TEMIC TSC80251

TSC80251
TSC 80251
Programmer’s Guide
REV C – 1999
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
TEMIC Semiconductors reserves the right to make changes in the specifications contained in this document in order to improve design
or performance and to supply the best possible products. TEMIC also assumes no responsibility for the use of any circuits described
herein, conveys no license under any patents or other rights, and makes no representations that the circuits are free from patent
infringement. Applications for any integrated circuits contained in this publication are for illustration purposes only and TEMIC makes
no representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the use specified without further testing or modification.
Reproduction of any portion hereof without the prior written consent of TEMIC is prohibited.
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Copyright TEMIC Semiconductors 1997.
Copyright INTEL Corporation 1994.
Portions reprinted by permission of INTEL Corporation.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table of Contents
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
1.1. Extended 8–bit Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
1.2. TSC80251 Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
1.3. TSC80251 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
Chapter 2: Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
2.1. Microcontroller Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
2.2. Microcontroller Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
2.2.1. CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
2.2.2. Clock and Reset Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
2.2.3. Interrupt Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Chapter 3: Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
3.1. C251 Architecture Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
3.2. C51 Architecture Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
3.3. C51 Architecture mapping to C251 Architecture Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
3.4. TSC80251 Register File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
3.4.1. Byte, Word and Dword Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2. Dedicated Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2.1. Accumulator and B Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2.2. Extended Data Pointer, DPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2.3. Extended Stack Pointer, SPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.5. Special Function Registers (SFRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9
Chapter 4: Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
4.1. Source Mode or Binary Mode Opcodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
4.1.1. Selecting Binary Mode or Source Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
4.2. Programming Features of the C251 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
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TSC80251
4.2.1. Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1.1. Order of Byte Storage for Words and Double Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. Register Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3. Address Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4. Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.3. Program Status Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
4.4. Data Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
4.4.1. Data Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1.1. Addressable Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1.2. Immediate Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1.3. Direct Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1.4. Indirect Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1.5. Displacement Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2. Arithmetic Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.3. Logical Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.4. Data Transfer Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.9
4.5. Bit Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
4.5.1. Bit Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
4.6. Control Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
4.6.1. Addressing Modes for Control Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2. Conditional Jumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.3. Unconditional Jumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.4. Calls and Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.5. Interrupt Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.6. Minimum Fixed Interrupt Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.7. Variable Interrupt Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.7.1. Response Time Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.7.2. Computation of Worst Case Latency with Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.8. Latency Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.9. Blocking Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.10. Interrupt Vector Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.11. ISRs in Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.13
4.14
4.14
4.15
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.17
4.18
4.18
Chapter 5: Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
5.1. Instruction Set Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
5.1.1. Notation for Instruction Operands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
5.1.2. Size and Execution Time for Instruction Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
5.2. Opcode Map and SupPorting Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.18
5.3. Instruction Set Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.24
5.3.1. Execution Times for Instructions that Access the Ports SFRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.24
5.4. Instruction Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.36
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glossary.1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
List of figures
Chapter 2: Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Figure 2.1. TSC80251 Product Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
Figure 2.2. Central Processor Unit Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3
Figure 2.3. Clocking Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
Chapter 3: Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Figure 3.1. Address Spaces for TSC80251 Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Figure 3.2. Address Spaces for the C51 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
Figure 3.3. Mappings C51 Architecture to C251 Architecture Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
Figure 3.4. TSC80251 Memory Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
Figure 3.5. Register File in Byte, Word, and Dword Register Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5
Figure 3.6. Register File Locations 0-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6
Figure 3.7. Dedicated Registers in the Register File and their Corresponding SFRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8
Chapter 4: Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Figure 4.1. Binary Mode Opcode Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
Figure 4.2. Source Mode Opcode Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
Figure 4.3. Word and Double-word Storage in Big Endian Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Figure 4.4. Interrupt Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
Figure 4.5. Response Time Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15
Figure 4.6. Response Time Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.16
Figure 4.7. Program Status Word register (PSW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.19
Figure 4.8. Program Status Word 1 register (PSW1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.20
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TSC80251
List of tables
Chapter 3: Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Table 3.1. Address Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3.2. Register Bank Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3.3. Dedicated Registers in the Register File and their Corresponding SFRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3.4. Core SFRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.9
Chapter 4: Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Table 4.1. Examples of Opcodes in Binary and Source Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Table 4.2. Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Table 4.3. Notation for Byte Registers, Word Registers, and Dword Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Table 4.4. The Efffects of Instructions on the PSW and PSW1 Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Table 4.5. Addressing Modes for Data Instruction in the C51 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
Table 4.6. Addressing Modes for Data Instruction in the C251 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Table 4.7. Bit-addressable Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
Table 4.8. Two Samples of Bits Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
Table 4.9. Addressing Modes for Bit Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Table 4.10. Addressing Modes for Control Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
Table 4.11. Compare-conditional Jump Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
Table 4.12. Interrupt Latency Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.16
Table 4.13. Actual vs. Predicted Latency Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17
Chapter 5: Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Table 5.1. Minimum Number of States per Instruction for given Average Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Table 5.2. Notation for Direct Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Table 5.3. Notation for Immediate Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Table 5.4. Notation for Bit Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2
Table 5.5. Notation for Destination in Control Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
Table 5.6. Notation for Register Operands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
Table 5.7. Summary of Add and Subtract Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Table 5.8. Summary of Increment and Decrement Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
Table 5.9. Summary of Compare Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
Table 5.10. Summary of Logical Instructions (1/2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
Table 5.11. Summary of Logical Instructions (2/2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
Table 5.12. Summary of Multiply, Divide and Decimal-adjust Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8
Table 5.13. Summary of Move Instructions (1/3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Table 5.14. Summary of Move Instructions (2/3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
Table 5.15. Summary of Move Instructions (3/3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
Table 5.16. Summary of Bit Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.12
Table 5.17. Summary of Exchange, Push and Pop Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.13
Table 5.18. Summary of Conditional Jump Instructions (1/2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14
Table 5.19. Summary of Conditional Jump Instructions (2/2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15
Table 5.20. Summary of unconditional Jump Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.21. Summary of Call and Return Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.22. Instructions for 80C51 Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.23. New Instructions for the C251 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.24. Data Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.25. High Nibble, Byte 0 of Data Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.26. Bit Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.27. Byte 1 (High Nibble) for Bit Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.28. PUSH/POP Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.29. Control Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.30. Displacement/Extended MOVs Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.31. INC/DEC Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.32. Encoding for INC/DEC Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.33. Shifts Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.34. State Times to Access the Port SFRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.35. Summary of Add and Subtract Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.36. Summary of Compare Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.37. Summary of Increment and Decrement Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.38. Summary of Multiply, Divide and Decimal-adjust Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.39. Summary of Logical Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.40. Summary of Logical Instructions (Cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.41. Summary of Move Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.42. Summary of Exchange, Push and Pop Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.43. Summary of Bit Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 5.44. Flag Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.20
5.21
5.21
5.21
5.22
5.22
5.23
5.23
5.23
5.25
5.27
5.28
5.29
5.29
5.30
5.31
5.31
5.34
5.35
5.36
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TSC80251
Conventions
The following notations and terminology are used in this manual. The Glossary defines all terms with special meanings.
#
The pound symbol (#) has either of two meanings, depending on the context.
When used with a signal name, the symbol means that the signal is active
low. When used in an instruction, the symbol prefixes an immediate value
in immediate addressing mode.
italics
Italics identify variables and introduce new terminology. The context in
which italics are used distinguishes between two possible meanings.
Variables in registers and signal names are commonly represented by x and
y, where x represents the first variable and y represents the second variable.
For example, in register Px.y, x represents the variable that identifies the
specific port, and y represents the register bit variable [7:0]. Variables must
be replaced with the correct values when configuring or programming
registers or identifying signals.
XXXX
Uppercase X (no italics) represents an unknown value or a “don’t care” state
or condition. The value may be either binary or hexadecimal, depending on
the context. For example, 2XAFh (hex) indicates that bits 11:8 are unknown;
10XXb in binary context indicates that the two Least Significant Bits are
unknown.
Assert and Deassert The terms Assert and Deassert refer to the act of making a signal active
(enabled) and inactive (disabled), respectively. The active polarity
(high/low) is defined by the signal name. Active–low signals are designated
by a pound symbol (#) suffix; active–high signals have no suffix. To assert
RD# is to drive it low; to assert ALE is to drive it high; to deassert RD# is
to drive it high; to deassert ALE is to drive it low.
Instructions
Instruction mnemonics are shown in upper case to avoid confusion. You may
use either upper case or lower case.
Logic 0 (Low)
An input voltage level equal to or less than the maximum value of VIL or an
output voltage level equal to or less than the maximum value of VOL. See
Product Datasheet for values.
Logic 1 (High)
An input voltage level equal to or greater than the minimum value of VIH or
an output voltage level equal to or greater than the minimum value of VOH.
See Product Datasheet for values.
Numbers
Hexadecimal numbers are represented by a string of hexadecimal digits
followed by the letter h. Decimal and binary numbers are represented by
their customary notations: i.e. 255 is a decimal number and 1111 1111 is a
binary number. In most cases of binary numbers, the letter b is added for
clarity.
Register Bits
Bit locations are indexed by 7:0 for byte registers, 15:0 for word registers,
and 31:0 for double word (dword) registers. Bit 0 is the least significant bit
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TSC80251
and 7, 15 or 31 are the most significant bits. An individual bit is represented
by the register name, followed by a period and the bit number. For example,
PCON.4 is bit 4 of the Power Control register. In some discussions, bit names
are used. For example, the name of PCON.4 is POF, the Power Off flag.
Register Names
Register names are shown in upper case. For example, PCON is the Power
Control register. If a register name contains a lowercase character, it
represents more than one register. For example, CCAPMx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4)
represents the five registers: CCAPM0 through CCAPM4.
Reserved Bits
Some registers contain reserved bits. These bits are not used in this device
but they may be used in future implementations. Pay attention to the
recommendations when manipulating theses bits.
Set and Clear
The terms Set and Clear refer to the value of a bit or the act of giving it a
value. If a bit is Set, its value is “1”; setting a bit gives it a “1” value. If a bit
is Clear, its value is “0”; clearing a bit gives it a “0” value.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
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Introduction
1.1. 8/16–bit microcontroller
In the world of 8/16–bit microcontrollers, the C51 Architecture has become an industry standard for embedded
applications. For over 15 years, TEMIC has been a leading provider of this microcontroller family. This unsurpassed
experience is the driving force as TEMIC takes this proven family to the next level of performance: the TSC80251
family!
This new C251 Architecture at its lowest performance level (binary mode), is binary code compatible with the 80C51
microcontrollers, hence, attaining an increase in performance has never been easier.
Due to a 3–stage pipeline, the CPU–performance is increased by a factor 5, using existing C51 code without
modifications.
Using the new C251 instruction set, which you will find in this document (See Chapter 5), the performance will increase
up to 15 times at the same clock rate. This performance enhancement is based on the 16–bit instruction bus, allowing
for more powerful instructions and additional internal instruction bus, 8–bit and 16–bit data busses.
The 24–bit address bus will allow to access up to 16 Mbytes in a single linear memory space. Please see each individual
TSC80251 Product Design Guide for the effective addressable memory range.
Programming flexibility and C–code efficiency are both increased through a Register–based Architecture, the
64–Kbyte extended stack space combining with the new instruction set.
C251 C–compilers are some of the most efficient available (nearly no overhead), coupled with the final codesize which
could be a factor of 3 down when compared with the C51 C–compilers.
All technical information in this document about core features are related to the core revision A and core revision D.
1.2. TSC80251 Derivatives
TEMIC is developing a full family of application specific TSC80251 derivatives. Please see the Design Guide of each
product for further information.
These products are designed to help you getting high–performance products to market faster.
Due to the high instruction throughput, the TSC80251 derivatives are focussing on all high–end 8–bit to 16–bit
applications.
TSC80251 derivatives are also used in mid–range and lower–end microcontroller applications, where a very low
operation frequency is needed, without decreasing the level of CPU–power.
This feature is ideal for today portable applications and EMC sensitive systems.
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1.1
TSC80251
Typical applications for this family are:
Automotive:
Airbag
ABS
Gearbox
Climate control
Car radio
Car navigation
Communication:
Cordless phones
Cellular phones
High speed modems
High–end feature phones
ISDN phones
Line cards
Network termination
Computer:
High–end monitors
DVD–ROM
Magtape card & smart card readers
Barcodes readers
Computer telephony
Force feedback joysticks
Industrial:
Process monitoring control & readouts
Air conditioning systems
Automation
TEMIC’s TSC80251 derivatives are designed around the C251 core, using standard peripherals dedicated to a targetted
range of applications.
Here is a selection of peripheral blocks:
Serial interfaces:
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter)
I2C (Inter–Integrated Circuit)
SPI (Serial Protocol Interface)
µWire (Synchronous Serial Interface)
Special Functions:
PCA: Programmable Counter Array (516–bit modules)
High–speed output
Compare/Capture I/O
8–bit Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter)
Smart sensor interfaces with PMU (Pulse Measurement Unit)
Control functions:
Watchdog Timer
Timers/Counters
Power monitoring and management
Interrupt handler
Memories:
RAM
ROM
EPROM/OTPROM
Most of TEMIC’s TSC80251 derivatives are available as ROMless, OTPROM, EPROM and Mask ROM version. For
any special request, refer to TEMIC sales representative.
1.2
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
1.3. TSC80251 Documentation
The following documentation and starter tools are available to allow the full evaluation of the TEMIC’s TSC80251
derivatives:
“TSC80251 Programmer’s Guide”
Contains all information for the programmer (Architecture, Instruction Set, Programming).
“TSC80251 Design Guide”
Contains all product specific data and a summary of available application notes.
Application Notes
“TSC80251 Product Starter Kit”
This kit enables the product to be evaluated by the designer.
Its contents is:
C–Compiler (limited to 2 Kbytes of code)
Assembler
Linker
Product Simulator
TSC80251 Product Evaluation Board with ROM–Monitor
EPROM and ROMless samples of the available derivatives
Please visit our WWW for updated versions in ZIP format.
World Wide Web
Please contact our WWW for possible updated information at http://www.temic–semi.com
Technical support: [email protected]–semi.com
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
1.3
TSC80251
Architectural Overview
2.1. Microcontroller Architecture
The TSC80251 family of 8/16–bit microcontrollers is a high performance upgrade of the widely used 80C51
microcontrollers. It extends features and performance while maintaining binary code compatibility, so the impact on
existing hardware and software is minimal.
The C251 Architecture core contains:
24–bit linear addressing and up to 16 Mbytes of memory
a register file based CPU with registers accessible as bytes, words, and double words
a page mode for accelerating external instruction fetches
an instruction pipeline
an enriched instruction set, including 16–bit arithmetic and logic instructions
a 64–Kbyte extended stack space
a minimum instruction–execution time of two clocks (vs. 12 clocks for 80C51 microcontrollers)
binary–code compatibility with 80C51 microcontrollers
Several benefits are derived from these features :
preservation of code written for 80C51 microcontrollers
a significant increase in core execution speed in comparison with 80C51 microcontrollers at the same clock rate
support for larger programs and more data
increased efficiency for code written in C language
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TSC80251
Figure 2.1. is a functional block diagram of TSC80251 microcontrollers. The core, which is common to all TSC80251
microcontrollers, is described in the next paragraph. Each derivative in the family has its own on–chip peripherals, I/O
Ports, external bus, size of on–chip RAM, type and size of on–chip ROM.
