TC115 PFM/PWM Step-Up DC/DC Converter Features Package Type SOT-89-5 • High Efficiency at Low Output Load Currents via PFM Mode • Assured Start-up at 0.9V • 80 µA (Typ) Supply Current • 85% Typical Efficiency at 100 mA • 140 mA Typical Output Current @ VIN 2.0V • Low Power Shutdown Mode • No External Switching Transistor Needed • Space-Saving SOT-89 Package PS 5 4 GND LX TC115 NC PS 1 2 SHDN 3 Applications General Description • • • • • • The TC115 is a high-efficiency step-up DC/DC converter for small, low input voltage or batterypowered systems. This device has a start-up voltage of 0.9V and a typical supply current of 80 µA. Phase compensation and soft-start circuitry are included onchip. Unlike conventional PWM step-up converters, the TC115 automatically shifts to pulse frequency modulation (PFM) at low loads, resulting in reduced supply current and improved efficiency. Pagers Cellular Phones Palmtops 1-Cell to 3-Cell Battery Powered Systems Cameras, Video Recorders Local +3V to +5V Supplies The TC115 requires only an external diode, an inductor and a capacitor, while supporting typical output currents of 140 mA. Supply current is reduced to less than 0.5 µA (max) when SHDN input is brought low. Small size, low installed cost and low supply current make the TC115 step-up converter ideal for use in a wide range of battery-powered systems. Functional Block Diagram L1 100 µH Sumida® CD-54 + 1.5V + C1 10 µF D1 PS 5 4 GND LX +3V OUT IN5817 + C2 47 µF Tantalum TC115 NC PS 1 2 SHDN 3 1.5V to +3V, 50 mA Supply 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21361D-page 1 TC115 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS PIN FUNCTION TABLE Symbol Description Absolute Maximum Ratings† NC Not connected Power Supply Voltage (PS) ...............................................12V PS Power and voltage sense input Power Dissipation ......................................................500 mW SHDN LX Sink Current......................................................400 mA pk Shutdown input LX SHDN Input Voltage ..........................................................12V Inductor switch output GND Operating Temperature Range........................-40°C to +85°C Ground terminal Storage Temperature Range .........................-40°C to +125°C † Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. DC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise noted, VOUT = 5V, TA = +25°C. Circuit configuration is illustrated in Figure 5-1. Parameters Operating Supply Voltage Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions VIN 0.9 — 10.0 V Note 5 VSTART — — 0.9 V IOUT = 1 mA ILXMAX — — 350 mA fLIM — 200 — kHz VLXLIM 0.7 — 1.3 V Note 2 No Load Supply Current IDD — 13 26 µA IOUT = 0, VIN = VOUT x 0.8 (Note 3) Boost Mode Supply Current ICC — 80 135 µA No external components, VIN = (0.95 x VOUT) applied to PS (or VDD) input ISTBY — 9 17 µA No external components, VIN = (1.1 x VOUT) applied to PS (or VDD) input Start-Up Supply Voltage LX Maximum Sink Current LX Limit Frequency LX Limit Voltage Standby Supply Current Shutdown Supply Current Oscillator Frequency Output Voltage LX Output ON Resistance Duty Cycle (PFM Operating Mode) Maximum Duty Cycle ISD — — 0.5 µA SHDN = 0V fOSC 85 100 115 kHz Note 2, Note 4 VOUT VR x 0.975 VR VR x 1.025 V VIN = 2.2V minimum (Note 1) Rswon — 1.4 2.4 VLX = 0.4V PFMDUTY 10 17 25 % No external components MAXDUTY 80 87 92 % Note 4 tSS 4 10 20 msec h — 85 — % SHDN Input Logic High VIH 0.75 — — V SHDN Input Logic Low VIL — — 0.20 V Soft Start Time Efficiency Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: VLX = VLXLIM VR is the nominal factory-programmed output voltage setting. VLXLIM is the voltage on the LX pin (with internal switch ON) that will cause the oscillator to run at twice nominal frequency in to limit the switch current through the internal N-channel switching transistor. Measured with D1 = MA735 (reverse current < 1 µA at a reverse voltage of 10V). With TC115 operating in PWM mode. See Section 4.4, “Behavior When VIN is Greater Than the Factory-Programmed VOUT Setting”. DS21361D-page 2 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. TC115 2.0 Note: TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. Note: Unless otherwise indicated, VOUT = 5V, TA = +25°C. 100 80 2.9 EFFICIENCY (%) OUTPUT VOLTAGE VOUT (V) 3.1 2.0V VIN = 1.0V 1.5V 2.7 20 1.5V L1 = 100 µH C2 = 47 µF (Tantalum) 0 2.5 0 40 80 120 160 0 200 FIGURE 2-1: Current. Output Voltage vs. Output FIGURE 2-3: Current. 