
(Note 4)
VREFLL/R
VSS
VREFH-VREFL
3.0
Δ VREF
max
5.25
5.25
5.25
AVDD
AVDD
Unit
V
V
V
V
V
V
Note 1. All voltages with respect to ground.
Note 3. The power up sequence between AVDD and DVDD is not critical.
Note 4. Analog output voltage scales with the voltage of (VREFH − VREFL).
AOUT ([email protected]) = (AOUT+) − (AOUT−) = ±2.8Vpp× (VREFHL/R − VREFLL/R)/5.
* AKM assumes no responsibility for the usage beyond the conditions in this data sheet.
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
ANALOG CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=DVDD=5.0V; VSS1-4 =0V; VREFHL/R=AVDD, VREFLL/R= VSS; Input data=24bit;
RL ≥ 1kΩ; BICK=64fs; Input Signal Frequency = 1kHz; Sampling Frequency = 44.1kHz; Measurement bandwidth =
20Hz ~ 20kHz; External Circuit: Figure 18; unless otherwise specified.)
Parameter
min
typ
max
Unit
Resolution
24
Bits
Dynamic Characteristics (Note 5)
0dBFS
−103
−93
dB
fs=44.1kHz
THD+N
BW=20kHz
−57
dB
−60dBFS
0dBFS
−100
dB
fs=96kHz
BW=40kHz
−54
dB
−60dBFS
0dBFS
−100
dB
fs=192kHz
BW=40kHz
−60dBFS
−54
dB
BW=80kHz
−51
dB
−60dBFS
Dynamic Range (−60dBFS with A-weighted)
(Note 6)
114
120
dB
S/N (A-weighted)
(Note 7)
114
120
dB
Interchannel Isolation (1kHz)
100
110
dB
DC Accuracy
Interchannel Gain Mismatch
0.15
0.3
dB
Gain Drift
(Note 8)
20
ppm/°C
Output Voltage
(Note 9)
±2.65
±2.8
±2.95
Vpp
Load Capacitance
25
pF
Load Resistance
(Note 10)
1
kΩ
Power Supplies
Power Supply Current
Normal operation (PDN pin = “H”)
AVDD + VDDL/R
32
47
mA
21
mA
DVDD (fs ≤ 96kHz)
27
41
mA
DVDD (fs = 192kHz)
Power down (PDN pin = “L”)
(Note 11)
AVDD+DVDD
10
100
μA
Power Supply Rejection
(Note 12)
50
dB
Note 5. Measured by Audio Precision, System Two. Averaging mode. Refer to the evaluation board manual.
Note 6. By Figure 18. External LPF Circuit Example 2.101dB at 16bit data and 118dB at 20bit data.
Note 7. By Figure 18. External LPF Circuit Example 2. S/N does not depend on input bit length.
Note 8. The voltage on (VREFHL/R − VREFLL/R) is held +5V externally.
Note 9. Full-scale voltage(0dB). Output voltage scales with the voltage of (VREFHL/R − VREFLL/R).
AOUT ([email protected]) = (AOUT+) − (AOUT−) = ±2.8Vpp × (VREFHL/R − VREFLL/R)/5.
Note 10. Regarding Load Resistance, AC load is 1 kΩ (min) with DC cut capacitor. Please refer to Figure 18. DC load is
1.5kΩ (min) without DC cut capacitor. Please refer to Figure 17. Load Resistance value defines apposite to
ground voltage. Analog performance is sensitive to capacitive load that is connected output pin. Therefore
capacitive load must be minimized.
Note 11. In the power-down mode. P/S pin = DVDD, and all other digital input pins including clock pins
(MCLK, BICK and LRCK) are held VSS4.
Note 12. PSR is applied to AVDD, DVDD with 1kHz, 100mVpp. VREFHL/R pin is held +5V.
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
SHARP ROLL-OFF FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs = 44.1kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ~ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ~ 5.25V; Normal Speed Mode; DEM=OFF; SLOW bi =“0”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Unit
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 13) ±0.01dB
PB
0
20.0
kHz
−6.0dB
22.05
kHz
Stopband
(Note 13)
SB
24.1
kHz
Passband Ripple
PR
±0.005
dB
Stopband Attenuation
SA
75
dB
Group Delay
(Note 14)
GD
28
1/fs
Digital Filter + SCF
Frequency Response : 0 ∼ 20.0kHz
±0.2
dB
SHARP ROLL-OFF FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs = 96kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ∼ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ∼ 5.25V; Double Speed Mode; DEM=OFF; SLOW bit=“0”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Unit
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 13) ±0.01dB
PB
0
43.5
kHz
−6.0dB
48.0
kHz
Stopband
(Note 13)
SB
52.5
kHz
Passband Ripple
PR
±0.005
dB
Stopband Attenuation
SA
75
dB
Group Delay
(Note 14)
GD
28
1/fs
Digital Filter + SCF
Frequency Response : 0 ∼ 40.0kHz
±0.3
dB
SHARP ROLL-OFF FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs = 192kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ∼ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ∼ 5.25V; Quad Speed Mode; DEM=OFF; SLOW bit=“0”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Unit
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 13) ±0.01dB
PB
0
87.0
kHz
−6.0dB
96.0
kHz
Stopband
(Note 13)
SB
105
kHz
Passband Ripple
PR
±0.005
dB
Stopband Attenuation
SA
75
dB
Group Delay
(Note 14)
GD
28
1/fs
Digital Filter + SCF
Frequency Response : 0 ∼ 80.0kHz
+0/−1
dB
Note 13. The passband and stopband frequencies scale with fs. For example, PB = 0.4535×fs (@±0.01dB), SB =
0.546×fs.
Note 14. The calculating delay time which occurred by digital filtering. This time is from setting the 16/20/24bit data of
both channels to input register to the output of analog signal.