PORTS
OTPROM
EPROM
ROM
RAM
16–bit Memory Code
Peripherals
24-bit Data Address Bus
8-bit Data Bus
16-bit Inst. Bus
24-bit Prog. Counter Bus
Bus Interface Unit
8-bit Internal Bus
Peripheral Interface Unit
16–bit Memory Address
Interrupt Handler Unit
Clock
CPU
Reset
Figure 2.1. TSC80251 Product Block Diagram
2.2. Microcontroller Core
The TSC80251 microcontroller core contains the CPU, the clock and reset unit, the interrupt handler, the bus interface
and the peripheral interface (See Figure 2.1. ). The CPU contains the instruction sequencer, ALU, register file and data
memory interface (See Figure 2.2. ).
2.2.1. CPU
The TSC80251 fetches instructions from on–chip code memory two bytes at a time or from external memory one byte
at a time. The instructions are sent over the 16–bit instruction bus to the CPU. You can configure the TSC80251 to
operate in page mode for accelerated instruction fetches from external memory. In page mode, if an instruction fetch
is to the same 256–byte “page” as the previous fetch, the fetch requires one state (two clocks) rather than two states
(four clocks). For information regarding the page or non–page mode selection, see Product Design Guide.
The TSC80251 register file has 40 registers, which can be accessed as bytes (8–bit data), words (16–bit data) and double
words (32–bit data). As in the C51 Architecture, registers 0-7 consist of four banks of eight registers each, where the
active bank is selected by the Program Status Word (PSW) for fast context switches (See “Programming” chapter).
2.2
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TSC80251
The TSC80251 CPU is a pipeline machine. When the pipeline is full and code is executing from on–chip code memory,
an instruction can be completed every state time. When the pipeline is full and code is executing from external memory
(with no wait states and no extension of the ALE signal) an instruction can be completed every two state times.
code
address
16
24
Instruction Sequencer
SRC1
8
SRC2
8
Register
File
ALU
Data
Memory
Interface
8
24
data
address
16
Figure 2.2. Central Processor Unit Block Diagram
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2.3
TSC80251
2.2.2. Clock and Reset Unit
The timing source for the TSC80251 microcontroller can be an external oscillator or an internal oscillator with an
external crystal/resonator. The basic unit of time in TSC80251 is the state time (or state), which is two oscillator
periods. The state time is divided into phase P1 and phase P2 (See Figure 2.3. ).
Phase 1
P1
Phase 2
P2
XTAL1
TOSC
2 TOSC = State Time
State 1
P1
P2
State 2
P1
P2
State 3
P1
P2
State 4
P1
P2
State 5
P1
P2
State 6
P1
P2
Figure 2.3. Clocking Definitions
The TSC80251 peripherals operate on a peripheral cycle, which is six state times (this peripheral cycle is not a
characteristic of the C251 Architecture). A one–clock interval in a peripheral cycle is denoted by its state and phase
(SxPy). For simplicity purpose, XTAL1 signal has been used in this figure. In fact this is the prescaler output that drives
the core. The clock prescaler being a software programmable device, the effective core clock can be dynamically
adapted to the application speed and power consumption needs.
The reset unit places the TSC80251 into a known state. A chip reset is initiated by asserting the RST pin or allowing
the Watchdog Timer to time out when the TSC80251 has one.
2.2.3. Interrupt Handler Unit
The Interrupt Handler Unit can receive interrupt requests from many sources: internal peripheral sources, external
sources and TRAP instruction. When the interrupt handler grants an interrupt request, the CPU discontinues the normal
flow of instructions and branches to a routine that services the source that requested the interrupt. You can enable or
disable the interrupts individually (except for TRAP and NMI which cannot be disabled) and you can chose among
one to four priority levels for each interrupt.
2.4
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TSC80251
Address Spaces
TSC80251 microcontrollers have three address spaces: a memory space, a Special Function Register (SFR) space and
a register file. This chapter describes these address spaces as they apply to all TSC80251 microcontrollers. It also
discusses the compatibility of the C251 Architecture and the C51 Architecture in terms of their address spaces.
3.1. C251 Architecture Address Spaces
Figure 3.1. shows the three address spaces: i.e. memory space, SFR space and register file for TSC80251
microcontrollers. The address spaces are depicted as being 8–byte wide with addresses increasing from left to right
and from bottom to top (See Figure 3.1. ).
Memory Address Space
16 Mbytes
FF:FFFFh
SFR Space
512 bytes
S:1FFh
S:000h
S:007h
Register File space
64 bytes
3Fh
00:0000h
00:0007h
00h
07h
Figure 3.1. Address Spaces for TSC80251 Microcontrollers
It is convenient to view the unsegmented, 16–Mbyte memory space as consisting of 256 64–Kbyte regions, numbered
00: to FF:.
Note :
The memory space in the C251 Architecture is unsegmented. The 64– Kbyte “region” 00:, 01:, ..., FF: are introduced only as a convenience for
discussions. Addressing in the C251 Architecture is linear; there are no segment registers.
TSC80251 microcontrollers can have up to 64–Kbytes of on–chip code memory in region FF:. On–chip data RAM
begins at location 00:0000h. The first 32 bytes (00:0000h-00:001Fh) provide storage for a part of the register file.The
sizes of the on–chip code memory and on–chip RAM depend on the particular device.
The register file has its own address space (See Figure 3.1. ). The 64 locations in the register file are numbered
decimally from 0 to 63. Locations 0-7 represent one of four, switchable register banks, each having 8 registers. The
32 bytes required for these banks occupy locations 00:0000h-00:001Fh in the memory space. Register file locations
8-63 do not appear in the memory space and are new hardware resources of the C251 Architecture.
The SFR space can accommodate up to 512 8–bit Special Function Registers with addresses S:000h-S:1FFh. Some
of these locations may be unimplemented in a particular device. In the C251 Architecture, the prefix “S:” is used with
SFR addresses to distinguish them from the memory space addresses 00:0000h-00:01FFh.
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3.1
TSC80251
3.2. C51 Architecture Address Spaces
Figure 3.2. shows the address spaces of the C51 Architecture. Internal data memory locations 00h-7Fh can be
addressed directly, indirectly by register addressing mode and bit addressing mode for data locations 20h–2Fh. Internal
data locations 80h-FFh can only be addressed indirectly. Directly addressing these locations accesses the SFRs. The
64–Kbyte code memory has a separate memory space. Data in the code memory can be accessed only with the MOVC
instruction. Similarly, the 64–Kbyte external data memory can be accessed only with the MOVX instruction.
The register file (registers R0-R7) comprises four, switchable register banks, each having 8 registers. The 32 bytes
required for the four banks occupy locations 00h-1Fh in the on–chip data memory.
FFFFh
Code
(MOVC)
0000h
FFFFh
External Data
(MOVX)
0000h
80h
Internal Data FFh
(indirect)
80h
7Fh
SFRs
(direct)
FFh
30h
2Fh
20h
Internal Data
(direct, indirect)
18h
R0–R7
1Fh
0Fh
R0–R7
17h
08h
R0–R7
0Eh
00h
R0–R7
07h
bit addressable
register addressable
Figure 3.2. Address Spaces for the C51 Architecture
3.3. C51 Architecture mapping to C251 Architecture Address Spaces
The 64–Kbyte code memory for 80C51 microcontrollers maps into region FF: of the memory space for TSC80251
microcontrollers. Assemblers for TSC80251 microcontrollers assemble code for 80C51 microcontrollers into region
FF:, and data accesses to code memory (MOVC) are directed to this region. The assembler also maps the interrupt
vectors to region FF:. This mapping is transparent to the user; code executes just as with a 80C51 micro without
modification.
3.2
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TSC80251
Table 3.1. Address Mappings
C51 Architecture
Memory Type
Size
Location
C251 Architecture
Data Addressing
Location
Code
64 Kbytes
0000h-FFFFh
Indirect using MOVC
FF:0000h-FF:FFFFh
External Data
64 Kbytes
0000h-FFFFh
Indirect using MOVX
01:0000h-01:FFFFh
128 bytes
00h-7Fh
Direct, Indirect
00:0000h-00:007Fh
128 bytes
80h-FFh
Indirect
00:0080h-00:00FFh
SFRs
128 bytes
S:80h-S:FFh
Direct
S:0080h-S:0FFh
Register
8 bytes
R0-R7
Register
00:0000h–00:001Fh
I t
Internal
l Data
D t
The 64–Kbyte external data memory for 80C51 microcontrollers is mapped into the memory region specified by bits
16–23 of the data pointer DPX, i.e., DPXL, which is accessible as register file location 57 and also as SFR at S:084h.
The reset value of DPXL is 01h, which maps the external memory to region 01: as shown in Figure 3.3. You can change
this mapping by writing a different value to DPXL. A mapping of the C51 Architecture external data memory into any
64–Kbyte memory region in the C251 Architecture provides complete runtime compatibility because the lower 16
address bits are identical in both architectures.
The 256 bytes of on–chip data memory for 80C51 microcontrollers (00h–FFh) are mapped to addresses
00:0000h–00:00FFh to ensure complete runtime compatibility. In the C51 Architecture, the lower 128 bytes (00h–7Fh)
are directly and indirectly addressable; however the upper 128 bytes are accessible by indirect addressing only. In the
C251 Architecture, all locations in region 00: are accessible by direct, indirect, and displacement addressing.
The 128–byte SFR space for 80C51 microcontrollers is mapped into the 512–byte SFR space of the C251 Architecture
starting at address S:080h, as shown in Figure 3.3. This provides complete compatibility with direct addressing of
80C51 microcontroller SFRs (including bit addressing). The SFR addresses are unchanged in the new Architecture.
In the C251 Architecture, SFRs, A, B, DPL, DPH and SP, as well as the new DPXL and SPH, reside in the register file
for high performance. However, to maintain compatibility, they are also mapped into the SFR space at the same
addresses as in the C51 Architecture.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
3.3
TSC80251
Memory Address Space
16 Mbytes
FFFFh
C51 Architecture
Code Memory
FF:0000h 0000h
SFR Space
512 Bytes
S:1FFh
S:100h
C51 Architecture
SFRs
80h
02:0000h
FFh
S:07Fh
S:000h
FFFFh
C51 Architecture
External Data Memory
01:0000h 0000h
Register File
64 Bytes
3Fh
FFh
C51 Architecture
Internal Data Memory
00:0000h 00h
08h
C51 Architecture R7
00h R0 Register File.
Figure 3.3. Mappings C51 Architecture to C251 Architecture Address Spaces
Figure 3.4. TSC80251 Memory Space
3.4. TSC80251 Register File
The TSC80251 register file consists of 40 byte locations: 0-31 and 56-63, as shown in Figure 3.5. These locations are
accessible as bits, bytes, words and dwords. Several locations are dedicated to special registers; the others are
general–purpose registers.
Register file locations 0-7 actually consist of four switchable banks of eight registers each, as illustrated in
Figure 3.6. The four banks are implemented as the first 32 bytes of on–chip RAM and are always accessible as locations
00:0000h-00:001Fh in the memory address space. Only one of the four banks is accessible via the register file at a given
time. The accessible, or “active”, bank is selected by bits RS1 and RS0 in the PSW register, as shown in Table 3.2. This
bank selection can be used for fast context switches.
Register file locations 8-31 and 56-63 are always accessible. These locations are implemented as registers in the CPU.
Register file locations 32-55 are reserved and cannot be accessed.
Table 3.2. Register Bank Selection
PSW Selection Bits
Bank
3.4
Address Range
RS1
RS0
Bank 0
00h-07h
0
0
Bank 1
08h-0Fh
0
1
Bank 2
10h-17h
1
0
Bank 3
18h-1Fh
1
1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
3.4.1. Byte, Word and Dword Registers
Depending on its location in the register file, a register is addressable as a byte, a word, or a dword, as shown in the
right side of Figure 3.5. A register is named for its lowest numbered byte location. For instance:
R4 is the byte register consisting of location 4.
WR4 is the word register consisting of registers 4 and 5.
DR4 is the dword register consisting of registers 4, 5, 6, and 7.
Locations R0-R15 are addressable as bytes, words or dwords. Locations 16-31 are addressable only as words or dwords.
Locations 56-63 are addressable only as dwords. Registers are addressed only by the names shown in Figure 3.5. ,
except for the 32 registers that comprise the four banks of registers R0-R7, which can also be accessed as locations
00:0000h-00:001Fh in the memory space.
Byte Registers
Note :
56
57
Register File
58 59 60 61
62
63
R8
R0
R10 = B
R11 = A
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
Word Registers
Locations 32-55 are Reserved
24
16
8
0
25
17
9
1
26
18
10
2
27
19
11
3
28
20
12
4
29
21
13
5
30
22
14
6
31
23
15
7
WR24
WR16
WR8
WR0
WR26
WR18
WR10
WR2
WR28
WR20
WR12
WR4
WR30
WR22
WR14
WR6
Dword Registers
DR56 = DPX
0
1
2
3
4
5
Banks 0-3
6
DR60 = SPX
7
DR24
DR16
DR8
DR0
DR28
DR20
DR12
DR4
Figure 3.5. Register File in Byte, Word, and Dword Register Views
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
3.5
TSC80251
Register File
Memory Address Space
FF:FFFFh
63
8
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
PSW bits RS1:0 select one bank
to be accessed via the register file.
6
6
6
6
6
7
00:0020h
18h 1Fh
10h 17h
08h 0Fh
00h 07h
7
7
7
7
Banks 0-3
accessible
in memory
address space
Banks 0-3
Figure 3.6. Register File Locations 0-7
3.4.2. Dedicated Registers
The register file has four dedicated registers :
R10 is the B–register.
R11 is the accumulator (A).
DR56 is the extended data pointer, DPX.
DR60 is the extended stack pointer, SPX.
These registers are located in the register file; however, R10, R11 and some bytes of DR56 and DR60 are also accessible
as SFRs. The bytes of DPX and SPX can be accessed in the register file only by addressing the dword registers. The
dedicated registers in the register file and their corresponding SFRs are illustrated in Figure 3.7. and listed in
Table 3.3.
Table 3.3. Dedicated Registers in the Register File and their Corresponding SFRs
Register File
Name
Stack Pointer
(SPX)
Data Pointer
(DPX)
SFRs
Mnemonic
Reg.
Location
Mnemonic
Address
–
–
60
–
–
–
–
61
–
–
62
SPH
S:BEh
Stack Pointer, High
SPH
Stack Pointer, Low
SP
63
SP
S:81h
–
56
–
–
DPXL
57
DPXL
S:84h
58
DPH
S:83h
59
DPL
S:82h
–
Data Pointer, Extended Low
DPTR
Data Pointer, High
DPH
Data Pointer, Low
DPL
DR60
DR56
Accumulator (A Register)
A
R11
11
A
S:E0h
B Register
B
R10
10
B
S:F0h
3.6
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
3.4.2.1. Accumulator and B Register
The 8–bit accumulator (A) is byte register R11, which is also accessible in the SFR space as A at S:0E0h (See
Figure 3.7. ). The B register, used in multiplies and divides, is register R10, which is also accessible in the SFR space
as B at S:0F0h. Accessing A or B as a register is one state faster than accessing them as SFRs.
Instructions in the C51 Architecture use the accumulator as the primary register for data moves and calculations.
however, in the C251 Architecture, any of registers R1-R15 can serve for these tasks. As a result, the accumulator does
not play the central role that it has in 80C51 microcontrollers.