200 80 120 160 200 Efficiency vs. Output 100 RIPPLE VOLTAGE Vr(mVp-p) L1 = 100 µH C2 = 47 µF (Tantalum) 150 100 50 0 1.0 40 OUTPUT CURRENT IOUT (mA) OUTPUT CURRENT IOUT (mA) INPUT CURRENT IIN (µA) VIN = 1.0V 40 L1 = 100 µH C2 = 47 µF (Tantalum) L1 = 100 µH C2 = 47 µF (Tantalum) 80 60 2.0V 1.5V VIN = 1.0V 40 10 0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 2.0 INPUT VOLTAGE VIN (V) FIGURE 2-2: Input Voltage. 2.0V 60 No Load Input Current vs. 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. 40 80 120 160 200 OUTPUT CURRENT IOUT (mA) FIGURE 2-4: Current. Ripple Voltage vs. Output DS21361D-page 3 TC115 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin No. Symbol 1 NC Not connected 2 PS Power and voltage sense input 3 SHDN 4 LX 5 GND 3.2 Shutdown Input (SHDN) A logic-low on SHDN suspends device operation and supply current is reduced to less than 0.5 µA. The device resumes normal operation when SHDN is again brought high. Description Shutdown input 3.3 Inductor Switch Output (LX) LX is the drain of an internal N-channel switching transistor. This terminal drives the external inductor, which ultimately provides current to the load. Inductor switch output Ground terminal 3.4 Ground Terminal (GND) Connect to circuit ground. 3.1 Power and Voltage Sense Input (PS) PS is a dual function input that provides both feedback voltage sensing and internal chip power. It should be connected to the regulator output (See Section 5.0, “Applications”). DS21361D-page 4 3.5 No Connect (NC) No internal connection. 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. TC115 4.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 4.3 Low Power Shutdown Mode The TC115 is a combination PFM/PWM step-up (boost) regulator. It is particularly useful in battery-powered 1, 2 and 3 cell applications where the required output current is 140 mA or less, and size/cost issues are a concern. The device operates in PWM mode when the output load is sufficient to demand a 10% (or greater) duty cycle. While in PWM mode, the TC115 behaves as any other PWM switching regulator to a maximum duty cycle of 92%. At low output loads (i.e., output loads requiring < 10% duty cycle to support), the TC115 automatically switches to pulse frequency modulation (PFM) operating mode with a fixed duty cycle of 25% (max) (17%, typical). While in PFM mode, the inductor is modulated with individual fixed width pulses only as needed to maintain output voltage. This action reduces supply current, thereby improving power efficiency at low output loads. The TC115 enters a low power shutdown mode when SHDN is brought low. While in shutdown, the oscillator is disabled and the internal switch is shut off. Normal regulator operation resumes when SHDN is brought high. SHDN may be tied to the input supply if not used. 4.1 The TC115 is designed to operate as a step-up regulator only. As such, VIN is assumed to always be less than the factory-programmed VOUT setting (VR). Operating the TC115 with VIN > VR causes regulating action to be suspended (and corresponding supply current reduction to 9 µA, typical) until VIN is again less than VR. While regulating action is suspended, VIN is connected to VOUT through the series combination of the inductor and Schottky diode. Care must be taken to add the appropriate isolation (MOSFET output switch or post LDO with shutdown) during system design if this VIN/VOUT leakage path is problematic. Input Power and Sensing The TC115 is powered from the PS input, which must be connected to the regulated output, as shown in Figure 5-1. PS also senses output voltage for closedloop regulation. Start-up current is furnished through the inductor when input voltage is initially applied. This action starts the oscillator, causing the voltage at the PS input to rise, bootstrapping the regulator into full operation. 4.2 Output Diode Note: 4.4 Because the TC115 uses an external diode, a leakage path between the input voltage and the output node (through the inductor and diode) exists while the regulator is in shutdown. Care must be taken in system design to assure the input supply is isolated from the load during shutdown. Behavior When VIN is Greater Than the Factory-Programmed VOUT Setting For best results, use a Schottky diode, such as the MA735, 1N5817, EC10 or equivalent. Connect the diode between the PS and LX pins as close to the IC as possible. While ultra fast diodes can be used, lower efficiency will result due to their higher forward voltage drop. Ordinary rectifiers should be avoided because of their slow recovery characteristics. 