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
SLOW ROLL-OFF FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs = 44.1kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ∼ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ∼ 5.25V; Normal Speed Mode; DEM=OFF; SLOW bit=“1”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Unit
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 15) ±0.04dB
PB
0
8.1
kHz
−3.0dB
18.2
kHz
Stopband
(Note 15)
SB
39.2
kHz
Passband Ripple
PR
±0.005
dB
Stopband Attenuation
SA
72
dB
Group Delay
(Note 14)
GD
28
1/fs
Digital Filter + SCF
Frequency Response: 0 ∼ 20.0kHz
+0/−5
dB
SLOW ROLL-OFF FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs = 96kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ∼ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ∼ 5.25V; DEM=OFF; SLOW bit=“1”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 15) ±0.04dB
PB
0
17.7
−3.0dB
39.6
Stopband
(Note 15)
SB
85.3
Passband Ripple
PR
±0.005
Stopband Attenuation
SA
72
Group Delay
(Note 14)
GD
28
Digital Filter + SCF
Frequency Response: 0 ∼ 40.0kHz
+0/−4
-
Unit
kHz
kHz
kHz
dB
dB
1/fs
dB
SLOW ROLL-OFF FILTER CHARACTERISTICS (fs = 192kHz)
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ∼ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ∼ 5.25V; Quad Speed Mode; DEM=OFF; SLOW bit=“1”)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Unit
Digital Filter
Passband
(Note 15) ±0.04dB
PB
0
35.5
kHz
−3.0dB
79.1
kHz
Stopband
(Note 15)
SB
171
kHz
Passband Ripple
PR
±0.005
dB
Stopband Attenuation
SA
72
dB
Group Delay
(Note 14)
GD
28
1/fs
Digital Filter + SCF
Frequency Response: 0 ∼ 80.0kHz
+0/−5
dB
Note 15. The passband and stopband frequencies scale with fs. For example, PB = 0.185×fs (@±0.04dB), SB = 0.888×fs.
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
DC CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ~ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ~ 5.25V)
Parameter
Symbol
min
High-Level Input Voltage
VIH
2.4
Low-Level Input Voltage
VIL
High-Level Output Voltage (Iout = −100μA)
VOH
DVDD−0.5
Low-Level Output Voltage (Iout = 100μA)
VOL
Input Leakage Current
(Note 16)
Iin
-
typ
-
max
0.8
0.5
±10
Unit
V
V
V
V
μA
Note 16. DFS0 and P/S pins have internal pull-up devices, nominally 100kΩ. Therefore DFS0 pin and P/S pin are not
included.
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD=VDDL/R=4.75 ∼ 5.25V, DVDD=4.75 ∼ 5.25V)
Parameter
Symbol
min
Master Clock Timing
Frequency
fCLK
7.7
Duty Cycle
dCLK
40
LRCK Frequency
(Note 17)
Normal Speed Mode
fsn
30
Double Speed Mode
fsd
54
Quad Speed Mode
fsq
108
Duty Cycle
Duty
45
PCM Audio Interface Timing
BICK Period
1/128fn
tBCK
Normal Speed Mode
1/64fd
tBCK
Double Speed Mode
1/64fq
tBCK
Quad Speed Mode
30
tBCKL
BICK Pulse Width Low
30
tBCKH
BICK Pulse Width High
20
tBLR
BICK “↑” to LRCK Edge
(Note 18)
20
tLRB
LRCK Edge to BICK “↑”
(Note 18)
20
tSDH
SDATA Hold Time
20
tSDS
SDATA Setup Time
DSD Audio Interface Timing
1/64fs
tDCK
DCLK Period
160
tDCKL
DCLK Pulse Width Low
160
tDCKH
DCLK Pulse Width High
−20
tDDD
DCLK Edge to DSDL/R
(Note 19)
Control Interface Timing
200
tCCK
CCLK Period
80
tCCKL
CCLK Pulse Width Low
80
tCCKH
Pulse Width High
50
tCDS
CDTI Setup Time
50
tCDH
CDTI Hold Time
150
tCSW
CSN High Time
50
tCSS
CSN “↓” to CCLK “↑”
50
tCSH
CCLK “↑” to CSN “↑”
Reset Timing
PDN Pulse Width
(Note 20)
tPD
150
typ
max
Unit
41.472
60
MHz
%
54
108
216
55
kHz
kHz
kHz
%
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
20
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Note 17. When the normal/double/quad speed modes are switched, AK4397 should be reset by PDN pin or RSTN bit.
Note 18. BICK rising edge must not occur at the same time as LRCK edge.
Note 19. DSD data transmitting device must meet this time.
Note 20. The AK4397 can be reset by bringing PDN pin “L” to “H”. When the states of or DFS1-0 bits change,
the AK4397 should be reset by RSTN bit.
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
■ Timing Diagram
1/fCLK
VIH
MCLK
VIL
tCLKH
tCLKL
dCLK=tCLKH x fCLK, tCLKL x fCLK
1/fs
VIH
LRCK
VIL
tBCK
VIH
BICK
VIL
tBCKH
tBCKL
Clock Timing
VIH
LRCK
VIL
tBLR
tLRB
VIH
BICK
VIL
tSDH
tSDS
VIH
SDATA
VIL
Audio Interface Timing (PCM Mode)
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
tDCK
tDCKL
tDCKH
VIH
DCLK
VIL
tDDD
VIH
DSDL
DSDR
VIL
Audio Serial Interface Timing (DSD Normal Mode, DCKB bit = “0”)
tDCK
tDCKL
tDCKH
VIH
DCLK
VIL
tDDD
tDDD
VIH
DSDL
DSDR
VIL
Audio Serial Interface Timing (DSD Phase Modulation Mode, DCKB bit = “0”)
VIH
CSN
VIL
tCSS
tCCKL tCCKH
VIH
CCLK
VIL
tCDS
CDTI
C1
tCDH
C0
R/W
A4
VIH
VIL
WRITE Command Input Timing
MS0616-E-03
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[AK4397]
tCSW
VIH
CSN
VIL
tCSH
VIH
CCLK
CDTI
VIL
D3
D2
D1
D0
VIH
VIL
WRITE Data Input Timing
tPD
PDN
VIL
Power Down & Reset Timing
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[AK4397]
OPERATION OVERVIEW
■ D/A Conversion Mode
In serial mode, the AK4397 can perform D/A conversion for either PCM data or DSD data. The D/P bit controls
PCM/DSD mode. When DSD mode, DSD data can be input from DCLK, DSDL and DSDR pins. When PCM mode,
PCM data can be input from BICK, LRCK and SDATA pins. When PCM/DSD mode changes by D/P bit, the AK4397
should be reset by RSTN bit. It takes about 2/fs to 3/fs to change the mode. In parallel mode, the AK4397 performs for
only PCM data.