3.4.2.2. Extended Data Pointer, DPX
Dword register DR56 is the extended data pointer, DPX (See Figure 3.7. ). The lower three bytes of DPX (DPL, DPH
and DPXL) are accessible as SFRs. DPL and DPH comprise the 16–bit data pointer DPTR. While instructions in the
C51 Architecture always use DPTR as the data pointer, instructions in the C251 Architecture can use any word or dword
register as a data pointer.
DPXL, the byte in location 57, specifies the region of memory (00:-FF:) that maps into the 64–Kbyte external data
memory space in the C51 Architecture. In other words, the MOVX instruction addresses the region specified by DPXL
when it moves data to and from external memory. The reset value of DPXL is 01h.
3.4.2.3. Extended Stack Pointer, SPX
Dword register DR60 is the stack pointer, SPX (See Figure 3.7. ). The byte at (location 63) is the 8–bit stack pointer,
SP, in the C51 Architecture. The byte at location 62 is the stack pointer high, SPH. The two bytes allow the stack to
extend to the top of memory region 00:. SP and SPH can be accessed as SFRs.
Two instructions, PUSH and POP directly address the stack pointer. Subroutine calls (ACALL, ECALL, LCALL) and
returns (ERET, RET, RETI) also use the stack pointer. To preserve the stack, do not use DR60 as a general–purpose
register.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
3.7
TSC80251
Register File
SFRs
Stack Pointer, High
SPH
Stack Pointer
S:BEh
SP
S:81h
DPXL
S:84h
DPH
S:83h
DPL
S:82h
B
S:F0h
A
S:E0h
SPH
SP
60
61
62
63
DR60 = Extended Stack Pointer, SPX
Data Pointer Extended, Low
Data Pointer, High
Data Pointer, Low
DPXL DPH
DPL
56
57
58
59
DR56 = Extended Stack Pointer, DPX
R10
R11
B
A
Figure 3.7. Dedicated Registers in the Register File and their Corresponding SFRs
3.8
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
3.5. Special Function Registers (SFRs)
The Special Function Registers (SFRs) reside in their associated on–chip peripherals or in the core. SFR addresses are
preceded by “S:” to differentiate them from addresses in the memory space. Unoccupied locations in the SFR space
are unimplemented, i.e., no register exists. If an unimplemented SFR location is read, it returns an unspecified value.
Note :
SFRs may be accessed only as bytes; they may not be accessed as words or dwords.
Table 3.4. Core SFRs
Mnemonic
A
K
Name
Address
Accumulator
S:E0h
BK
B register
S:F0h
PW
Program Status Word
S:D0h
PSW1
Program Status Word 1
S:D1h
SP
Stack Pointer - LSB of SPX
S:81h
Stack Pointer high - MSB of SPX
S:BEh
SPH
K
DPTR
K
DPL K
Data Pointer (2 bytes)
–
Low Byte of DPTR
S:82h
high Byte of DPTR
S:83h
Data Pointer, Extended Low
S:84h
IE0
Interrupt Enable Control 0
S:A8h
IE1
Interrupt Enable Control 1
S:B1h
IPL0
Interrupt Priority Control Low 0
S:B8h
IPL1
Interrupt Priority Control Low 1
S:B3h
IPH0
Interrupt Priority Control High 0
S:B7h
IPH1
Interrupt Priority Control High 1
S:B2h
DPH K
DPXL
K
Note:
K These SFRs can also be accessed by their corresponding registers in the register file (See
Table 3.3.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
3.9
TSC80251
Programming
The instruction set for the C251 Architecture is a superset of the instruction set for the C51 Architecture. This chapter
describes the addressing modes and summarizes the instruction set, which is divided into data instructions, bit
instructions, and control instructions. (Chapter 5, “Instruction Set Reference” contains an opcode map and the detailed
description of each instruction.)
Notes:
The instruction execution times given in Chapter 5 are for code executing from on–chip code memory and for data
that is read from and written to on–chip RAM. Execution times are increased by executing code from external
memory, accessing peripheral SFRs, accessing data in external memory, using a wait state, or extending the ALE
pulse.
For some instructions, accessing the port SFRs, Px (x = 0, 1, 2, 3) increases the execution time. These cases are
noted individually in the tables in Chapter 5.
4.1. Source Mode or Binary Mode Opcodes
Source mode and Binary mode refer to the two ways of assigning opcodes to the instruction set of the C251
Architecture. Depending on the application, one mode or the other may produce more efficient code. The mode is
established during device reset based on the value of the SRC bit in configuration byte CONFIG0. For information
regarding the configuration bytes, see the Product Design Guide.
Binary mode and source mode refer to two ways of assigning opcodes to the instruction set for the C251 Architecture.
One of these modes must be selected when the chip is configured. Depending on the application, binary mode or source
mode may produce more efficient code. This section describes the binary and source modes and provides some
guidelines for selecting the mode for your application.
The C251 Architecture has two types of instructions:
Instructions that originate in the C51 Architecture
Instructions that are unique to the C251 Architecture
Figure 4.1. shows the opcode map for the binary mode. Area I and area II make up the opcode map for the instructions
that are unique to the C251 Architecture. Note that some of these opcodes are reserved for future instructions. The
opcode values for areas II and III are identical (06H–FFH). To distinguish between the two areas in binary mode, the
opcodes in area III are given the prefix A5H (the A5H instruction is not implemented in the native C51 Architecture).
The area III opcodes are thus A506H–A5FFH.
Figure 4.2. shows the opcode map for source mode. Areas II and III have switched places (compare with Figure 4.1. ).
In source mode, opcodes for instructions in area II require the A5F escape prefix while opcodes for instructions in area
III (C251 Architecture) do not.
To illustrate the difference between the binary–mode and source–mode opcodes, Table 4.1. shows the opcode
assignments for three sample instructions.
Table 4.1. Examples of Opcodes in Binary and Source Modes
Instruction
Opcode
Binary Mode
Source Mode
DEC A
14H
14CH
SUBB A, R4
9CH
A59CH
SUB R4, R4
A59CH
9CH
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.1
TSC80251
4.1.1. Selecting Binary Mode or Source Mode
If you have code that was written for a C51 microcontroller and you want to run it unmodified on a C251
microcontroller, choose binary mode. You can use the object code without reassembling the source code. You can also
assemble the source code with an assembler for the C251 Architecture and have it produce object code that is
binary–compatible with C51 microcontrollers. The remainder of this section discusses the selection of binary mode
or source mode for code that may contain instructions from both architectures.
An instruction with a prefixed opcode requires one more byte for code storage, and if an additional fetch is required
for the extra byte, the execution time is increased by one state. This means that using fewer prefixed opcodes produces
more efficient code.
If a program uses only instructions from the C51 Architecture, the binary–mode code is more efficient because it uses
no prefixes. On the other hand, if a program uses many more new instructions than instructions from the C51
Architecture , source mode is likely to produce more efficient code. For a program where the choice is not clear, the
better mode can be found by experimenting with a simulator.
A5H Prefix
0H
5H 6H
0H
FH
6H
FH
0H
I
III
II
FH
FH
C51 Architecture
C51 Architecture
C251 Architecture
Figure 4.1. Binary Mode Opcode Map
A5H Prefix
0H
5H 6H
0H
6H
FH
FH
0H
I
II
III
FH
FH
C51 Architecture
C251 Architecture
C51 Architecture
Figure 4.2. Source Mode Opcode Map
4.2. Programming Features of the C251 Architecture
The instruction set for TSC80251 microcontrollers provides the user with new instructions that exploit the features of
the C251 Architecture while maintaining compatibility with the instruction set for 80C51 microcontrollers. Many of
the new instructions can operate on either 8–bit (byte), 16–bit (word) or 32–bit (dword) operands (In comparison with
8–bit and 16–bit operands, 32–bit operands are accessed with fewer addressing modes.). This capability increases the
ease and efficiency of programming TSC80251 microcontrollers in a high–level language such as C.
The instruction set is divided into “Data Instructions”, “Bit Instructions” and “Control Instructions”. Data instructions
process 8–bit, 16–bit and 32–bit data; bit instructions manipulate bits; and control instructions manage program flow.
4.2
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
4.2.1. Data Types
Table 4.2. lists the data types that are addressed by the instruction set. Words or dwords (double words) can be stored
in memory starting at any byte address; alignment on two–byte or four–byte boundaries is not required. Words and
dwords are stored in memory and the register file in big endian form.
Table 4.2. Data Types
Data Type
Number of Bits
Bit
1
Byte
8
Word
16
Dword (Double Word)
32
4.2.1.1. Order of Byte Storage for Words and Double Words
TSC80251 microcontrollers store words (2 bytes) and double words (4 bytes) in memory and in the register file in big
endian form. In memory storage, the most significant byte (MSB) of the word or double word is stored in the memory
byte specified in the instruction; the remaining bytes are stored at higher addresses, with the least significant byte (LSB)
at the highest address. Words and double words can be stored in memory starting at any byte address. In the register
file, the MSB is stored in the lowest byte of the register specified in the instruction. The code fragment in
Figure 4.3. illustrates the storage of words and double words in big endian form.
4.2.2. Register Notations
In register–addressing instructions, specific indices denote the registers that can be used in that instruction. For
example, the instruction ADD A,Rn uses“Rn” to denote any one of R0, R1, ..., R7; i.e., the range of n is 0-7. The
instruction ADD Rm,#data uses “Rm” to denote R0, R1, ..., R15; i.e., the range of m is 0-15. Table 4.3. summarizes
the notation used for the register indices. When an instruction contains two registers of the same type (e.g., MOV
Rmd,Rms) the first index “d” denotes “destination” and the second index “s” denotes “source”.
4.2.3. Address Notations
In the C251 Architecture, memory addresses include a region number (00:, 01:, ..., FF:). SFR addresses have a prefix
“S:” (S:000h-S:1FFh). The distinction between memory addresses and SFR addresses is necessary, because memory
locations 00:0000h-00:01FFh and SFR locations S:000h-S:1FFh can both be directly addressed in an instruction.
200h
201h
202h
A3h
B6h
0
1
A3h
B6h
WR0
2
203h
3
4
5
6
7
00h
00h
C4h
D7h
DR4
Contents of register file and memory after execution: MOV WR0, #A3B6h
MOV 00:0201h, WR0
MOV DR4, #0000C4D7h
Figure 4.3. Word and Double-word Storage in Big Endian Form
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.3
TSC80251
Table 4.3. Notation for Byte Registers, Word Registers, and Dword Registers
Register
Symbol
Destination
Register
Source
Register
Ri
–
–
R0, R1
Rn
–
–
R0-R7
Rm
Rmd
Rms
R0-R15
Word
WRj
WRjd
WRjs
WR0, WR2, WR4, ..., WR30
Dword
DRk
DRkd
DRks
DR0, DR4, DR8, ..., DR28,DR56, DR60
Register Type
Byte
Register Range
Instructions in the C51 Architecture use 80h-FFh as addresses for both memory locations and SFRs, because memory
locations are addressed only indirectly and SFR locations are addressed only directly. For compatibility, software tools
for TSC80251 controllers recognize this notation for instructions in the C51 Architecture. No change is necessary in
any code written for 80C51 microcontrollers.
For new instructions in the C251 Architecture, the memory region prefixes (00:, 01:, ..., FF:) and the SFR prefix (S:)
are required. Also, software tools for the C251 Architecture permit 00: to be used for memory addresses 00h-FFh and
permit the prefix S: to be used for SFR addresses in instructions in the C51 Architecture.
4.2.4. Addressing Modes
The C251 Architecture supports the following addressing modes:
Register addressing
The instruction specifies the register that contains the operand.
Immediate addressing
The instruction contains the operand.
Direct addressing
The instruction contains the operand address.
Indirect addressing
The instruction specifies the register that contains the operand address.
Displacement addressing
The instruction specifies a register and an offset. The operand address is the sum of the register contents (the base
address) and the offset.
Relative addressing
The instruction contains the signed offset from the next instruction to the target address (the address for transfer
of control, e.g., the jump address).
Bit addressing
The instruction contains the bit address.
4.3. Program Status Words
The Program Status Word (PSW) register and the Program Status Word 1 (PSW1) register contain four types of bits
(See Figure 4.7. and Figure 4.8. ):
CY, AC, OV, N and Z are flags set by hardware to indicate the result of an operation.
The P bit indicates the parity of the accumulator.
Bits RS0 and RS1 are programmed by software to select the active register bank for registers R0-R7.
F0 and UD are available to the user as general–purpose flags.
The PSW and PSW1 registers are read/write registers; however, the parity bit in the PSW is not affected by a write.
Individual bits can be addressed with the bit instructions (“Bit Instructions”). The PSW and PSW1 bits are used
implicitly in the conditional jump instructions (“Conditional Jumps”).
4.4
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
The PSW register is identical to the PSW register in 80C51 microcontrollers. The PSW1 register exists only in
TSC80251 microcontrollers. Bits CY, AC, RS0, RS1, and OV in PSW1 are identical to the corresponding bits in PSW,
i.e., the same bit can be accessed in either register. Table 4.4. lists the instructions that affect the CY, AC, OV, N and
Z bits.
Table 4.4. The Efffects of Instructions on the PSW and PSW1 Flags
Instruct on
Instruction
Type
Instruction
ADD, ADDC, SUB, CMP
Flags Affected (1)
CY
OV
AC (2)
N
Z
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
INC, DEC
Arithmetic
MUL, DIV (3)
0
DA
X
ANL, ORL, XRL, CLR A, CPL A, RL, RR, SWAP
X
Logical
RLC, RRC, SRL, SLL, SRA (4)
X
X
X
Program
g
C
Control
l
CJNE
X
X
X
X
X
DJNE
Notes :
1. X = the flag can be affected by the instruction. 0 = the flag is cleared by the instruction.
2. The AC flag is affected only by operations on 8–bit operands.
3. If the divisor is zero, the OV flag is set, and the other bits are meaningless.
4. For SRL, SLL and SRA instructions, the last bit shifted out is stored in the CY bit.
4.4. Data Instructions
Data instructions consist of arithmetic, logical, and data–transfer instructions for 8–bit, 16–bit and 32–bit data. This
section describes the data addressing modes and the set of data instructions.
4.4.1. Data Addressing Modes
This section describes the data addressing modes, which are summarized in two tables: Table 4.6. for the instructions
that are native to the C51 Architecture and Table 4.6. for the data instructions unique to the C251 Architecture.
Notes:
References to registers R0-R7, WR0-WR6, DR0 and DR4 always refer to the register bank that is currently selected
by the PSW and PSW1 registers. Registers in all banks (active and inactive) can be accessed as memory locations
in the range 00h-1Fh.
Instructions from the C51 Architecture access external memory through the region of memory specified by byte
DPXL in the extended data pointer register, DPX (DR56). Following reset, DPXL contains 01h, which maps the
external memory to region 01:. You can specify a different region by writing to DR56 or the DPXL SFR.
4.4.1.1. Addressable Registers
Both Architectures address registers directly.
C251 Architecture
In the register addressing mode, the operand(s) in a data instruction are in byte registers (R0-R15), word registers
(WR0, WR2, ..., WR30) or dword registers (DR0, DR4, ..., DR28, DR56, DR60).