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21361D-page 5 TC115 5.0 5.1 APPLICATIONS Input Bypass Capacitors Using an input bypass capacitor reduces peak current transients drawn from the input supply and reduces the switching noise generated by the regulator. The source impedance of the input supply determines the size of the capacitor that should be used. The inductor value directly affects the output ripple voltage. Equation 5-3 is derived as shown below, and can be used to calculate an inductor value, given the required output ripple voltage (VRIPPLE) and output capacitor series resistance: EQUATION 5-1: V RIPPLE ESR di Where: VIN + C1 L1 5 D1 4 GND VOUT C2+ 1 Expressing di in terms of switch ON resistance and time: PS SHDN 2 3 OFF ON (Tie to VIN or VOUT if not used) FIGURE 5-1: 5.2 di: represents the peak to peak ripple current in the inductor. LX TC115 NC ESR: the equivalent series resistance of the output filter capacitor; VRIPPLE is in volts. TC115 Typical Application. Inductor Selection Selecting the proper inductor value is a trade-off between physical size and power conversion requirements. Lower value inductors cost less, but result in higher ripple current and core losses. They are also more prone to saturate since the coil current ramps to a higher value. Larger inductor values reduce both ripple current and core losses, but are larger in physical size and tend to increase the start-up time slightly. Practical inductor values, therefore, range from 50 µH to 300 µH. Inductors with a ferrite core (or equivalent) are recommended. For highest efficiency, use an inductor with a series resistance less than 0.1). EQUATION 5-2: V IN – V SW t ON VRIPPLE -------------------------------------------L Where: VSW = voltage drop across the switch. TON = the amount of time the switch is ON. Solving for L: EQUATION 5-3: V IN – VSW t ON L -------------------------------------------V RIPPLE Care must be taken to ensure the inductor can handle peak switching currents, which can be several times load currents. Exceeding rated peak current will result in core saturation and loss of inductance. The inductor should be selected to withstand currents greater than IPK (Equation 5-10) without saturating. Calculating the peak inductor current is straightforward. Inductor current consists of an AC (sawtooth) current centered on an average DC current (i.e., input current). Equation 5-6 calculates the average DC current. Note that minimum input voltage and maximum load current values should be used: EQUATION 5-4: Output Power Input Power = --------------------------------Efficiency DS21361D-page 6 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. TC115 Rewriting in terms of input and output currents and voltages: EQUATION 5-5: VIN MIN I IN V OUT IOUT MAX MAX = -------------------------------------------------MAX Efficiency Solving for input current: EQUATION 5-6: IIN MAX V OUT I OUT MAX MAX = --------------------------------------------------- Efficiency V IN MIN The sawtooth current is centered on the DC current level, swinging equally above and below the DC current calculated in Equation 5-6. The peak inductor current is the sum of the DC current plus half the ac current. Note that minimum input voltage should be used when calculating the ac inductor current (Equation 5-9). EQUATION 5-7: V L = L di dt EQUATION 5-8: di = VL di dt EQUATION 5-9: VIN – VSW t ON MIN di = --------------------------------------------L Where: VSW = The voltage drop across the internal N-channel MOSFET. Combining the DC current calculated in Equation 5-6, with half the peak ac current calculated in Equation 5-9, the peak inductor current is given by: 5.3 Internal Transistor Switch The LX pin has a typical ON resistance of 1.4. Therefore, peak switch current is given by (VIN/1.4). The internal transistor switch has a maximum design rating of 350 mA. An oscillator frequency doubling circuit is an included guard against high switching currents. Should the voltage on the LX pin rise above 1.3V (max) while the internal N-channel switch is ON, the oscillator frequency automatically doubles to minimize ON time. Although reduced, switch current still flows because the PWM remains in operation. Therefore, the LX input is not internally current-limited and care must be taken never to exceed the 350 mA maximum limit. Failure to observe this will result in damage to the regulator. 5.4 Output Capacitor The effective series resistance of the output capacitor directly affects the amplitude of the output voltage ripple (The product of the peak inductor current and the ESR determines output ripple amplitude). Therefore, a capacitor with the lowest possible ESR should be selected. Smaller capacitors are acceptable for light loads (or in applications where ripple is not a concern). The Sprague® 595D series of tantalum capacitors are among the smallest of all low ESR surface mount capacitors available. Table 5-1 lists suggested components and suppliers. 