D/P bit
Interface
0
PCM
1
DSD
Table 1. PCM/DSD Mode Control
■ System Clock
[1] PCM Mode
The external clocks, which are required to operate the AK4397, are MCLK, BICK and LRCK. MCLK should be
synchronized with LRCK but the phase is not critical. The MCLK is used to operate the digital interpolation filter and the
delta-sigma modulator. When external clocks are changed, the AK4397 should be reset by PDN pin or RSTN bit.
All external clocks (MCLK, BICK and LRCK) should always be present whenever the AK4397 is in normal operation
mode (PDN pin = “H”). If these clocks are not provided, the AK4397 may draw excess current because the device utilizes
dynamic refreshed logic internally. If the external clocks are not present, the AK4397 should be in the power-down mode
(PDN pin = “L”) or in the reset mode (RSTN bit = “0”). After exiting reset (PDN pin = “L” → “H”) at power-up etc., the
AK4397 is in power-down mode until MCLK is supplied.
(1) Parallel Mode (P/S pin = “H”)
1. Manual Setting Mode (ACKS pin = “L”)
MCLK frequency is detected automatically and the sampling speed is set by DFS0 pin (Table 2). The MCLK frequency
corresponding to each sampling speed should be provided (Table 3). DFS1 bit is fixed to “0”. When DFS0 pin is changed,
the AK4397 should be reset by PDN pin. Quad speed mode is not supported in this mode.
DFS0 pin
Sampling Rate (fs)
L
Normal Speed Mode
30kHz ∼ 54kHz
H
Double Speed Mode
54kHz ∼ 108kHz
Table 2. Sampling Speed (Manual Setting Mode @Parallel Mode)
LRCK
fs
32.0kHz
44.1kHz
48.0kHz
88.2kHz
96.0kHz
128fs
N/A
N/A
N/A
11.2896
12.2880
MCLK (MHz)
192fs
256fs
384fs
512fs
768fs
1152fs
N/A
8.1920
12.2880
16.3840
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
11.2896
16.9344
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
12.2880
18.4320
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
16.9344
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
18.4320
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
Table 3. System Clock Example (Manual Setting Mode @Parallel Mode)
MS0616-E-03
BICK
64fs
2.0480MHz
2.8224MHz
3.0720MHz
5.6448MHz
6.1440MHz
2012/11
- 16 -
[AK4397]
2. Auto Setting Mode (ACKS pin = “H”)
MCLK frequency and the sampling speed are detected automatically (Table 4) and DFS0 pin is ignored. DFS0 pin should
be fixed to VSS4 or DVDD.
MCLK
1152fs
Sampling Speed
Normal (fs≤32kHz)
512fs
768fs
Normal
256fs
384fs
Double
128fs
192fs
Quad
Table 4. Sampling Speed (Auto Setting Mode @Parallel Mode)
LRCK
fs
32.0kHz
44.1kHz
48.0kHz
88.2kHz
96.0kHz
176.4kHz
192.0kHz
128fs
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
22.5792
24.5760
MCLK (MHz)
192fs
256fs
384fs
512fs
768fs
1152fs
N/A
N/A
N/A
16.3840
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Table 5. System Clock Example (Auto Setting Mode @Parallel Mode)
Sampling
Speed
Normal
Double
Quad
(2) Serial Mode (P/S pin = “L”)
1. Manual Setting Mode (ACKS bit = “0”)
MCLK frequency is detected automatically and the sampling speed is set by DFS1-0 bits (Table 6). The MCLK frequency
corresponding to each sampling speed should be provided (Table 7). The AK4397 is set to Manual Setting Mode at
power-up (PDN pin = “L” → “H”). When DFS1-0 bits are changed, the AK4397 should be reset by RSTN bit.
DFS1 bit DFS0 bit
Sampling Rate (fs)
(default)
0
0
Normal Speed Mode
30kHz ∼ 54kHz
0
1
Double Speed Mode
54kHz ∼ 108kHz
1
0
Quad Speed Mode
120kHz ∼ 216kHz
Table 6. Sampling Speed (Manual Setting Mode @Serial Mode)
LRCK
fs
32.0kHz
44.1kHz
48.0kHz
88.2kHz
96.0kHz
176.4kHz
192.0kHz
128fs
N/A
N/A
N/A
11.2896
12.2880
22.5792
24.5760
MCLK (MHz)
192fs
256fs
384fs
512fs
768fs
1152fs
N/A
8.1920
12.2880
16.3840
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
11.2896
16.9344
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
12.2880
18.4320
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
16.9344
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
18.4320
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Table 7. System Clock Example (Manual Setting Mode @Serial Mode)
MS0616-E-03
BICK
64fs
2.0480MHz
2.8224MHz
3.0720MHz
5.6448MHz
6.1440MHz
11.2896MHz
12.2880MHz
2012/11
- 17 -
[AK4397]
2. Auto Setting Mode (ACKS bit = “1”)
MCLK frequency and the sampling speed are detected automatically (Table 8) and DFS1-0 bits are ignored. The MCLK
frequency corresponding to each sampling speed should be provided (Table 9).