C51 Architecture
Instructions address registers R0-R7 only.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.5
TSC80251
4.4.1.2. Immediate Addressing
C251 Architecture
In the immediate addressing mode, the instruction contains the data operand itself. Byte operations use 8–bit
immediate data (#data); word operations use 16–bit immediate data (#data16). Dword operations use 16–bit
immediate data in the lower word and either zeros in the upper word (denoted by #0data16) or ones in the upper
word (denoted by #1data16). MOV instructions that place 16–bit immediate data into a dword register (DRk), place
the data either into the upper word while leaving the lower word unchanged, or into the lower word with a sign
extension or a zero extension.
The increment and decrement instructions contain immediate data (#short = 1, 2, or 4), which specifies the amount
of the increment/decrement.
C51 Architecture
Instructions use only 8–bit immediate data (#data).
4.4.1.3. Direct Addressing
C251 Architecture
In the direct addressing mode, the instruction contains the address of the data operand. The 8–bit direct mode
addresses on–chip RAM (dir8 = 00:0000h-00:007Fh) as both bytes and words, and addresses the SFRs (dir8 =
S:080h-S:1FFh) as bytes only. The 16–bit direct mode addresses both bytes and words in memory (dir16 =
00:0000h-00:FFFFh).
C51 Architecture
The 8–bit direct mode addresses 256 bytes of on–chip RAM (dir8 = 00h-7Fh) as bytes only and the SFRs (dir8 =
80h-FFh) as bytes only.
Table 4.5. Addressing Modes for Data Instruction in the C51 Architecture
Mode
Address Range of
Operand
Assembly
Language
Reference
Comments
Register
00h-1Fh
R0-R7 (Bank
selected by PSW)
Immediate
Operand in Instruction
#data = #00h-#FFh
00h-7Fh
dir8 = 00h-7Fh
On-chip RAM
SFRs
dir8 = 80h-FFh
or SFR mnemonic
SFR address
00h-FFh
@R0, @R1
Accesses on-chip RAM or the lowest 256
bytes of external data memory (MOVX)
0000h-FFFFh
@DPTR,
@A+DPTR
Accesses external data memory (MOVX)
0000h-FFFFh
@A+DPTR,
@A+PC
Accesses region FF : of code memory
(MOVC)
Di
Direct
I di t
Indirect
4.4.1.4. Indirect Addressing
In arithmetic and logical instructions that use indirect addressing, the source operand is always a byte, and the
destination is either the accumulator or a byte register (R0-R15). The source address is a byte, word or dword. The two
architectures do indirect addressing via different registers:
C251 Architecture
Memory is indirectly addressed via word and dword registers :
Word register (@WRj, j = 0, 2, 4, ..., 30)
The 16–bit address in WRj can access locations 00:0000h-00:FFFFh.
4.6
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TSC80251
Dword register (@DRk, k = 0, 4, 8, ..., 28, 56, and 60)
The 24 least significant bits can access the entire 16–Mbyte address space. The upper eight bits of DRk must
be 0. (If you use DR60 as a general data pointer, be aware that DR60 is the extended stack pointer register SPX.)
C51 Architecture
Instructions use indirect addressing to access on–chip RAM, code memory, and external data RAM.
Byte register (@Ri, i = 0, 1)
Registers R0 and R1 indirectly address on–chip memory locations 00h-FFh and the lowest 256 bytes of external
data RAM.
16–bit data pointer (@DPTR or @A+DPTR)
The MOVC and MOVX instructions use these indirect modes to access code memory and external data RAM.
16–bit program counter (@A+PC)
The MOVC instruction uses this indirect mode to access code memory.
Table 4.6. Addressing Modes for Data Instruction in the C251 Architecture
Address Range of
Operand
Assembly Language
Reference
Register
00:0000h-00:001Fh
R0-R15, WR0-WR30,
DR0-DR28, DR56, DR60
R0-R7, WR0-WR6, and DR4 are
in the register bank currently
selected by the PSW and PSW1
Immediate 2 bits
N.A. (Operand is in
the instruction)
#short = 1, 2, or 4
Used only in increment and
decrement instructions
Immediate 8 bits
N.A. (Operand is in
the instruction)
#data8 = #00h-#FFh
Immediate 16 bits
N.A. (Operand is in
the instruction)
#data16 = #0000h-#FFFFh
00:0000h-00:007Fh
dir8 = 00:0000h-00:007Fh
On-chip RAM
SFRs
dir8 = S:080h-S:1FFh (2)
or SFR mnemonic
SFR address
00:0000h-00:FFFFh
dir16 = 00:0000h-00:FFFFh
Indirect, 16 address
bits
00:0000h-00:FFFFh
@[email protected]
Indirect, 24 address
bits
00:0000h-FF:FFFFh
@[email protected], @DR56,
@DR60
Upper 8 bits of DRk must be 00h
Displacement, 16
address bits
00:0000h-00:FFFFh
@WRj +dis16 =
@WR0 +0h through
@WR30 +FFFFh
Offset is signed; address wraps
around in region 00:
Displacement, 24
address bits
00:0000h-FF:FFFFh
@DRk +dis24 =
@DR0 +0h through @DR28 Offset is signed, upper 8 bits of
+FFFFh,
DRk must 00h
@DR56 +(0h-FFFFh),
@DR60 +(0h-FFFFh)
Mode
Di
Direct,
8 address
dd
bits
bi
Comments
Direct, 16 address bits
Notes:
1. These registers are accessible in the memory space as well as in the register file.
2. The C251 Architecture supports SFRs in locations S:000h-S:1FFh.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.7
TSC80251
4.4.1.5. Displacement Addressing
Several move instructions use displacement addressing to move bytes or words from a source to a destination.
Sixteen–bit displacement addressing (@WRj+dis16) accesses indirectly the lowest 64 Kbytes in memory. The base
address can be in any word register WRj. The instruction contains a 16–bit signed offset which is added to the base
address. Only the lowest 16 bits of the sum are used to compute the operand address. If the sum of the base address
and a positive offset exceeds FFFFh, the computed address wraps around within region 00: (e.g. F000h + 2005h
becomes 1005h). Similarly, if the sum of the base address and a negative offset is less than zero, the computed address
wraps around the top of region 00: (e.g., 2005h + F000h becomes 1005h).
24–bit displacement addressing (@DRk+dis24) accesses indirectly the entire 16–Mbyte address space. The base
address must be in DR0, DR4, ..., DR24, DR28, DR56, or DR60. The upper byte in the dword register must be zero.
The instruction contains a 16–bit signed offset which is added to the base address.
4.4.2. Arithmetic Instructions
The set of arithmetic instructions is greatly expanded in the C251 Architecture. The ADD and SUB instructions (See
Table 5.19) operate on byte and word data that is accessed in several ways :
as the contents of the accumulator, a byte register (Rn), or a word register (WRj)
in the instruction itself (immediate data)
in memory via direct or indirect addressing
The ADDC and SUBB instructions are the same as those for 80C51 microcontrollers.
The CMP (compare) instruction (See Table 5.20) calculates the difference of two bytes or words and then writes to flags
CY, OV, AC, N, and Z in the PSW and PSW1 registers. The difference is not stored. The operands can be addressed
in a variety of modes. The most frequent use of CMP is to compare data or addresses preceding a conditional jump
instruction.
Table 5.21 lists the INC (increment) and DEC (decrement) instructions. The instructions for 80C51 microcontrollers
are supplemented by instructions that can address byte, word, and dword registers and increment or decrement them
by 1, 2, or 4 (denoted by #short). These instructions are supplied primarily for register–based address pointers and loop
counters.
The C251 Architecture provides the MUL (multiply) and DIV (divide) instructions for unsigned 8–bit and 16–bit data
(Table 5.22). Signed multiply and divide are left for the user to manage through a conversion process. The following
operations are implemented :
eight–bit multiplication: 8 bits x 8 bits → 16 bits
sixteen–bit multiplication: 16 bits x 16 bits → 32 bits
eight–bit division: 8 bits / 8 bits → 16 bits (8–bit quotient, 8–bit remainder)
sixteen–bit division: 16 bits / 16 bits → 32 bits (16–bit quotient, 16–bit remainder)
These instructions operate on pairs of byte registers (Rmd,Rms), word registers (WRjd,WRjs), or the accumulator and
B register (A, B). For 8–bit register multiplies, the result is stored in the word register that contains the first operand
register. For example, the product from an instruction MUL R3,R8 is stored in WR2. Similarly, for 16–bit multiplies,
the result is stored in the dword register that contains the first operand register. For example, the product from the
instruction MUL WR6,WR18 is stored in DR4.
For 8–bit divides, the operands are byte registers. The result is stored in the word register that contains the first operand
register. The quotient is stored in the lower byte, and the remainder is stored in the higher byte. A 16–bit divide is
similar. The first operand is a word register, and the result is stored in the double word register that contains that word
register. If the second operand (the divisor) is zero, the overflow flag (OV) is set and the other bits in PSW and PSW1
are meaningless.
4.8
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TSC80251
4.4.3. Logical Instructions
The C251 Architecture provides a set of instructions that perform logical operations. The ANL, ORL, and XRL (logical
AND, logical OR, and logical exclusive OR) instructions operate on bytes and words that are accessed via several
addressing modes (See Table 5.23). A byte register, word register, or the accumulator can be logically combined with
a register, im–mediate data, or data that is addressed directly or indirectly. These instructions affect the Z and N flags.
In addition to the CLR (clear), CPL (complement), SWAP (swap), and four rotate instructions that operate on the
accumulator, TSC80251 microcontrollers have three shift commands for byte and word registers :
SLL (Shift Left Logical) shifts the register one bit left and replaces the LSB with 0.
SRL (Shift Right Logical) shifts the register one bit right and replaces the MSB with 0.
SRA (Shift Right Arithmetic) shifts the register one bit right; the MSB is unchanged.
4.4.4. Data Transfer Instructions
Data transfer instructions copy data from one register or memory location to another. These instructions include the
move instructions (See Table 5.24) and the exchange, PUSH, and pop instructions (See Table 5.24). Instructions that
move only a single bit are listed with the other bit instructions in Table 5.26.
MOV (Move) is the most versatile instruction, and its addressing modes are expanded in the C251 Architecture. MOV
can transfer a byte, word or dword between any two registers or between a register and any location in the address space.
The MOVX (Move External) instruction moves a byte from external memory to the accumulator or from the
accumulator to memory. The external memory is in the region specified by DPXL, whose reset value is 01h.
The MOVC (Move Code) instruction moves a byte from code memory (region FF:) to the accumulator.
MOVS (Move with Sign Extension) and MOVZ (Move with Zero Extension) move the contents of an 8–bit register
to the lower byte of a 16–bit register. The upper byte is filled with the sign bit (MOVS) or zeros (MOVZ). The MOVH
(Move to high Word) instruction places 16–bit immediate data into the high word of a dword register.
The XCH (Exchange) instruction interchanges the contents of the accumulator with a register or memory location. The
XCHD (Exchange Digit) instruction interchanges the lower nibble of the accumulator with the lower nibble of a byte
in on–chip RAM. XCHD is useful for BCD (binary coded decimal) operations.
The PUSH and POP instructions facilitate storing information (PUSH) and then retrieving it (POP) in reverse order.
PUSH can push a byte, a word or a dword onto the stack, using the immediate, direct or register addressing modes.
POP can pop a byte or a word from the stack to a register or to memory.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.9
TSC80251
4.5. Bit Instructions
A bit instruction addresses a specific bit in a memory location or SFR. There are four categories of bit instructions:
SETB (Set Bit), CLR (Clear Bit), CPL (Complement Bit). These instructions can set, clear or complement any
addressable bit.
ANL (And Logical), ANL/ (And Logical Complement), ORL (OR Logical), ORL/ (Or Logical Complement).
These instructions allow anding and oring of any addressable bit or its complement with the CY flag.
MOV (Move) instructions transfer any addressable bit to the carry (CY) bit or vice versa.
Bit–conditional jump instructions execute a jump if the bit has a specified state. The bit–conditional jump
instructions are classified with the control instructions.
4.5.1. Bit Addressing
The bits that can be individually addressed are in the on–chip RAM and the SFRs (See Table 4.7. ). The bit instructions
that are unique to the C251 Architecture can address a wider range of bits than the instructions from the C51
Architecture.
There are some differences in the way the instructions from the two Architectures address bits. In the C51 Architecture,
a bit (denoted by bit51) can be specified in terms of its location within a certain register, or it can be specified by a
bit address in the range 00h-7Fh. The C251 Architecture does not have bit addresses as such. A bit can be addressed
by name or by its location within a certain register, but not by a bit address.
Table 4.8. illustrates bit addressing in the two Architectures by using two sample bits:
RAMBIT is bit 5 in RAMREG, which is location 23h. (“RAMBIT” and “RAMREG” are assumed to be defined
in user code.)
IT1 is bit 2 in TCON, which is an SFR at location 88h.
Table 4.7. Bit-addressable Locations
Architecture
Bit-addressable Locations
On-chip RAM
SFRs
C251 Architecture
20h-7Fh
All defined SFRs
C51 Architecture
20h-2Fh
SFRs with addresses ending in 0h or 8h: 80h, 88h, 90h, 98h, ..., F8h
Table 4.9. lists the addressing modes for bit insructions, and Table 5.26 summarizes the bit instructions. “bit” denotes
a bit that is addressed by a new instruction in the C251 Architecture, and “bit51” denotes a bit that is addressed by an
instruction in the C51 Architecture.
Table 4.8. Two Samples of Bits Addressing
Location
On-chip RAM
SFR
4.10
Addressing Mode
C51 Architecture
C251 Architecture
Register Name
RAMREG.5
RAMREG.5
Register Address
23h.5
23h.5
Bit Name
RAMBIT
RAMBIT
Bit Address
1Dh
NA
Register Name
TCON.2
TCON.2
Register Address
88.2h
S:88.2h
Bit Name
IT1
IT1
Bit Address
8A
NA
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 4.9. Addressing Modes for Bit Instructions
Architecture
C251 (bit)
(bi )
C51 (bit)
(bi )
Variants
Bit Address
Memory/SFR Address
Memory
NA
20h.0-7Fh.7
SFR
NA
All defined SFRs
Memory
00h-7Fh
20h.0-7Fh.7
SFR
80h-F8h
XXh.0-XXh.7, where XX =
80, 88, 90, 98, ..., F0, F8
Comments
SFRs are not defined at all
bit-addressable locations
4.6. Control Instructions
Control instructions “instructions that change program flow” include calls, returns, and conditional and unconditional
jumps (See Table 5.27). Instead of executing the next instruction in the queue, the processor executes a target
instruction. The control instruction provides the address of a target instruction either implicitly, as in a return from a
subroutine, or explicitly, in the form of a relative, direct, or indirect address.
TSC80251 microcontrollers have a 24–bit program counter (PC), which allows a target instruction to be anywhere in
the 16–Mbyte address space. however, as discussed in this section, some control instructions restrict the target address
to the current 2–Kbyte or 64–Kbyte address range by allowing only the lowest 11 or lowest 16 bits of the program
counter to change.
4.6.1. Addressing Modes for Control Instructions
Table 4.10. lists the addressing modes for the control instructions.
Relative addressing:
The control instruction provides the target address as an 8–bit signed offset (rel) from the address of the next
instruction.