5.5 Board Layout Guidelines As with all inductive switching regulators, the TC115 generates fast switching waveforms which radiate noise. Interconnecting lead lengths should be minimized to keep stray capacitance, trace resistance and radiated noise as low as possible. In addition, the GND pin, input bypass capacitor and output filter capacitor ground leads should be connected to a single point. EQUATION 5-10: I PK = IIN TABLE 5-1: MAX + 0.5 di SUGGESTED COMPONENTS AND SUPPLIERS Type Surface Mount Through-Hole Inductors Capacitors Sumida® Matsuo® CD54 Series CDR125 Series Coiltronics™ CTX Series 267 Series Sprague® 595D Series Nichicon™ F93 Series Sumida® RCH855 Series RCH110 Series Renco® RL1284-12 Sanyo™ OS-CON Series Nichicon™ PL Series 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. Diodes Nihon EC10 Series Matsushita™ MA735 Series ON Semiconductor® 1N5817 - 1N5822 DS21361D-page 7 TC115 TC115301 VIN = 1.0V ILOAD = 10 mA CH1: VOUT (DC) CH2: VOUT (AC Ripple) L = 100 µH C = 47 µF D1 = MA735 TC115301 VIN = 2.0V ILOAD = 40 mA CH1: VOUT (DC) CH2: VOUT (AC Ripple) L = 100 µH C = 47 µF D1 = MA735 TC115301 VIN = 2.5V ILOAD = 80 mA CH1: VOUT (DC) CH2: VOUT (AC Ripple) L = 100 µH C = 47 µF D1 = MA735 FIGURE 5-2: DS21361D-page 8 Typical Ripple Waveforms. 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. TC115 6.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 6.1 Package Marking Information SOT-89-5 5 4 2 4 1 3 1 2 3 1 represents product classification; TC115 = 1 2 represents first integer of voltage and frequency 3 4 Symbol (100 kHz) Voltage 1 1. 2 2. 3 3. 4 4. 5 5. 6 6. represents first decimal of voltage and frequency Symbol (100 kHz) Voltage 0 .0 1 .1 2 .2 3 .3 4 .4 5 .5 6 .6 7 .7 8 .8 9 .9 represents production lot ID code Example: For TC115331, the marking code is: 3 X 1 3 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21361D-page 9 TC115 5-Lead Plastic Small Outline Transistor Header (MT) (SOT-89) Note: For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at http://www.microchip.com/packaging B1 B1 4 3 B B2 D1 p1 2 p 2 1 5 B1 B1 L L H E D A C Units Dimension Limits p Pitch Outside lead pitch (basic) Overall Height Overall Width Molded Package Width Overall Length Tab Width Foot Length Lead Thickness Lead 2 Width Leads 1,3, 4 & 5 Width Tab Lead Width p1 A H E D D1 L c B B1 B2 INCHES MIN MAX .059 BSC .118 BSC .055 .063 .177 .090 .102 .173 .181 .055 .071 .031 .015 .017 .016 .021 .014 .019 .013 .019 MILLIMETERS* MIN MAX 1.50 BSC 3.00 BSC 1.40 1.60 4.50 2.29 2.60 4.40 4.60 1.40 1.80 0.80 0.37 0.44 0.41 0.53 0.36 0.48 0.32 0.48 *Controlling Parameter Notes: Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed .005" (0.127mm) per side. Drawing No. C04-030 DS21361D-page 10 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. TC115 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. XX X X XXXX Device Output Voltage Oscillator Frequency Temperature Range Package Examples: a) TC115301EMTTR: 3.0V Converter b) TC115331EMTTR: 3.3V Converter c) Device: TC115: Output Voltage: 30 33 50 = 3.0V = 3.3V = 5.0V Oscillator Frequency: 1 = 100 kHz Temperature Range: E = -40°C to +85°C Package: MTTR = 5L SOT-89, Tape and Reel TC115501EMTTR: 5.0V Converter PFM/PWM Step-Up DC/DC Converter Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21361D-page 11 TC115 NOTES: DS21361D-page 12 2002-2012 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, FlashFlex, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PIC32 logo, rfPIC, SST, SST Logo, SuperFlash and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MTP, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Silicon Storage Technology is a registered trademark of Microchip Technology Inc. in other countries. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, BodyCom, chipKIT, chipKIT logo, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPF, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, SQI, Serial Quad I/O, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock, ZENA and Z-Scale are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. GestIC and ULPP are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Germany II GmbH & Co. & KG, a subsidiary of Microchip Technology Inc., in other countries. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2002-2012, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. 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