MCLK
1152fs
Sampling Speed
Normal (fs≤32kHz)
512fs
768fs
Normal
256fs
384fs
Double
128fs
192fs
Quad
Table 8. Sampling Speed (Auto Setting Mode @Serial Mode)
LRCK
fs
32.0kHz
44.1kHz
48.0kHz
88.2kHz
96.0kHz
176.4kHz
192.0kHz
128fs
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
22.5792
24.5760
MCLK (MHz)
192fs
256fs
384fs
512fs
768fs
1152fs
N/A
N/A
N/A
16.3840
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
22.5792
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
24.5760
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
33.8688
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
36.8640
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Table 9. System Clock Example (Auto Setting Mode @Serial Mode)
Sampling
Speed
Normal
Double
Quad
[2] DSD Mode
The external clocks, which are required to operate the AK4397, are MCLK and DCLK. MCLK should be synchronized
with DCLK but the phase is not critical. The frequency of MCLK is set by DCKS bit.
All external clocks (MCLK, DCLK) should always be present whenever the AK4397 is in the normal operation mode
(PDN pin = “H”). If these clocks are not provided, the AK4397 may draw excess current because the device utilizes
dynamic refreshed logic internally. The AK4397 should be reset by PDN pin = “L” after threse clocks are provided. If the
external clocks are not present, the AK4397 should be in the power-down mode (PDN pin = “L”). After exiting
reset(PDN pin = “L” → “H”) at power-up etc., the AK4397 is in the power-down mode until MCLK is input.
DCKS bit
0
1
MCLK Frequency
DCLK Frequency
512fs
64fs
768fs
64fs
Table 10. System Clock (DSD Mode)
MS0616-E-03
(default)
2012/11
- 18 -
[AK4397]
■ Audio Interface Format
[1] PCM Mode
Data is shifted in via the SDATA pin using BICK and LRCK inputs. Five data formats are supported and selected by the
DIF2-0 pins (Parallel mode) or DIF2-0 bits (Serial mode) as shown in Table 11. In all formats the serial data is MSB-first,
2's compliment format and is latched on the rising edge of BICK. Mode 2 can be used for 20 and 16 MSB justified formats
by zeroing the unused LSBs.
Mode
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
DIF2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
DIF1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
DIF0
Input Format
BICK
0
16bit LSB justified
≥ 32fs
1
20bit LSB justified
≥ 48fs
0
24bit MSB justified
≥ 48fs
1
24bit I2S Compatible
≥ 48fs
0
24bit LSB justified
≥ 48fs
1
32bit LSB justified
≥ 64fs
0
32bit MSB justified
≥ 64fs
2
1
32bit I S Compatible
≥ 64fs
Table 11. Audio Interface Format
Figure
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 2
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
(default)
LRCK
0
1
10
11
12
13
14
15
0
1
10
11
12
13
14
15
0
1
BICK
(32fs)
SDATA
Mode 0
15
0
14
6
1
5
14
4
15
3
2
16
17
1
0
31
15
0
14
6
5
14
1
4
15
3
16
2
17
1
0
31
15
14
0
1
0
1
BICK
(64fs)
SDATA
Mode 0
Don’t care
15
14
15
Don’t care
0
14
0
15:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 1. Mode 0 Timing
LRCK
0
1
8
9
10
11
12
31
0
1
8
9
10
11
12
31
BICK
(64fs)
SDATA
Mode 1
Don’t care
19
0
Don’t care
19
0
Don’t care
19
0
19
0
19:MSB, 0:LSB
SDATA
Mode 4
Don’t care
23
22
21
20
23
22
21
20
23:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 2. Mode 1, 4 Timing
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 19 -
[AK4397]
LRCK
0
1
2
22
23
24
30
31
0
1
2
22
23
24
30
31
0
1
BICK
(64fs)
SDATA
23 22
1
0
Don’t care
23 22
0
1
Don’t care
23
22
0
1
23:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 3. Mode 2 Timing
LRCK
0
1
2
3
23
24
25
31
0
1
2
3
23
24
25
31
BICK
(64fs)
SDATA
1
23 22
0
Don’t care
23 22
0
1
23
Don’t care
23:MSB, 0:LSB
Lch Data
Rch Data
Figure 4. Mode 3 Timing
LRCK
0
1
2
20
21
22
32
33
63
0
1
2
20
21
22
32
33
63
0
1
BICK(128fs)
SDATA
31
0
1
2
12
13
14
23
1
24
0
31
31
0
1
2
12
13
14
23
1
24
0
31
0
1
BICK(64fs)
SDATA
31 30
20 19 18
9
8
1
0
31 30
Lch Data
20
19 18
9
8
1
0
31
Rch Data
31: MSB, 0:LSB
Figure 5. Mode 5 Timing
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 20 -
[AK4397]
LRCK
0
1
2
20
21
22
32
33
63
0
1
2
20
21
22
32
33
63
0
1
BICK(128fs)
SDATA
31 30
0
1
12 11 10
2
12
13
0
14
31 30
23
24
31
0
1
12
2
11 10
12
13
0
14
31
23
24
31
0
1
BICK(64fs)
SDATA
31 30
20 19 18
8
9
0
1
31 30
20
Lch Data
19 18
8
9
0
1
31
Rch Data
31: MSB, 0:LSB
Figure 6. Mode 6 Timing
LRCK
0
1
2
20
21
22
33
34
63
0
1
2
20
21
22
33
34
63
24
25
31
0
1
BICK(128fs)
SDATA
31
0
1
13 12 11
2
12
13
0
14
31
24
25
31
0
1
13
2
12 11
12
0
13
14
0
1
BICK(64fs)
SDATA
0
31
21 20 19
9
8
2
1
0
31
Lch Data
21
20 19
9
8
2
1
0
Rch Data
31: MSB, 0:LSB
Figure 7. Mode 7 Timing
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 21 -
[AK4397]
[2] DSD Mode
In case of DSD mode, DIF2-0 pins and DIF2-0 bits are ignored. The frequency of DCLK is fixed to 64fs. DCKB bit can
invert the polarity of DCLK.