Direct addressing:
The control instruction provides a target address, which can have 11 bits (addr11), 16 bits (addr16), or 24 bits
(addr24). The target address is written to the PC.
addr11: Only the lower 11 bits of the PC are changed; i.e., the target address must be in the current 2–Kbyte
block (the 2–Kbyte block that includes the first byte of the next instruction).
addr16: Only the lower 16 bits of the PC are changed; i.e., the target address must be in the current 64–Kbyte
region (the 64–Kbyte region that includes the first byte of the next instruction).
addr24: The target address can be anywhere in the 16–Mbyte address space.
Indirect addressing:
There are two types of indirect addressing for control instructions:
For the instructions LCALL @WRj and LJMP @WRj, the target address is in the current 64–Kbyte region. The
16–bit address in WRj is placed in the lower 16 bits of the PC. The upper eight bits of the PC remain unchanged
from the address of the next instruction.
For the instruction JMP @A+DPTR, the sum of the accumulator and DPTR is placed in the lower 16 bits of
the PC, and the upper eight bits of the PC are FF:, which restricts the target address to the code memory space
of the C51 Architecture.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.11
TSC80251
Table 4.10. Addressing Modes for Control Instructions
Description
Address Bits
Provided
Address Range
Relative, 8-bit relative address (rel)
8
–128 to +127 from first byte of next instruction
Direct, 11-bit target address (addr11)
11
Current 2 Kbytes
Direct, 16-bit target address (addr16)
16
Current 64 Kbytes
Direct, 24-bit target address (addr24)
K
24
00:0000h-FF:FFFFh
Indirect (@WRj) K
16
Current 64 Kbytes
Indirect (@A +DPTR)
16
64-Kbyte region specified by DPXL (reset value = 01h)
Note:
K
These modes are not used by instructions in the C51 Architecture.
4.6.2. Conditional Jumps
The C251 Architecture supports bit–conditional jumps, compare–conditional jumps, and jumps based on the value of
the accumulator. A bit–conditional jump is based on the state of a bit. In a compare–conditional jump, the jump is based
on a comparison of two operands. All conditional jumps are relative, and the target address (rel) must be in the current
256–byte block of code. The instruction set includes three kinds of bit–conditional jumps :
D JB (Jump on Bit): Jump if the bit is set.
D JNB (Jump on Not Bit): Jump if the bit is clear.
D JBC (Jump on Bit then Clear it): Jump if the bit is set; then clear it.
Compare–conditional jumps test a condition resulting from a compare (CMP) instruction that is assumed to precede
the jump instruction. The jump instruction examines the PSW and PSW1 registers and interprets their flags as though
they were set or cleared by a compare (CMP) instruction. Actually, the state of each flag is determined by the last
instruction that could have affected that flag.
The condition flags are used to test one of the following six relations between the operands :
D equal (=), not equal ()
D greater than (>), less than (<)
D greater than or equal (), less than or equal ()
For each relation there are two instructions, one for signed operands and one for unsigned operands (See Table 4.11. ).
Table 4.11. Compare-conditional Jump Instructions
Operand
Type
Relation
+
JE
JNE
Unsigned
Signed
4.12
u
t
JG
JL
JGE
JLE
JSG
JSL
JSGE
JSLE
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
4.6.3. Unconditional Jumps
There are five unconditional jumps. NOP and SJMP jump to addresses relative to the program counter. AJMP, LJMP,
and EJMP jump to direct or indirect addresses.
NOP (No Operation) is an unconditional jump to the next instruction.
SJMP (Short Jump) jumps to any instruction within –128 to 127 of the next instruction.
AJMP (Absolute Jump) changes the lowest 11 bits of the PC to jump anywhere within the current 2–Kbyte block
of memory. The address can be direct or indirect.
LJMP (Long Jump) changes the lowest 16 bits of the PC to jump anywhere within the current 64–Kbyte region.
EJMP (Extended Jump) changes all 24 bits of the PC to jump anywhere in the 16–Mbyte address space. The address
can be direct or indirect.
4.6.4. Calls and Returns
The C251 Architecture provides relative, direct, and indirect calls and returns.
ACALL (Absolute Call) pushes the lower 16 bits of the next instruction address onto the stack and then changes
the lower 11 bits of the PC to the 11–bit address specified by the instruction. The call is to an address that is in the
same 2–Kbyte block of memory as the address of the next instruction.
LCALL (Long Call) pushes the lower 16 bits of the next–instruction address onto the stack and then changes the
lower 16 bits of the PC to the 16–bit address specified by the instruction. The call is to an address in the same
64–Kbyte block of memory as the address of the next instruction.
ECALL (Extended Call) pushes the 24 bits of the next instruction address onto the stack and then changes the 24
bits of the PC to the 24–bit address specified by the instruction. The call is to an address anywhere in the 16–Mbyte
memory space.
RET (Return) pops the top two bytes from the stack to return to the instruction following a subroutine call. The
return address must be in the same 64–Kbyte region.
ERET (Extended Return) pops the top three bytes from the stack to return to the address following a subroutine
call. The return address can be anywhere in the 16–Mbyte address space.
RETI (Return from Interrupt) provides a return from an interrupt service routine. The operation of RETI depends
on the INTR bit in the CONFIG1 configuration byte (See Product Design Guide):
For INTR = 0, an interrupt pushes the two lower bytes of the PC onto the stack in the following order : PC.7:0,
PC.15:8. The RETI instruction pops these two bytes and uses them as the 16–bit return address in region FF:.
RETI also restores the interrupt logic to accept additional interrupts at the same priority level as the one just
processed.
For INTR = 1, an interrupt pushes the three PC bytes and PSW1 onto the stack in the following order: PSW1,
PC.23:16, PC.7:0, PC.15:8. The RETI instruction pops these four bytes and then returns to the specified 24–bit
address, which can be anywhere in the 16–Mbyte address space. RETI also clears the interrupt request line. (See
the note in Table 4.10. regarding compatibility with code written for 80C51 microcontrollers.)
The TRAP instruction which caues an interrupt call is useful for the development of emulations of an TSC80251
microcontroller.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.13
TSC80251
4.6.5. Interrupt Processing
Interrupt processing is a dynamic operation that begins when a source requests an interrupt and lasts until the execution
of the first instruction in the interrupt service routine (See Figure 4.4. ). Response time is the amount of time between
the interrupt request and the resulting break in the current instruction stream. Latency is the amount of time between
the interrupt request and the execution of the first instruction in the interrupt service routine. These periods are dynamic
due to the presence of both fixed-time sequences and several variable conditions. These conditions contribute to total
elapsed time.
Response Time
OSC
State
Time
External
Interrupt
Request
Ending Instructions
PUSH PC
CALL ISR
ISR
Latency
Figure 4.4. Interrupt Process
Both response time and latency begin with the request. The subsequent minimum fixed sequence comprises the
interrupt sample, poly, and request operations. The variables consist of (but are not limited to): specific instructions
in use at request time, internal versus external interrupt source requests, internal versus external program operation,
stack location, presence of wait states, page-mode operation and branch pointer length.
Note:
In the following discussion external interrupt request pins are assumed to be inactive for at least four state times prior to assertion. In this chapter
all external hardware signals maintain some setup period (i.e., less than one state time). Signals must meet VIH and VIL specifications prior to any
state time under discussion. This setup state time is not included in examples or calculations for either response or latency.
4.6.6. Minimum Fixed Interrupt Time
All interrupts are sampled or polled every four state times (See Figure 4.4. ). One additional state time is required for
a context switch request. For code branches to jump locations in the current 64-Kbyte memory region (compatible with
80C51 microcontrollers), the context switch time is 11 states. Therefore, the minimum fixed poll and request time is
16 states (4 poll states + 1 request state + 11 states for the context switch = 16 state times).
Therefore, this minimum fixed period rests upon four assumptions:
The source request is an internal interrupt with high enough priority to take precedence over other potential
interrupts.
The request is coincident with internal execution and needs no instruction completion time.
The program uses an internal stack location.
The ISR is in on-chip OTPROM/ROM.
4.14
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
4.6.7. Variable Interrupt Parameters
Both response time and latency calculations contain fixed and variable components. By definition, it is often difficult
to predict exact timing calculations for real-time requests. One large variable is the completion time of an instruction
cycle coincident with the occurrence of an interrupt request. Worst-case predictions typically use the longest-executing
instruction in an Architecture’s code set. In the case of the TSC80251, the longest-executing instruction is a 16-bit
divide (DIV). However, even this 21-state instruction may have only 1 or 2 remaining states to complete before the
interrupt system injects a context switch. This uncertainty affects both response time and latency.
4.6.7.1. Response Time Variables
Response time is defined as the start of a dynamic time period when a source requests an interrupt and lasts until a break
in the current instruction execution stream occurs (See Figure 4.4. ). Response time (and therefore latency) is affected
by two primary factors : the incidence of the request relative to the four-state-time sample window and the completion
time of instructions in the response period (i.e., shorter instructions complete earlier than longer instructions).
Note:
External interrupt signals require one additional state time in comparison to internal interrupts. This is necessary to sample and latch the pin
value prior to a poll of interrupts. The sample occurs in the first half of the state time and the poll/request occurs in the second half of the next
state time. Therefore, this sample and poll/request portion of the minimum fixed response and latency time is five states for internal interrupts and
six states for external interrupts. External interrupts must remain active for at least five state times to guarantee interrupt recognition when the
request occurs immediately after a sample has been taken (i.e., requested in the second half of a sample state time).
If the external interrupt goes active one state after the sample state, the pin is not resampled for another three states.
After the second sample is taken and the interrupt request is recognized, the interrupt controller requests the context
switch. The programmer must also consider the time to complete the instruction at the moment the context switch
request is sent to the execution unit. If 9 states of a 10-state instruction have completed when the context switch is
requested, the total response time is 6 states, with a context switch immediately after the final state of the 10-state
instruction (See Figure 4.5. ).
Response Time = 6
OSC
State
Time
INT0#
Sample INT0#
Request
10–State
Instruction
PUSH PC
Figure 4.5. Response Time Example
Conversely, if the external interrupt requests service in the state just prior to the next sample, response is much quicker.
One state asserts the request, one state samples, and one state requests the context switch. If at that point the same
instruction conditions exist, one additional state time is needed to complete the 10-state instruction prior to the context
switch (See Figure 4.6. ). The total response time in this case is four state times. The programmer must evaluate all
pertinent conditions for accurate predictability.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.15
TSC80251
Response Time = 4
OSC
State
Time
INT0#
Sample INT0#
Request
10–State
Instruction
PUSH PC
Figure 4.6. Response Time Example
4.6.7.2. Computation of Worst Case Latency with Variables
Worst-case latency calculations assume that the longest TSC80251 instruction used in the program must fully execute
prior to a context switch. The instruction execution time is reduced by one state with the assumption the instruction
state overlaps the request state (therefore, 16-bit DIV is 21 states -1 = 20 states for latency calculations). The
calculations add fixed and variable interrupt times (See Table 4.12. ) to this instruction time to predict latency. The
worst-case latency (both fixed and variable times included) is expressed by a pseudo-formula :
FIXED_TIME + VARIABLES + LONGEST_INSTRUCTION = MAXIMUM LATENCY PREDICTION
Table 4.12. Interrupt Latency Variables
Variable
INT0#
INT1#
T2EX
External
Execution
Page
Mode
>64
Jump to
ISR (1)
External
Memory
Wait
State
External
Stack
<64K (1)
External
Stack
>64K (1)
External
Stack
Wait
State
Number of
States
Added
1
2
1
8
1 per
bus cycle
4
8
1 per
bus cycle
Notes:
1. <64K/>64K means inside/outside the 64-Kbyte memory region where code is executing.
2. Base-case fixed time is 16 states and assumes :
– a 2-byte instruction is the first ISR byte
– Internal execution
– <64K jump to ISR
– Internal stack
– Internal peripheral interrupt
4.16
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
4.6.8. Latency Calculations
Assume the use of a zero-wait-state external memory where current instructions, the ISR and the stack are located
within the same 64-Kbyte memory region (compatible with memory maps for 80C51 microcontrollers.) Further,
assume there are 3 states yet to complete in the current 21-state DIV instruction when INT0# requests service. Also
assume INT0# has made the request one state prior to the sample state. Unlike in Figure 4.6. , the response time for
this assumption is three state times as the current instruction completes in time for the branch to occur. Latency
calculations begin with the minimum fixed latency of 16 states. From Table 4.12. , one state is added for an INT0#
request from external hardware; two states are added for external execution; and four states for an external stack in
the current 64-Kbyte region. Finally, three states are added for the current instruction to complete. The actual latency
is 26 states. Worst-case latency calculations predict 43 states for this example due to inclusion of total DIV instruction
time (less one state).
Table 4.13. Actual vs. Predicted Latency Calculations
Latency Factors
Actual
Predicted
Base Case Minimum Fixed Time
16
16
INT0# External Request
1
1
External Execution
2
2
<64K Byte Stack Location
4
4
Execution Time for Current (DIV instruction)
3
20
TOTAL
26
43
4.6.9. Blocking Conditions
If all enable and priority requirements have been met, a single prioritized interrupt request at a time generates a vector
cycle to an interrupt service routine. There are three causes of blocking conditions with hardware-generated vectors :
An interrupt of equal or higher priority level is already in progress (defined as any point after the flag has been set
and the RETI of the ISR has not executed).
The current polling cycle is not the final cycle of the instruction in progress.
The instruction in progress is RETI or any write to the IE0, IPH0 or IPL0 registers.
Any of these conditions blocks calls to interrupt service routines. Condition two ensures the instruction in progress
completes before the system vectors to the ISR. Condition three ensures at least one more instruction executes before
the system vectors to additional interrupts if the instruction in progress is a RETI or any write to IE0, IPH0 or IPL0.
The complete polling cycle is repeated each four state times.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.17
TSC80251
4.6.10. Interrupt Vector Cycle
When an interrupt vector cycle is initiated, the CPU breaks the instruction stream sequence, resolves all instruction
pipeline decisions, and pushes multiple program counter (PC) bytes onto the stack. The CPU then reloads the PC with
a start address for the appropriate ISR. The number of bytes pushed to the stack depends upon the INTR bit in the
CONFIG1 configuration register (See Product Design Guide). The complete sample, poll, request and context switch
vector sequence is illustrated in the interrupt latency timing diagram.
Note:
If the interrupt flag for a level-triggered external interrupt is set but denied for one of the above conditions and is clear when the blocking
condition is removed, then the denied interrupt is ignored. In other words, blocked interrupt requests are not buffered for retention.
4.6.11. ISRs in Process
ISR execution proceeds until the RETI instruction is encountered. The RETI instruction informs the processor the
interrupt routine is completed. The RETI instruction in the ISR pops PC address bytes off the stack (as well as PSW1
for INTR = 1), and execution resumes at the suspended instruction stream.
Note:
A simple RET instruction also returns execution to the interrupted program. In previous implementations this inappropriately allowed the system
to operate as though an interrupt service routine is still in progress. The TSC80C251 allow use of both RETI and RET instructions for interrupt
completion. However, for code expected to run properly on both 80C51 and TSC80C251 microcontrollers, only the execution of a RETI
instruction is considered proper completion of the interrupt operation.
With the exception of TRAP, the start addresses of consecutive interrupt service routines are eight bytes apart. If
consecutive interrupts are used (IE0 and TF0, for example, or TF0 and IE1), the first interrupt routine (if more than
seven bytes long) must execute a jump to some other memory location. This prevents overlap of the start address of
the following interrupt routine.