DCLK (64fs)
DCKB=1
DCLK (64fs)
DCKB=0
DSDL,DSDR
Normal
D0
DSDL,DSDR
Phase Modulation
D0
D1
D1
D2
D1
D2
D3
D2
D3
Figure 8. DSD Mode Timing
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 22 -
[AK4397]
■ D/A conversion mode switching timing
RSTN bit
≥4/fs
D/A Mode
PCM Mode
DSD Mode
≥0
D/A Data
PCM Data
DSD Data
Figure 9. D/A Mode Switching Timing (PCM to DSD)
RSTN bit
D/A Mode
DSD Mode
PCM Mode
≥4/fs
D/A Data
DSD Data
PCM Data
Figure 10. D/A Mode Switching Timing (DSD to PCM)
Caution: In DSD mode, the signal level is ranging from 25% to 75%. Peak levels of DSD signal above this duty are not
recommended by SACD format book (Scarlet Book).
■ De-emphasis Filter
A digital de-emphasis filter is available for 32kHz, 44.1kHz or 48kHz sampling rates (tc = 50/15µs) and is enabled or
disabled with DEM1-0 pins or DEM1-0 bits. In case of double speed and quad speed mode, the digital de-emphasis filter
is always off. When DSD mode, DEM1-0 bits are ignored. The setting value is held even if PCM mode and DSD mode
are switched.
DEM1
DEM0
Mode
0
0
44.1kHz
0
1
OFF
(default)
1
0
48kHz
1
1
32kHz
Table 12. De-emphasis Control (Normal Speed Mode)
■ Output Volume
The AK4397 includes channel independent digital output volumes (ATT) with 256 levels at linear step including MUTE.
These volumes are in front of the DAC and can attenuate the input data from 0dB to –48dB and mute. When changing
levels, transitions are executed via soft changes; thus no switching noise occurs during these transitions. The transition
time of 1 level and all 256 levels is shown in Table 13.
Transition Time
1 Level
255 to 0
Normal Speed Mode
4LRCK
1020LRCK
Double Speed Mode
8LRCK
2040LRCK
Quad Speed Mode
16LRCK
4080LRCK
Table 13. ATT Transition Time
Sampling Speed
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 23 -
[AK4397]
■ Zero Detection
The AK4397 has channel-independent zeros detect function. When the input data at each channel is continuously zeros
for 8192 LRCK cycles, DZF pin of each channel goes to “H”. DZF pin of each channel immediately goes to “L” if input
data of each channel is not zero after going DZF pin “H”. If RSTN bit is “0”, DZF pins of both channels go to “H”. DZF
pins of both channels go to “L” at 4 ~ 5/fs after RSTN bit returns to “1”. If DZFM bit is set to “1”, DZF pins of both
channels go to “H” only when the input data at both channels are continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles. Zero detect
function can be disabled by DZFE bit. In this case, DZF pins of both channels are always “L”. DZFB bit can invert the
polarity of DZF pin.
■ Soft Mute operation
Soft mute operation is performed at digital domain. When SMUTE pin goes to “H” or SMUTE bit goes to “1”, the output
signal is attenuated by −∞ during ATT_DATA × ATT transition time (Table 13) from the current ATT level. When
SMUTE pin is returned to “L” or SMUTE bit is returned to “0”, the mute is cancelled and the output attenuation gradually
changes to the ATT level during ATT_DATA × ATT transition time. If the soft mute is cancelled before attenuating −∞
after starting the operation, the attenuation is discontinued and returned to ATT level by the same cycle. The soft mute is
effective for changing the signal source without stopping the signal transmission.
S M U T E pin or
S M U T E bit
(1)
(1)
AT T _Level
(3)
A ttenuation
-∞
GD
(2)
GD
(2)
AOUT
D ZF pin
(4)
8192/fs
Notes:
(1) ATT_DATA × ATT transition time (Table 13). For example, this time is 1020LRCK cycles (1020/fs)
at ATT_DATA=255 in Normal Speed Mode.
(2) Analog output corresponding to digital input has the group delay (GD).
(3) If the soft mute is cancelled before attenuating −∞ after starting the operation, the attenuation is discontinued
and returned to ATT level by the same cycle.
(4) When the input data at each channel is continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles, DZF pin of each channel goes
to “H”. DZF pin immediately goes to “L” if input data are not zero after going DZF pin “H”.
Figure 11. Soft Mute Function
■ System Reset
The AK4397 should be reset once by bringing PDN pin = “L” upon power-up. The analog section exits power-down
mode by MCLK input and then the digital section exits power-down mode after the internal counter counts MCLK during
4/fs.
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 24 -
[AK4397]
■ Power-Down
The AK4397 is placed in the power-down mode by bringing PDN pin “L” and the anlog outputs are floating (Hi-Z).
Figure 12 shows an example of the system timing at the power-down and power-up.
PDN
Internal
State
Normal Operation
Power-down
D/A In
(Digital)
Normal Operation
“0” data
GD
D/A Out
(Analog)
(1)
GD
(3)
(2)
(3)
(1)
(4)
Clock In
Don’t care
MCLK, BICK, LRCK
DZFL/DZFR
External
MUTE
(6)
(5)
Mute ON
Notes:
(1) The analog output corresponding to digital input has the group delay (GD).
(2) Analog outputs are floating (Hi -Z) at the power-down mode.
(3) Click noise occurs at the edge (“↑ ↓”) of PDN signal. This noise is output even if “0” data is input.
(4) The external clocks (MCLK, BICK and LRCK) can be stopped in the power-down mode (PDN pin = “L”).
(5) Please mute the analog output externally if the click noise (3) influences system application.
The timing example is shown in this figure.
(6) DZF pins are “L” in the power-down mode (PDN pin = “L”).
Figure 12. Power-down/up sequence example
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 25 -
[AK4397]
■ Reset Function
When RSTN bit = “0”, the AK4397’s digital section is powered down but the internal register values are not initialized.
The analog outputs go to AVDD/2 voltage and DZF pins of both channels go to “H”. Figure 13 shows the example of
reset by RSTN bit.
RSTN bit
3~4/fs (6)
2~3/fs (6)
Internal
RSTN Timing
Internal
State
Normal Operation
P
D/A In
(Digital)
d
“0” data
(1)
D/A Out
(Analog)
Normal Operation
Digital Block
GD
GD
(3)
(2)
(3)
(1)
(4)
Clock In
Don’t care
MCLK, BICK, LRCK
2/fs(5)
DZFL/DZFR
Notes:
(1) The analog output corresponding to digital input has the group delay (GD).