4.18
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
PSW (S:D0h)
Program Status Word register
CY
AC
FO
RS1
RS0
OV
UD
P
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7
CY
6
AC
5
FO
4
RS1
3
RS0
Register Bank Select bit 0
This bit selects the memory locations that comprise the active bank of the register
file (registers R0-R7).
RS0
Bank
Address
0
0
00h-07h
1
1
08h-0Fh
0
2
10h-17h
1
3
18h-1Fh
2
OV
Overflow flag
This bit is set if an addition or subtraction of signed variables results in an overflow
error (i.e., if the magnitude of the sum or differnecce is too great for the seven LSBs
in 2’s-complement representation). The overflow flag is also set if a multiplication
product overflows one byte or if a division by zero is attempted.
1
UD
0
P
User-definable flag
This general-purpose flag is available to the user.
Parity bit
This bit indicates the parity of the accumulator. It is set if an odd number of bits in
the accumulator are set. Otherwise, it is cleared. Not all instructions update the
parity bit.
Description
Carry flag
The carry flag is set by an addition (ADD, ADDC) if there is a carry out of the MSB.
It is set by a subtraction (SUB, SUBB) or compare (CMP) if a borrow is needed for
the MSB. The carry flag is also affected by some rotate and shift instructions, logical
bit instructions and bit move instructions, and the multiply (MUL) and decimal
adjust (DA) instructions (See Table 4.4. ).
Auxiliary Carry flag
The auxiliary flag is affected only by instructions that address 8-bit operands. The
AC flag is set if an arithmetic instruction with an 8-bit operand produces a carry out
of bit 3 (from addition) or a borrow into bit 3 (from subtraction). Otherwise it is
cleared. This flag is useful for BCD arithmetic (See Table 4.4. ).
Flag 0
This general-purpose flag is available to the user.
Register Bank Select bit 1
This bit selects the memory locations that comprise the active bank of the register
file (registers R0-R7).
RS1
Bank
Address
0
0
00h-07h
0
1
08h-0Fh
1
2
10h-17h
1
3
18h-1Fh
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Figure 4.7. Program Status Word register (PSW)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
4.19
TSC80251
PSW1 (S:D1h)
Program Status Word 1 register
CY
AC
N
RS1
RS0
OV
Z
–
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Bit
Number
Bit
Mnemonic
7
CY
Carry flag
Identical to the CY bit in the PSW register (See Figure 4.7. ).
6
AC
Auxiliary Carry flag
Identical to the AC bit in the PSW register (See Figure 4.7. ).
5
N
4
RS1
Register Bank Select bit 1
Identical to the RS1 bit in the PSW register (See Figure 4.7. ).
3
RS0
Register Bank Select bit 0
Identical to the RS0 bit in the PSW register (See Figure 4.7. ).
2
OV
Overflow flag
Identical to the OV bit in the PSW register (See Figure 4.7. ).
1
Z
Zero flag
This flag is set if the result of the last logical or arithmetic operation is zero.
Otherwise it is cleared.
0
–
Reserved
The value read from this bit is indeterminate.
Do not set this bit.
Description
Negative flag
This bit is set if the result of the last logical or arithmetic operation was negative,
i.e., bit15 = 1. Otherwise it is cleared.
Reset Value = 0000 0000b
Figure 4.8. Program Status Word 1 register (PSW1)
4.20
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Instruction Set Reference
This chapter contains reference material for the instructions in the C251 Architecture. It includes an opcode map, a
summary of the instructions–with instruction lengths and execution times–and a detailed description of each
instruction. It contains the following tables:
Table 5.1. through Table 5.4. describe the notation used for the instruction operands.
Table 5.6. and Table 5.7. comprise the opcode map for the instruction set.
Table 5.8. through Table 5.17. contain supporting material for the opcode map.
Table 5.18. lists execution times for a group of instructions that access the Port SFRs.
The following tables list the instructions with their lengths in bytes and their execution times:
Add and Subtract Instructions, Table 5.7.
Increment and Decrement Instructions, Table 5.8.
Compare Instructions, Table 5.9.
Logical Instructions, Table 5.10. to Table 5.11.
Multiply, Divide and Decimal-adjust Instructions, Table 5.12.
Move Instructions, Table 5.13. to Table 5.15.
Bit Instructions, Table 5.16.
Exchange, Push and Pop Instructions, Table 5.17.
Control Instructions, Table 5.29.
Notes:
The instruction execution times given in this appendix are for code executing from on-chip code memory and for data that is read from and
written to on-chip RAM. Execution times are increased by executing code from external memory, accessing peripheral SFRs, accessing data in
external memory, using a wait state, or extending the ALE pulse.
For some instructions, accessing the Port SFRs, Px, x = 0-3, increases the execution time.
5.1. Instruction Set Summary
This section contains tables that summarize the instruction set. For each instruction there is a short description, its
length in bytes, and its execution time in states (one state time is equal to two system clock cycles). There are two concurrent processes limiting the effective instruction throughput:
Instruction Fetch
Instruction Execution
Table 5.7. to Table 5.21. assume code executing from on–chip memory, then the CPU is fetching 16–bit at a time and
this is never limiting the execution speed.
If the code is fetched from external memory, a pre–fetch queue will store instructions ahead of execution to optimize
the memory bandwidth usage when slower instructions are executed. However, the effective speed may be limited depending on the average size of instructions (for the considered section of the program flow). The maximum average
instruction throughput is provided by Table 5.1. depending on the external memory configuration (from Page Mode
to Non–Page Mode and the maximum number of wait states). If the average size of instructions is not an integer, the
maximum effective throughput is found by pondering the number of states for the neighbor integer values.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.1
TSC80251
Table 5.1. Minimum Number of States per Instruction for given Average Sizes
Average size
of
Instructions
(bytes)
Page Mode
(states)
1
Non–Page Mode (states)
0 Wait State
1 Wait State
2 Wait States
3 Wait States
4 Wait States
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
2
4
6
8
10
12
3
3
6
9
12
15
18
4
4
8
12
16
20
24
5
5
10
15
20
25
30
If the average execution time of the considered instructions is larger than the number of states given by Table 5.1. ,
this larger value will prevail as the limiting factor. Otherwise, the value from Table 5.1. must be taken. This is providing a fair estimation of the execution speed but only the actual code execution can provide the final value.
5.1.1. Notation for Instruction Operands
Table 5.2. to Table 5.6. provide Notation for Instruction Operands.
Table 5.2. Notation for Direct Addressing
Direct Address
Description
C251
C51
dir8
A direct 8-bit address. This can be a memory address (00h-7Fh) or a
SFR address (80h-FFh). It is a byte (default), word or double word
depending on the other operand.
dir16
A 16-bit memory address (00:0000h-00:FFFFh) used in direct
addressing.
Table 5.3. Notation for Immediate Addressing
Immediate
Address
Description
C251
C51
#data
An 8-bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction
#data16
A 16-bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction
#0data16
#1data16
A 32-bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction. The
upper word is filled with zeros (#0data16) or ones (#1data16).
#short
A constant, equal to 1, 2, or 4, that is immediately addressed in an
instruction.
Table 5.4. Notation for Bit Addressing
Direct Address
bit51
bit
5.2
Description
A directly addressed bit (bit number= 00h-FFh) in memory or an SFR.
Bits 00h-7Fh are the 128 bits in byte locations 20h-2Fh in the on-chip
RAM. Bits 80h-FFh are the 128 bits in the 16 SFRs with addresses that
end in 0h or 8h, S:80h, S:88h, S:90h,..., S:F0h, S:F8h.
A directly addressed bit in memory locations 00:0020h-00:007Fh or in
any defined SFR.
C251
C51
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.5. Notation for Destination in Control Instructions
Direct Address
Description
C251
C51
rel
A signed (two’s complement) 8-bit relative address. The destination is
–128 to +127 bytes relative to the next instruction’s first byte.
addr11
An 11-bit target address. The target is in the same 2-Kbyte block of
memory as the next instruction’s first byte.
addr16
A 16-bit target address. The target can be anywhere within the same
64-Kbyte region as the next instruction’s first byte.
addr24
A 24-bit target address. The target can be anywhere within the
16–Mbyte address space.
Table 5.6. Notation for Register Operands
Register
Description
C251
C51
@Ri
A memory location (00h-FFh) addressed indirectly via byte registers R0
or R1
Rn
n
Byte register R0-R7 of the currently selected register bank
Byte register index: n= 0-7
Rm
Rmd
Rms
m, md, ms
Byte register R0-R15 of the currently selected register file
Destination register
Source register
Byte register index: m, md, ms= 0-15
WRj
WRjd
WRjs
@WRj
Word register WR0, WR2, ..., WR30 of the currently selected register
file
Destination register
Source register
A memory location (00:0000h-00:FFFFh) addressed indirectly through
word register WR0-WR30, is the target address for jump instructions.
A memory location (00:0000h-00:FFFFh) addressed indirectly through
word register (WR0-WR30) + 16–bit signed (two’s complement)
displacement value
Word register index: j, jd, js= 0-30
@WRj +dis16
j, jd, js
DRk
DRkd
DRks
@DRk
@DRk +dis16
k, kd, ks
Dword register DR0, DR4, ..., DR28, DR56, DR60 of the currently
selected register file
Destination register
Source register
A memory location (00:0000h-FF:FFFFh) addressed indirectly through
dword register DR0-DR28, DR56 and DR60, is the target address for
jump instruction
A memory location (00:0000h-FF:FFFFh) addressed indirectly through
dword register (DR0-DR28, DR56, DR60) + 16–bit (two’s complement)
signed displacement value
Dword register index: k, kd, ks= 0, 4, 8..., 28, 56, 60
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.3
TSC80251
5.1.2. Size and Execution Time for Instruction Families
Table 5.7. Summary of Add and Subtract Instructions
Add
Subtract
Add with Carry
Subtract with Borrow
Mnemonic
<dest>,
<src>(1)
A, Rn
ADD
ADD /
SUB
ADDC /
SUBB
ADD <dest>, <src>
SUB <dest>, <src>
ADDC <dest>, <src>
SUBB <dest>, <src>
dest opnd ← dest opnd + src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd – src opnd
(A) ← (A) + src opnd + (CY)
(A) ← (A) – src opnd – (CY)
Comments
Register to ACC
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
1
1
2
2
2
1(2)
A, dir8
Direct address to ACC
2
1(2)
A, @Ri
Indirect address to ACC
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to ACC
2
1
2
1
Rmd, Rms
Byte register to/from byte register
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word register to/from word register
3
3
2
2
DRkd, DRks
Dword register to/from dword register
3
5
2
4
Rm, #data
Immediate 8-bit data to/from byte register
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Immediate 16-bit data to/from word register
5
4
4
3
DRk, #0data16
16-bit unsigned immediate data to/from
dword register
5
6
4
5
Rm, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR)
to/from byte register
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
WRj, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR)
to/from word register
4
4
3
3
Rm, dir16
Direct address (64K) to/from byte register
5
3(3)
4
2(3)
WRj, dir16
Direct address (64K) to/from word register
5
4(4)
4
3(4)
Rm, @WRj
Indirect address (64K) to/from byte register
4
3(3)
3
2(3)
Rm, @DRk
Indirect address (16M) to/from byte register
4
4(3)
3
3(3)
A, Rn
Register to/from ACC with carry
1
1
2
2
2
1(2)
A, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR)
to/from ACC with carry
2
1(2)
A, @Ri
Indirect address to/from ACC with carry
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to/from ACC with carry
2
1
2
1
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
3. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add N+2 to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
4. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add 2(N+2) to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
5.4
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.8. Summary of Increment and Decrement Instructions
Increment
Increment
Decrement
Decrement
INC <dest>
INC <dest>, <src>
DEC <dest>
DEC <dest>, <src>
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Mnemonic
dest opnd ← dest opnd + 1
dest opnd ← dest opnd + src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd – 1
dest opnd ← dest opnd – src opnd
Comments
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
1
1
1
A
ACC by 1
1
Rn
Register by 1
1
1
2
2
dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR) by 1
2
2(2)
2
2(2)
@Ri
Indirect address by 1
1
3
2
4
INC
DEC
Rm, #short
Byte register by 1, 2, or 4
3
2
2
1
WRj, #short
Word register by 1, 2, or 4
3
2
2
1
INC
DRk, #short
Double word register by 1, 2, or 4
3
4
2
3
DEC
DRk, #short
Double word register by 1, 2, or 4
3
5
2
4
INC
DPTR
Data pointer by 1
1
1
1
1
INC
DEC
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 2 to the number of states. Add 3 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
Table 5.9. Summary of Compare Instructions
Compare
Mnemonic
CMP <dest>, <src>
<dest>,
<src>(1)
dest opnd – src opnd
Comments
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
Rmd, Rms
Register with register
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word register with word register
3
3
2
2
DRkd, DRks
Dword register with dword register
3
5
2
4
Rm, #data
Register with immediate data
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Word register with immediate 16-bit data
5
4
4
3
DRk, #0data16
Dword register with zero-extended 16-bit
immediate data
5
6
4
5
DRk, #1data16
Dword register with one-extended 16-bit
immediate data
5
6
4
5
Rm, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR) with
byte register
4
3(1)
3
2(1)
WRj, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR) with
word register
4
4
3
3
Rm, dir16
Direct address (64K) with byte register
5
3(2)
4
2(2)
WRj, dir16
Direct address (64K) with word register
5
4(3)
4
3(3)
Rm, @WRj
Indirect address (64K) with byte register
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
Rm, @DRk
Indirect address (16M) with byte register
4
4(2)
3
3(2)
CMP
Notes:
1. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
2. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add N+2 to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
3. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add 2(N+2) to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.5
TSC80251
Table 5.10. Summary of Logical Instructions (1/2)
Logical AND(1)
Logical OR(1)
Logical Exclusive OR(1)
Clear(1)
Complement(1)
Rotate Left
ANL <dest>, <src>
ORL <dest>, <src>
XRL <dest>, <src>
CLR A
CPL A
RL A
Rotate Left Carry
RLC A
Rotate Right
RR A
Rotate Right Carry
RRC A
Mnemonic
ANL
ORL
XRL
CLR
CPL
RL
RLC
RR
RRC
<dest>,
<src>(2)
dest opnd ← dest opnd Λ src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd V src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd ∀ src opnd
(A) ← 0
(A) ← ∅ (A)
(A)n+1 ← (A)n, n= 0..6
(A)0 ← (A)7
(A)n+1 ← (A)n, n= 0..6
(CY) ← (A)7
(A)0 ← (CY)
(A)n–1 ← (A)n, n= 7..1
(A)7 ← (A)0
(A)n–1 ← (A)n, n= 7..1
(CY) ← (A)0
(A)7 ← (CY)
Comments
A, Rn
A, dir8
register to ACC
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR) to
ACC
A, @Ri
A, #data
dir8, A
dir8, #data
Rmd, Rms
WRjd, WRjs
Rm, #data
WRj, #data16
Rm, dir8
WRj, dir8
Rm, dir16
WRj, dir16
Rm, @WRj
Rm, @DRk
A
A
A
A
A
A
Indirect address to ACC
Immediate data to ACC
ACC to direct address
Immediate 8–bit data to direct address
Byte register to byte register
Word register to word register
Immediate 8-bit data to byte register
Immediate 16-bit data to word register
Direct address to byte register
Direct address to word register
Direct address (64K) to byte register
Direct address (64K) to word register
Indirect address (64K) to byte register
Indirect address (16M) to byte register
Clear ACC
Complement ACC
Rotate ACC left
Rotate ACC left through CY
Rotate ACC right
Rotate ACC right through CY
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
1
2
States
1
1(3)
Bytes
2
2
States
2
1(3)
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
5
4
4
5
5
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2(4)
3(4)
2
3
3
4
3(3)
4
3(5)
4(6)
3(5)
4(5)
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
4
3
3
4
4
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2(4)
3(4)
1
2
2
3
2(3)
3
2(5)
3(6)
2(5)
3(5)
1
1
1
1
1
1
Notes:
1. Logical instructions that affect a bit are in Table 5.16. .
2. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
3. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0–3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
4. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0–3), add 2 to the number of states. Add 3 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
5. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add N+2 to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
6. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add 2(N+2) to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
5.6
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.11. Summary of Logical Instructions (2/2)
Shift Left Logical
SLL <dest>
Shift Right Arithmetic
SRA <dest>
Shift Right Logical
SRL <dest>
Swap
SWAP A
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Mnemonic
SLL
SRA
SRL
SWAP
<dest>0 ← 0
<dest>n+1 ← <dest>n, n= 0..msb–1
(CY) ← <dest>msb
<dest>msb ← <dest>msb
<dest>n–1 ← <dest>n, n= msb..1
(CY) ← <dest>0
<dest>msb ← 0
<dest>n–1 ← <dest>n, n= msb..1
(CY) ← <dest>0
A3:0 ´ A7:4
Comments
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
Rm
Shift byte register left through the MSB
3
2
2
1
WRj
Shift word register left through the MSB
3
2
2
1
Rm
Shift byte register right
3
2
2
1
WRj
Shift word register right
3
2
2
1
Rm
Shift byte register left
3
2
2
1
WRj
Shift word register left
3
2
2
1
A
Swap nibbles within ACC
1
2
1
2
Note:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.7
TSC80251
Table 5.12. Summary of Multiply, Divide and Decimal-adjust Instructions
Multiply
MUL AB
MUL <dest>, <src>
DIV AB
Divide
Divide
src opnd)
DIV <dest>, <src>
opnd ⁄ src opnd)
Decimal-adjust ACC
for Addition (BCD)
MUL
DIV
DA
ext. dest opnd low ← Remainder (dest
IF [[(A)3:0 > 9] ∨ [(AC)= 1]]
THEN (A)3:0 ← (A)3:0 + 6 !affects CY;
IF [[(A)7:4 > 9] ∨ [(CY)= 1]]
THEN (A)7:4 ← (A)7:4 + 6
DA A
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Mnemonic
(B:A) ← (A)×(B)
extended dest opnd ← dest opnd × src opnd
(A) ← Quotient ((A) ⁄ (B))
(B) ← Remainder ((A) ⁄ (B))
ext. dest opnd high ← Quotient (dest opnd ⁄
Comments
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
AB
Multiply A and B
1
5
1
5
Rmd, Rms
Multiply byte register and byte register
3
6
2
5
WRjd, WRjs
Multiply word register and word register
3
12
2
11
AB
Divide A and B
1
10
1
10
Rmd, Rms
Divide byte register and byte register
3
11
2
10
WRjd, WRjs
Divide word register and word register
3
21
2
20
A
Decimal adjust ACC
1
1
1
1
Note:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
5.8
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.13. Summary of Move Instructions (1/3)
Move to High word
Move with Sign extension
Move with Zero extension
Move Code
Move eXtended
Mnemonic
MOVH
MOVS
MOVZ
MOVC
MOVX
<dest> <src>(1)
<dest>,
DRk, #data16
WRj, Rm
WRj, Rm
A, @A +DPTR
A, @A +PC
A, @Ri
A, @DPTR
@Ri, A
@DPTR, A
MOVH <dest>, <src>
MOVS <dest>, <src>
MOVZ <dest>, <src>
MOVC A, <src>
MOVX <dest>, <src>
dest opnd31:16 ← src opnd
dest opnd ← src opnd with sign extend
dest opnd ← src opnd with zero extend
(A) ← src opnd
dest opnd ← src opnd
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
16-bit immediate data into upper word of
dword register
Byte register to word register with sign
extension
Byte register to word register with zeros
extension
Code byte relative to DPTR to ACC
Code byte relative to PC to ACC
Extended memory (8-bit address) to ACC(2)
Extended memory (16-bit address) to
ACC(2)
5
3
4
2
3
2
2
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
6(3)
6(3)
4
3(4)
1
1
1
1
6(3)
6(3)
5
3(4)
ACC to extended memory (8-bit address)(2)
ACC to extended memory (16-bit
address)(2)
1
1
4
4(3)
1
1
4
4(3)
Comments
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. Extended memory addressed is in the region specified by DPXL (reset value= 01h).
3. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add N+1 to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
4. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add N+2 to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.9
TSC80251
Table 5.14. Summary of Move Instructions (2/3)
Move(1)
Mnemon
Mnemoni
c
MOV <dest>, <src>
<dest> <src>(2)
<dest>,
dest opnd ← src opnd
Comments
A, Rn
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
1
1
2
2
2
1(3)
Register to ACC
A, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR) to
ACC
2
1(3)
A, @Ri
Indirect address to ACC
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to ACC
2
1
2
1
Rn, A
ACC to register
1
1
2
2
Rn, dir8
Direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR) to
register
2
1(3)
3
2(3)
Rn, #data
Immediate data to register
2
1
3
2
2
2(3)
MOV
dir8, A
ACC to direct address
2
2(3)
dir8, Rn
Register to direct address
2
2(3)
3
3(3)
dir8, dir8
Direct address to direct address
3
3(4)
3
3(4)
dir8, @Ri
Indirect address to direct address
2
3(3)
3
4(3)
3
3(3)
dir8, #data
Immediate data to direct address
3
3(3)
@Ri, A
ACC to indirect address
1
3
2
4
3
4(3)
@Ri, dir8
Direct address to indirect address
2
3(3)
@Ri, #data
Immediate data to indirect address
2
3
3
4
DPTR, #data16
Load Data Pointer with a 16-bit constant
3
2
3
2
Notes:
1. Instructions that move bits are in Table 5.16. .
2. Move instructions from the C51 Architecture.
3. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
4. Apply note 3 for each dir8 operand.
Table 5.15. Summary of Move Instructions (3/3)
Move(1)
Mnemonic
5.10
MOV <dest>, <src>
<dest> <src>(2)
<dest>,
dest opnd ← src opnd
Comments
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
Rmd, Rms
Byte register to byte register
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word register to word register
3
2
2
1
DRkd, DRks
Dword register to dword register
3
3
2
2
Rm, #data
Immediate 8-bit data to byte register
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Immediate 16-bit data to word register
5
3
4
2
DRk, #0data16
zero-ext 16bit immediate data to dword
register
5
5
4
4
DRk, #1data16
one-ext 16bit immediate data to dword
register
5
5
4
4
Rm, dir8
Direct address to byte register
4
3(3)
3
2(3)
WRj, dir8
Direct address to word register
4
4
3
3
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Mnemonic
<dest>, <src>(2)
DRk, dir8
MOV
Comments
Direct address to dword register
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
4
6
3
5
4
2(4)
Rm, dir16
Direct address (64K) to byte register
5
3(4)
WRj, dir16
Direct address (64K) to word register
5
4(5)
4
3(5)
DRk, dir16
Direct address (64K) to dword register
5
6(6)
4
5(6)
Rm, @WRj
Indirect address (64K) to byte register
4
3(4)
3
2(4)
Rm, @DRk
Indirect address (16M) to byte register
4
4(4)
3
3(4)
WRjd, @WRjs
Indirect address (64K) to word register
4
4(5)
3
3(5)
3
4(5)
WRj, @DRk
Indirect address (16M) to word register
4
5(5)
dir8, Rm
Byte register to direct address
4
4(3)
3
3(3)
dir8, WRj
Word register to direct address
4
5
3
4
dir8, DRk
Dword register to direct address
4
7
3
6
dir16, Rm
Byte register to direct address (64K)
5
4(4)
4
3(4)
dir16, WRj
Word register to direct address (64K)
5
5(5)
4
4(5)
4
6(6)
dir16, DRk
Dword register to direct address (64K)
5
7(6)
@WRj, Rm
Byte register to indirect address (64K)
4
4(4)
3
3(4)
@DRk, Rm
Byte register to indirect address (16M)
4
5(4)
3
4(4)
@WRjd, WRjs
Word register to indirect address (64K)
4
5(5)
3
4(5)
@DRk, WRj
Word register to indirect address (16M)
4
6(5)
3
5(5)
Rm, @WRj +dis16
Indirect with 16–bit dis (64K) to byte
register
5
6(4)
4
5(4)
WRj, @WRj
+dis16
Indirect with 16–bit dis (64K) to word
register
5
7(5)
4
6(5)
Rm, @DRk +dis24
Indirect with 16–bit dis (16M) to byte
register
5
7(4)
4
6(4)
WRj, @WRj
+dis24
Indirect with 16–bit dis (16M) to word
register
5
8(5)
4
7(5)
@WRj +dis16, Rm
Byte register to indirect with 16–bit dis
(64K)
5
6(4)
4
5(4)
@WRj +dis16,
WRj
Word register to indirect with 16–bit dis
(64K)
5
7(5)
4
6(5)
@DRk +dis24, Rm
Byte register to indirect with 16–bit dis
(16M)
5
7(4)
4
6(4)
@DRk +dis24,
WRj
Word register to indirect with 16–bit dis
(16M)
5
8(5)
4
7(5)
Notes:
1. Instructions that move bits are in Table 5.16. .
2. Move instructions unique to the C251 Architecture.
3. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
4. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add N+2 to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
5. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add 2(N+1) to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
6. If this instruction addresses external memory location, add 4(N+2) to the number of states (N: number of wait states).
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.11
TSC80251
Table 5.16. Summary of Bit Instructions
Clear Bit
CLR <dest>
Set Bit
SETB <dest>
Complement Bit
CPL <dest>
AND Carry with Bit
ANL CY, <src>
AND Carry with Complement of Bit
(CY) ← (CY) ∧ ∅ src opnd
OR Carry with Bit
ORL CY, <src>
OR Carry with Complement of Bit
(CY) ← (CY) ∨ ∅ src opnd
Move Bit to Carry
MOV CY, <src>
Move Bit from Carry
MOV <dest>, CY
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Mnemonic
CLR
SETB
CPL
ANL
ORL
MOV
Comments
dest opnd ← 0
dest opnd ← 1
dest opnd ← ∅ bit
(CY) ← (CY) ∧ src opnd
ANL CY, /<src>
(CY) ← (CY) ∨ src opnd
ORL CY, /<src>
(CY) ← src opnd
dest opnd ← (CY)
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
CY
Clear carry
1
1
1
1
bit51
Clear direct bit
2
2(3)
2
2(3)
bit
Clear direct bit
4
4(3)
3
3(3)
CY
Set carry
1
1
1
1
bit51
Set direct bit
2
2(3)
2
2(3)
bit
Set direct bit
4
4(3)
3
3(3)
CY
Complement carry
1
1
1
1
bit51
Complement direct bit
2
2(3)
2
2(3)
bit
Complement direct bit
4
4(3)
3
3(3)
CY, bit51
And direct bit to carry
2
1(2)
2
1(2)
CY, bit
And direct bit to carry
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
CY, /bit51
And complemented direct bit to carry
2
1(2)
2
1(2)
CY, /bit
And complemented direct bit to carry
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
CY, bit51
Or direct bit to carry
2
1(2)
2
1(2)
CY, bit
Or direct bit to carry
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
CY, /bit51
Or complemented direct bit to carry
2
1(2)
2
1(2)
CY, /bit
Or complemented direct bit to carry
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
CY, bit51
Move direct bit to carry
2
1(2)
2
1(2)
CY, bit
Move direct bit to carry
4
3(2)
3
2(2)
bit51, CY
Move carry to direct bit
2
2(3)
2
2(3)
bit, CY
Move carry to direct bit
4
4(3)
3
3(3)
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0–3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
3. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0–3), add 2 to the number of states. Add 3 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
5.12
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.17. Summary of Exchange, Push and Pop Instructions
Exchange bytes
Exchange Digit
Push
XCH A, <src>
XCHD A, <src>
PUSH <src>
Pop
POP <dest>
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Mnemonic
XCH
XCHD
PUSH
POP
(A) src opnd
(A)3:0 src opnd3:0
(SP) ← (SP) +1; ((SP)) ← src opnd;
(SP) ← (SP) + size (src opnd) – 1
(SP) ← (SP) – size (dest opnd) + 1;
dest opnd ← ((SP)); (SP) ← (SP) –1
Comments
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
A, Rn
ACC and register
1
3
2
4
A, dir8
ACC and direct address (on–chip RAM or
SFR)
2
3(3)
2
3(3)
A, @Ri
ACC and indirect address
1
4
2
5
A, @Ri
ACC low nibble and indirect address (256
bytes)
1
4
2
5
dir8
Push direct address onto stack
2
2(2)
2
2(2)
#data
Push immediate data onto stack
4
4
3
3
#data16
Push 16-bit immediate data onto stack
5
5
4
5
Rm
Push byte register onto stack
3
4
2
3
WRj
Push word register onto stack
3
5
2
4
DRk
Push double word register onto stack
3
9
2
8
2
3(2)
dir8
Pop direct address (on–chip RAM or SFR)
from stack
2
3(2)
Rm
Pop byte register from stack
3
3
2
2
WRj
Pop word register from stack
3
5
2
4
DRk
Pop double word register from stack
3
9
2
8
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
3. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 2 to the number of states. Add 3 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.13
TSC80251
Table 5.18. Summary of Conditional Jump Instructions (1/2)
Jump conditional on status
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Mnemonic
JC
JNC
JE
JNE
JG
JLE
JSL
JSLE
JSG
JSGE
rel
rel
rel
rel
rel
rel
rel
rel
rel
rel
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [cc] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Jcc rel
Comments
Jump if carry
Jump if not carry
Jump if equal
Jump if not equal
Jump if greater than
Jump if less than, or equal
Jump if less than (signed)
Jump if less than, or equal (signed)
Jump if greater than (signed)
Jump if greater than or equal (signed)
Binary Mode(2)
Source Mode(2)
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2/5(3)
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
1/4(3)
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. States are given as jump not-taken/taken.
3. In internal execution only, add 1 to the number of states of the ‘jump taken’ if the destination address is internal and odd.