(2) Analog outputs go to AVDD/2 voltage.
(3) Click noise occurs at the edges (“↑ ↓”) of the internal timing of RSTN bit.
This noise is output even if “0” data is input.
(4) The external clocks (MCLK, BICK and LRCK) can be stopped in the reset mode (RSTN bit = “0”).
(5) DZF pins go to “H” when the RSTN bit becomes “0”, and go to “L” at 2/fs after RSTN bit becomes “1”.
(6) There is a delay, 3 ~ 4/fs from RSTN bit “0” to the internal RSTN bit “0”, and 2 ~ 3/fs from RSTN bit “1”
to the internal RSTN bit “1”.
Figure 13. Reset sequence example
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 26 -
[AK4397]
■ Register Control Interface
Pins (parallel control mode) or registers (serial control mode) can control each functions of the AK4397. In parallel mode,
the register setting is ignored and the pin setting is ignored in serial mode. When the state of P/S pin is changed, the
AK4397 should be reset by PDN pin. The serial control interface is enabled by the P/S pin = “L”. In this mode, pin setting
must be all “L”. Internal registers may be written by 3-wire µP interface pins: CSN, CCLK and CDTI. The data on this
interface consists of Chip address (2bits, CAD0/1), Read/Write (1bit; fixed to “1”), Register address (MSB first, 5bits)
and Control data (MSB first, 8bits). The AK4397 latches the data on the rising edge of CCLK, so data should be clocked
in on the falling edge. The writing of data becomes valid by CSN “↑”. The clock speed of CCLK is 5MHz (max).
Function
Parallel mode
Serial mode
Auto Setting Mode
O
O
Manual Setting Mode
O
O
Audio Format
O
O
De-emphasis
O
O
SMUTE
O
O
DSD Mode
X
O
Zero Detection
X
O
Slow roll-off response
X
O
Digital Attenuator
X
O
Table 14. Function List (O: Available, X: Not available)
PDN pin = “L” resets the registers to their default values. In serial mode, the internal timing circuit is reset by RSTN bit,
but the registers are not initialized.
CSN
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
CCLK
CDTI
C1 C0 R/W A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
C1-C0:
Chip Address (C1=CAD1, C0=CAD0)
R/W:
READ/WRITE (Fixed to “1”, Write only)
A4-A0: Register Address
D7-D0: Control Data
Figure 14. Control I/F Timing
* The AK4397 does not support the read command.
* When the AK4397 is in the power down mode (PDN pin = “L”) or the MCLK is not provided, writing into the control
register is inhibited.
* The control data can not be written when the CCLK rising edge is 15times or less or 17times or more during CSN is “L”.
MS0616-E-03
2012/11
- 27 -
[AK4397]
■ Register Map
Addr
00H
01H
02H
03H
04H
Register Name
Control 1
Control 2
Control 3
Lch ATT
Rch ATT
D7
ACKS
DZFE
D/P
ATT7
ATT7
D6
0
DZFM
DSDM
ATT6
ATT6
D5
0
SLOW
DCKS
ATT5
ATT5
D4
0
DFS1
DCKB
ATT4
ATT4
D3
DIF2
DFS0
0
ATT3
ATT3
D2
DIF1
DEM1
DZFB
ATT2
ATT2
D1
DIF0
DEM0
0
ATT1
ATT1
D0
RSTN
SMUTE
0
ATT0
ATT0
Notes:
For addresses from 05H to 1FH, data must not be written.
When PDN pin goes to “L”, the registers are initialized to their default values.
When RSTN bit goes to “0”, the only internal timing is reset and the registers are not initialized to their default values.
When the state of P/S pin is changed, the AK4397 should be reset by PDN pin.
■ Register Definitions
Addr Register Name
00H Control 1
Default
D7
ACKS
0
D6
0
0
D5
0
0
D4
0
0
D3
DIF2
0
D2
DIF1
1
D1
DIF0
0
D0
RSTN
1
RSTN: Internal timing reset
0: Reset. All registers are not initialized.
1: Normal Operation (default)
“0” resets the internal timing circuits. The register value will not be initialized.
DIF2-0: Audio data interface modes (Table 11)
Initial value is “010” (Mode 2: 24bit MSB justified).
ACKS: Master Clock Frequency Auto Setting Mode Enable (PCM only)
0: Disable : Manual Setting Mode (default)
1: Enable : Auto Setting Mode
When ACKS bit = “1”, MCLK frequency and the sampling frequency are detected automatically.
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[AK4397]
Addr Register Name
01H Control 2
Default
D7
DZFE
0
D6
DZFM
0
D5
SLOW
0
D4
DFS1
0
D3
DFS0
0
D2
DEM1
0
D1
DEM0
1
D0
SMUTE
0
SMUTE: Soft Mute Enable
0: Normal Operation (default)
1: DAC outputs soft-muted.
DEM1-0: De-emphasis Response (Table 12)
Initial value is “01” (OFF).
DFS1-0:
Sampling Speed Control (Table 6)
Initial value is “00” (Normal speed).
When changing between Normal/Double Speed Mode and Quad Speed Mode, some click noise occurs at
that time.
SLOW:
Slow Roll-off Filter Enable
0: Sharp roll-off filter (default)
1: Slow roll-off filter
DZFM:
Data Zero Detect Mode
0: Channel Separated Mode (default)
1: Channel ANDed Mode
If the DZFM bit is set to “1”, the DZF pins of both channels go to “H” only when the input data at both
channels are continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles.
DZFE:
Data Zero Detect Enable
0: Disable (default)
1: Enable
Zero detect function can be disabled by DZFE bit “0”. In this case, the DZF pins of both channels are
always “L”.
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[AK4397]
Addr Register Name
02H Control 3
Default
D7
D/P
0
D6
DSDM
0
D5
DCKS
0
D4
DCKB
0
D3
0
0
D2
DZFB
0
D1
0
0
D0
0
0
D2
ATT2
ATT2
1
D1
ATT1
ATT1
1
D0
ATT0
ATT0
1
DZFB: Inverting Enable of DZF
0: DZF pin goes “H” at Zero Detection (default)
1: DZF pin goes “L” at Zero Detection
DCKB: Polarity of DCLK (DSD Only)
0: DSD data is output from DCLK falling edge. (default)
1: DSD data is output from DCLK rising edge.
DCKS: Master Clock Frequency Select at DSD mode (DSD only)
0: 512fs (default)
1: 768fs
DSDM: DSD Input Select
0: Input pin: #5, 6, 7 (default)
1: Input pin: #12, 13, 14
When DSDM bit is changed, the AK4397 should be reset by RSTN bit.
D/P:
DSD/PCM Mode Select
0: PCM Mode (default)
1: DSD Mode
When D/P bit is changed, the AK4397 should be reset by RSTN bit.
Addr Register Name
03H Lch ATT
04H Rch ATT
Default
D7
ATT7
ATT7
1
D6
ATT6
ATT6
1
D5
ATT5
ATT5
1
D4
ATT4
ATT4
1
D3
ATT3
ATT3
1
ATT7-0: Attenuation Level
ATT = 20 log10 (ATT_DATA / 255) [dB]
FFH: 0dB (default)
00H: Mute
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[AK4397]
SYSTEM DESIGN
Figure 15 show the system connection diagram. Figure 17, Figure 18 and Figure 19 show the analog output circuit
examples. An evaluation board (AKD4397) is available which demonstrates the optimum layout, power supply
arrangements and measurement results.
Master clock
Analog5.0V
Digital 5.0V
+
10u
+
0.1u
34
NC 35
NC 36
NC 37
NC 38
NC 39
VSS3 40
AVDD 41
MCLK 42
Lch
LPF
1
DVDD
Reset & PD
64fs
2
PDN
VSS2 32
3
BICK
VDDL 31
Audio Data
4
SDATA
fs
5
LRCK
CSN
7
CAD0
Controller
8
CCLK
9
CDTI
VREFLL 29
10u
+
+
0.1u
10u
NC 28
VREFLR 27
VREFHR 26
0.1u
VSS1 24
Top View
11 DIF1
10u
+
+
VDDR 25
10 DIF0
0.1u
10u
21 NC
20 NC
19 NC
18 NC
17 CAD1
16 DZFL
15 DZFR
14 P/S
13 NC
AOUTRN 23
12 DIF2
+
0.1u
VREFHL 30
22 AOUTRP
6
Lch Out
AOUTLN 33
AK4397EQ
+
Micro-
Lch
Mute
AOUTLP
10u
VSS4 43
NC 44
0.1u
Rch
LPF
Rch
Mute
Rch Out
Electrolytic Capacitor
Ceramic Capacitor
Notes:
- Chip Address = “00”. LRCK = fs, BICK = 64fs.
- Power lines of AVDD and DVDD should be distributed separately from the point with low impedance of regulator
etc.
- VSS1-4 must be connected to the same analog ground plane.
- When AOUT drives some capacitive load, some resistor should be added in series between AOUT and
capacitive load.
- All input pins except pull-down/pull-up pins should not be left floating.
Figure 15. Typical Connection Diagram (AVDD=VDDL/R=5V, DVDD=5V, Serial mode)
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[AK4397]
NC 35
AOUTLP 34
NC 36
NC 37
NC 38
NC 39
VSS3 40
MCLK 42
DVDD
2
PDN
VSS2
32
3
BICK
VDDL
31
4
SDATA
5
LRCK
6
CSN
7
CAD0
8
CCLK
VREFHR 26
9
CDTI
VDDR
25
10 DFS0
VSS1
24
AK4397EQ
Controller
AOUTLN 33
1
VREFHL 30
VREFLL
29
NC
28
VREFLR 27
AOUTRN 23
21 NC
20 NC
19 NC
18 NC
17 CAD1
16 DZFL
15 DZFR
14 P/S
13 NC
12 DIF2
11 DIF1
22 AOUTRP
System
AVDD 41
NC 44
Analog Ground
VSS4 43
Digital Ground
Figure 16. Ground Layout
1. Grounding and Power Supply Decoupling
To minimize coupling by digital noise, decoupling capacitors should be connected to AVDD, VDDL/R and DVDD,
respectively. AVDD, VDDL/R is supplied from analog supply in system and DVDD is supplied from digital supply in
system. Power lines of AVDD, VDDL/R and DVDD should be distributed separately from the point with low impedance
of regulator etc. The power up sequence between AVDD, VDDL/R and DVDD is not critical. VSS1-4 must be
connected to the same analog ground plane. Decoupling capacitors for high frequency should be placed as near
as possible.
2. Voltage Reference
The differential Voltage between VREFHL/R and VREFLL/R set the analog output range. VREFHL/R pin is normally
connected to AVDD and VREFLL/R pin is normally connected to VSS. VREFHL/R and VREFLL/R should be
connected with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor. An electrolytic capacitor 10µF parallel with a 0.1µF ceramic capacitor
attached between VREFHL/R pin and VREFLL/R pin eliminates the effects of high frequency noise. All signals,
especially clocks, should be kept away from the VREFHL/R and VREFLL/R pins in order to avoid unwanted coupling
into the AK4397.
3. Analog Outputs
The analog outputs are full differential outputs and 2.8Vpp (typ, VREFHL/R − VREFLL/R = 5V) centered around
AVDD/2. The differential outputs are summed externally, VAOUT = (AOUT+) − (AOUT−) between AOUT+ and AOUT−.
If the summing gain is 1, the output range is 5.6Vpp (typ, VREFHL/R − VREFLL/R = 5V). The bias voltage of the
external summing circuit is supplied externally. The input data format is 2's complement. The output voltage (VAOUT) is a
positive full scale for 7FFFFFH (@24bit) and a negative full scale for 800000H (@24bit). The ideal VAOUT is 0V for
000000H(@24bit).
The internal switched-capacitor filters attenuate the noise generated by the delta-sigma modulator beyond the audio
passband. Figure 17 shows an example of external LPF circuit summing the differential outputs by an op-amp.
Figure 18 shows an example of differential outputs and LPF circuit example by three op-amps.
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[AK4397]
AK4397
1.5k
AOUT-
1.5k
390
1n
+Vop
2.2n
1.5k
AOUT+
1.5k
Analog
Out
390
1n
-Vop
Figure 17. External LPF Circuit Example 1 for PCM (fc = 99.2kHz, Q=0.704)
Frequency Response
Gain
20kHz
−0.011dB
40kHz
−0.127dB
80kHz
−1.571dB
Table 15. Filter Response of External LPF Circuit Example 1 for PCM
+15
3.3n
+
AOUTL- +
10k
330
180
0.1u
7
3
2 +
4
3.9n
-15
10u
6
NJM5534D
+
10u
620
620
3.3n
+
100u
+
330
3
+
2 -
3.9n
2 - 4
+
3
7
100
6
Lch
1.0n NJM5534D
10u
0.1u
7
6
4
NJM5534D
1.2k
10k
AOUTL+
180
+10u
1.0n
1.2k
680
0.1u
560
0.1u
560
100u
680
+
0.1u
10u
+
10u
0.1u
Figure 18. External LPF Circuit Example 2 for PCM
1st Stage
2nd Stage
Total
Cut-off Frequency
182kHz
284kHz
Q
0.637
Gain
+3.9dB
-0.88dB
+3.02dB
20kHz
-0.025
-0.021
-0.046dB
Frequency
40kHz
-0.106
-0.085
-0.191dB
Response
80kHz
-0.517
-0.331
-0.848dB
Table 16. Filter Response of External LPF Circuit Example 2 for PCM
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[AK4397]
It is recommended for SACD format book (Scarlet Book) that the filter response at SACD playback is an analog low pass
filter with a cut-off frequency of maximum 50kHz and a slope of minimum 30dB/Oct. The AK4397 can achieve this filter
response by combination of the internal filter (Table 17) and an external filter (Figure 19).
Frequency
Gain
20kHz
−0.4dB
50kHz
−2.8dB
100kHz
−15.5dB
Table 17. Internal Filter Response at DSD mode
2.0k
1.8k
4.3k
AOUT1.0k
270p
2.8Vpp
2200p
+Vop
3300p
2.0k
1.8k
1.0k
AOUT+
+
2.8Vpp
4.3k
270p
Analog
Out
6.34Vpp
-Vop
Figure 19. External 3rd order LPF Circuit Example for DSD
Frequency
Gain
20kHz
−0.05dB
50kHz
−0.51dB
100kHz
−16.8dB
DC gain = 1.07dB
Table 18. 3rd order LPF (Figure 19) Response
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[AK4397]
PACKAGE
44pin LQFP (Unit: mm)
1.70max
12.0
0 ~ 0.2
10.0
23
33
0.80
12.0
22
10.0
34
12
44
1
11
0.09 ~ 0.20
0.37±0.10
0°∼10°
0.60±0.20
0.15
■ Material & Lead finish
Package molding compound: Epoxy
Lead frame material: Cu
Lead frame surface treatment: Solder (Pb free) plate
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[AK4397]
MARKING
AK4397EQ
XXXXXXX
AKM
1
1) Pin #1 indication
2) AKM Logo
3) Date Code: XXXXXXX(7 digits)
4) Marking Code: AK4397
5) Audio 4 pro Logo
REVISION HISTORY
Date (Y/M/D)
07/05/11
08/02/12
Revision
00
01
09/02/25
02
12/11/12
03
Reason
First Edition
Error
Correction
Error
Correction
Specification
Change
Page
Contents
25
Description about VCOM pin was deleted.
26
32
VCOM → AVDD/2
2. Voltage Reference
Description about VCOM pin was deleted.
33
35
3. Analog Outputs
VCOM → AVDD/2
Figure 17 was changed.
Table 15 was changed.
PACKAGE
Package dimensions were changed.
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[AK4397]
IMPORTANT NOTICE
z These products and their specifications are subject to change without notice.
When you consider any use or application of these products, please make inquiries the sales office of Asahi Kasei
Microdevices Corporation (AKM) or authorized distributors as to current status of the products.
z Descriptions of external circuits, application circuits, software and other related information contained in this
document are provided only to illustrate the operation and application examples of the semiconductor products. You
are fully responsible for the incorporation of these external circuits, application circuits, software and other related
information in the design of your equipments. AKM assumes no responsibility for any losses incurred by you or third
parties arising from the use of these information herein. AKM assumes no liability for infringement of any patent,
intellectual property, or other rights in the application or use of such information contained herein.
z Any export of these products, or devices or systems containing them, may require an export license or other official
approval under the law and regulations of the country of export pertaining to customs and tariffs, currency exchange,
or strategic materials.
z AKM products are neither intended nor authorized for use as critical componentsNote1) in any safety, life support, or
other hazard related device or systemNote2), and AKM assumes no responsibility for such use, except for the use
approved with the express written consent by Representative Director of AKM. As used here:
Note1) A critical component is one whose failure to function or perform may reasonably be expected to result,
whether directly or indirectly, in the loss of the safety or effectiveness of the device or system containing it, and
which must therefore meet very high standards of performance and reliability.
Note2) A hazard related device or system is one designed or intended for life support or maintenance of safety
or for applications in medicine, aerospace, nuclear energy, or other fields, in which its failure to function or
perform may reasonably be expected to result in loss of life or in significant injury or damage to person or
property.
z It is the responsibility of the buyer or distributor of AKM products, who distributes, disposes of, or otherwise places
the product with a third party, to notify such third party in advance of the above content and conditions, and the buyer
or distributor agrees to assume any and all responsibility and liability for and hold AKM harmless from any and all
claims arising from the use of said product in the absence of such notification.
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