5.14
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.19. Summary of Conditional Jump Instructions (2/2)
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [src opnd= 1] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Jump if not bit
JNB <src>, rel
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [src opnd= 0] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Jump if bit and clear
JBC <dest>, rel
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [dest opnd= 1] THEN
dest opnd ← 0
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Jump if accumulator is zero
JZ rel
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [(A)= 0] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Jump if accumulator is not zero JNZ rel
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [(A) ≠ 0] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Compare and jump if not equal CJNE <src1>, <src2>, rel (PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [src opnd1 < src opnd2] THEN (CY) ← 1
IF [src opnd1 ≥ src opnd2] THEN (CY) ← 0
IF [src opnd1 ≠ src opnd2] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Decrement and jump if not zero DJNZ <dest>, rel
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr); dest opnd ← dest opnd –1;
IF [∅ (Z)] THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel
Jump if bit
Mnemon
Mnemoni
c
JB <src>, rel
<dest>,
<src>(1)
Binary Mode(2)
Source Mode(2)
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
Jump if direct bit is set
Jump if direct bit of 8-bit address location
is set
Jump if direct bit is not set
Jump if direct bit of 8-bit address location
is not set
3
5
2/5(3)(6)
4/7(3)(6)
3
4
2/5(3)(6)
3/6(3)(6)
3
5
2/5(3)(6)
4/7(3)(6)
3
4
2/5(3)(6)
3/6(3)
Comments
JB
bit51, rel
bit, rel
JNB
bit51, rel
bit, rel
JBC
bit51, rel
bit, rel
Jump if direct bit is set & clear bit
Jump if direct bit of 8-bit address location
is set and clear
3
5
4/7(5)(6)
7/10(5)(6)
3
4
4/7(5)(6)
6/9(5)(6)
rel
rel
A, dir8, rel
Jump if ACC is zero
Jump if ACC is not zero
Compare direct address to ACC and jump
if not equal
2
2
3
2/5(6)
2/5(6)
2/5(3)(6)
2
2
3
2/5(6)
2/5(6)
2/5(3)(6)
A, #data, rel
Compare immediate to ACC and jump if
not equal
Compare immediate to register and jump
if not equal
3
2/5(6)
3
2/5(6)
3
2/5(6)
4
3/6(6)
Compare immediate to indirect and jump
if not equal
Decrement register and jump if not zero
Decrement direct address and jump if not
zero
3
3/6(6)
4
4/7(6)
2
3
2/5(6)
3/6(4)(6)
3
3
3/6(6)
3/6(4)(6)
JZ
JNZ
CJNE
DJNZ
Rn, #data, rel
@Ri, #data,
rel
Rn, rel
dir8, rel
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. States are given as jump not-taken/taken.
3. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 1 to the number of states. Add 2 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
4. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 2 to the number of states. Add 3 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
5. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x= 0-3), add 3 to the number of states. Add 5 if it addresses a Peripheral SFR.
6. In internal execution only, add 1 to the number of states of the ‘jump taken’ if the destination address is internal and odd.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.15
TSC80251
Table 5.20. Summary of unconditional Jump Instructions
Absolute jump
Extended jump
opnd
Long jump
opnd
Short jump
Jump indirect
(DPTR)
No operation
Mnemonic
AJMP
EJMP
LJMP
SJMP
JMP
NOP
<dest>,
<src>(1)
addr11
addr24
@DRk
@WRj
addr16
rel
@A +DPTR
AJMP <src>
EJMP <src>
(PC) ← (PC) +2; (PC)10:0 ← src opnd
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr); (PC)23:0 ← src
LJMP <src>
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr); (PC)15:0 ← src
SJMP rel
JMP @A +DPTR
(PC) ← (PC) +2; (PC) ← (PC) +rel
(PC)23:16 ← FFh; (PC)15:0 ← (A) +
NOP
(PC) ← (PC) +1
Comments
Absolute jump
Extended jump
Extended jump (indirect)
Long jump (indirect)
Long jump (direct address)
Short jump (relative address)
Jump indirect relative to the DPTR
No operation (Jump never)
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
2
5
3
3
3
2
1
1
3(2)(3)
2
4
2
2
3
2
1
1
3(2)(3)
5(2)(4)
6(2)(4)
5(2)(4)
5(2)(4)
4(2)(4)
5(2)(4)
1
6(2)(4)
7(2)(4)
6(2)(4)
5(2)(4)
4(2)(4)
5(2)(4)
1
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. In internal execution only, add 1 to the number of states if the destination address is internal and odd.
3. Add 2 to the number of states if the destination address is external.
4. Add 3 to the number of states if the destination address is external.
5.16
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.21. Summary of Call and Return Instructions
Absolute call
ACALL <src>
Extended call
ECALL <src>
Long call
LCALL <src>
Return from subroutine
Extended return from subroutine
Return from interrupt
RET
ERET
RETI
Trap interrupt
TRAP
Mnemonic
ACALL
ECALL
LCALL
<dest>,
<src>(1)
addr11
@DRk
addr24
@WRj
addr16
RET
ERET
RETI
TRAP
(PC) ← (PC) +2; push (PC)15:0;
(PC)10:0 ← src opnd
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr); push (PC)23:0;
(PC)23:0 ← src opnd
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr); push (PC)15:0;
(PC)15:0 ← src opnd
pop (PC)15:0
pop (PC)23:0
IF [INTR= 0] THEN pop (PC)15:0
IF [INTR= 1] THEN pop (PC)23:0; pop (PSW1)
(PC) ← (PC) + size (instr);
IF [INTR= 0] THEN push (PC)15:0
IF [INTR= 1] THEN push (PSW1); push (PC)23:0
Comments
Absolute subroutine call
Extended subroutine call (indirect)
Extended subroutine call
Long subroutine call (indirect)
Long subroutine call
Return from subroutine
Extended subroutine return
Return from interrupt
Jump to the trap interrupt vector
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
2
3
5
3
3
1
3
1
2
9(2)(3)
2
2
4
2
3
1
2
1
1
9(2)(3)
13(2)(3)
13(2)(3)
9(2)(3)
9(2)(3)
7(2)
8(2)
7(2)(4)
11(4)
14(2)(3)
14(2)(3)
10(2)(3)
9(2)(3)
7(2)
9(2)
7(2)(4)
12(4)
Notes:
1. A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
2. In internal execution only, add 1 to the number of states if the destination/return address is internal and odd.
3. Add 2 to the number of states if the destination address is external.
4. Add 5 to the number of states if INTR= 1.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.17
TSC80251
5.2. Opcode Map and SupPorting Tables
Table 5.22. Instructions for 80C51 Microcontrollers
Bin
x0
x1
x2
x3
Src
x0
x1
x2
x3
0
NOP
AJMP addr11
LJMP addr16
RR A
1
JBC bit51, rel
ACALL addr11
LCALL addr16
RRC A
2
JB bit51, rel
AJMP addr11
RET
RLA
3
JNB bit51, rel
ACALL addr11
RETI
RLC A
4
JC rel
AJMP addr11
ORL dir8, A
ORL dir8, #data
5
JNC rel
ACALL addr11
ANL dir8, A
ANL dir8, #data
6
JZ rel
AJMP addr11
XRL dir8, A
XRL dir8, #data
7
JNZ rel
ACALL addr11
ORL CY, bit51
JMP @A +DPTR
8
SJMP rel
AJMP addr11
ANL CY, bit51
MOVC A, @A + PC
9
MOV DPTR, #data16
ACALL addr11
MOV bit51, CY
MOVC A, @A + DPTR
A
ORL CY, bit51
AJMP addr11
MOV CY, bit51
INC DPTR
B
ANL CY, bit51
ACALL addr11
CPL bit51
CPL CY
C
PUSH dir8
AJMP addr11
CLR bit51
CLR CY
D
POP dir8
ACALL addr11
SETB bit51
SETB CY
E
MOVX A, @DPTR
AJMP addr11
MOVX A, @RI
F
MOV @DPTR, A
ACALL addr11
MOVX @RI, A
0
INC A
INC dir8
INC @Ri
INC Rn
1
DEC A
DEC dir8
DEC @Ri
DEC Rn
2
ADD A, #data
ADD A, dir8
ADD A, @Ri
ADD A, Rn
3
ADDC A, #data
ADDC A, dir8
ADDC A, @Ri
ADDC A, Rn
4
ORL A, #data
ORL A, dir8
ORL A, @Ri
ORL A, Rn
5
ANL A, #data
ANL A, dir8
ANL A, @Ri
ANL A, Rn
6
XRL A, #data
XRL A, dir8
XRL A, @Ri
XRL A, Rn
7
MOV A, #data
MOV dir8, #data
MOV A, @Ri, data
MOV Rn, #data
8
DIV A, #data
MOV dir8, dir8
MOV dir8, @Ri
MOV dir8, Rn
9
SUBB A, #data
SUBB A, dir8
SUBB A, @Ri
SUBB A, Rn
A
MUL AB
Escape
MOV @Ri, dir8
MOV Rn, dir8
B
CJNE A, #data, rel
CJNE A, dir8, rel
CJNE @Ri, #data, rel
CJNE Rn, #data, rel
C
SWAP A
XCH A, dir8
XCH A, @Ri
XCH A, Rn
D
DA A
DJNZ A, dir8
XCHD A, @Ri
DJNZ Rn, rel
E
CLR A
MOV A, dir8
MOV A, @Ri
MOV A, Rn
F
CPL A
MOV dir8, A
MOV @Ri, A
MOV Rn, A
x takes the values found in Bin and Src column.
5.18
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.23. New Instructions for the C251 Architecture
Bin
A5x8
A5x9
A5xA
A5xB
Src
x8
x9
xA
xB
0
JSLE rel
MOV Rm, @WRj +dis16
MOVZ WRj, Rm
INC R, #short (1)
MOV reg, ind
1
JSG rel
MOV @WRj +dis16, Rm
MOVS WRj, Rm
DEC R, #short (1)
MOV ind, reg
2
JLE rel
MOV Rm, @DRk +dis24
3
JG rel
MOV @DRk +dis24, Rm
4
JSL rel
MOV WRj, @WRj +dis16
5
JSGE rel
MOV @WRj +dis16, WRj
6
JE rel
MOV WRj, @DRk +dis24
7
JNE rel
MOV @DRk +dis16, WRj
MOVZ op1, reg (2)
8
JMP @WRj
EJMP @DRk
EJMP addr24
9
LCALL @WRj
ECALL @DRk
ECALL addr24
A
Escape Bit Instructions (3)
ERET
B
TRAP
C
PUSH op1 (4)
MOV DRk, PC
D
POP op1 (4)
0
1
2
ADD Rmd, Rms
ADD WRjd, WRjs
3
ADD reg, op2 (2)
ADD DRkd, DRks
SLL reg
4
ORL Rmd, Rms
ORL WRjd, WRjs
ORL reg, op2 (2)
5
ANL Rmd, Rms
ANL WRjd, WRjs
ANL reg, op2 (2)
6
XRL Rmd, Rms
XRL WRjd, WRjs
XRL reg, op2 (2)
7
MOV Rmd, Rms
MOV WRjd, WRjs
MOV reg, op2 (2)
MOV DRkd, DRks
8
DIV Rmd, Rms
DIV WRjd, WRjs
9
SUB Rmd, Rms
SUB WRjd, WRjs
SUB reg, op2 (2)
SUB DRkd, DRkd
A
MUL Rmd, Rms
MUL WRjd, WRjs
B
CMP Rmd, Rms
CMP WRjd, WRjs
CMP reg, op2 (2)
CMP DRkd, DRks
Notes :
1.
2.
3.
4.
R = Rm/WRj/DRk.
op1, op2 are defined in Table 5.24.
SeeTable 5.26. and Table 5.27.
See Table 5.28.
x takes the values found in Bin and Src column.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.19
TSC80251
Table 5.24. Data Instructions
Instruction
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Oper Rmd, Rms
x
C
md
ms
Oper WRjd, WRjs
x
D
jd/2
js/2
Oper DRkd, DRks
x
F
kd/4
ks/4
Oper Rm, #data
x
E
m
0
#data
Oper WRj, #data16
x
E
j/2
4
#data (high)
#data (low)
Oper DRk, #data16
x
E
k/4
8
#data (high)
#data (low)
MOV DRk(h), #data16
MOV DRk, #1data16
CMP DRk,#1data16
7
7
B
A
E
E
k/4
C
#data (high)
#data (low)
Oper Rm, dir8
x
E
m
1
dir8 addr
Oper WRj, dir8
x
E
j/2
5
dir8 addr
Oper DRk, dir8
x
E
k/4
D
dir8 addr
Oper Rm, dir16
x
E
m
3
dir16 addr (high) dir16 addr (low)
Oper WRj, dir16
x
E
j/2
7
dir16 addr (high) dir16 addr (low)
Oper DRk, dir16 (1)
x
E
k/4
F
dir16 addr (high) dir16 addr (low)
Oper Rm, @WRj
x
E
m
9
j/2
0
Oper Rm, @DRk
x
E
m
B
k/4
0
Note :
1. For this instruction, the only valid operation is MOV.
Table 5.25. High Nibble, Byte 0 of Data Instructions
x
Operation
2
ADD reg, op2
9
SUB reg, op2
B
CMP reg, op2 (1)
4
ORL reg, op2 (2)
5
ANL reg, op2 (2)
6
XRL reg, op2 (2)
7
MOV reg, op2
8
DIV reg, op2
A
MUL reg, op2
Notes
All data addressing modes are supported.
Two modes only:
reg op2 = Rmd,
Rmd Rms
reg,
reg, op2 = Wjd, Wjs
Notes :
1. The CMP operation does not supPort DRk, direct16.
2. For the ORL, ANL and XRL operations, neither reg nor op2 can be DRk.
5.20
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
All of the bit instructions in the C251 Architecture (See Table 5.23. ) have opcode A9, which serves as an escape byte
(similar to A5). The high nibble of byte 1 specifies the bit instruction, as given in Table 5.26.
Table 5.26. Bit Instructions
Instruction
1
Byte 0(x)
Bit Instr (dir8)
A
Byte 1
9
xxxx
0
bit
Byte2
Byte 3
dir8 addr
rel addr
Table 5.27. Byte 1 (High Nibble) for Bit Instructions
xxxx
Bit Instruction
1
JBC bit
2
JB bit
3
JNB bit
7
ORL CY, bit
8
ANL CY, bit
9
MOV bit, CY
A
MOV CY, bit
B
CPL bit
C
CLR bit
D
SETB bit
E
ORL CY, /bit
F
ANL CY, /bit
Table 5.28. PUSH/POP Instructions
Instruction
Byte 0(x)
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
#data16 (low)
PUSH #data
C
A
0
2
#data
PUSH #data16
C
A
0
6
#data16 (high)
PUSH Rm
C
A
m
8
PUSH WRj
C
A
j/2
9
PUSH DRk
C
A
k/4
B
MOV DRk, PC
C
A
k/4
1
POP Rm
D
A
m
8
POP WRj
D
A
j/2
9
POP DRk
D
A
k/4
B
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.21
TSC80251
Table 5.29. Control Instructions
Instruction
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
EJMP addr24
8
A
addr[23:16]
addr[15:8]
addr[7:0]
ECALL addr24
9
A
addr[23:16]
addr[15:8]
addr[7:0]
LJMP @WRj
8
9
j/2
4
LCALL @WRj
9
9
j/2
4
EJMP @DRk
8
9
k/4
8
ECALL @DRk
9
9
k/4
8
ERET
A
A
JE rel
8
8
rel
JNE rel
7
8
rel
JLE rel
2
8
rel
JG rel
3
8
rel
JSL rel
4
8
rel
JSGE rel
5
8
rel
JSLE rel
0
8
rel
JSG rel
1
8
rel
TRAP
B
9
Table 5.30. Displacement/Extended MOVs Instructions
Instruction
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
MOV Rm, @WRj +dis16
0
9
m
j/2
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOVWRk, @WRj +dis16
4
9
j/2
k2
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOV Rm, @DRk +dis24
2
9
m
k/4
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOV WRj, @DRk +dis24
6
9
j/2
k/4
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOV @WRj +dis16, Rm
1
9
m
j/2
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOV @WRj +dis16, WRk
5
9
j/2
k2
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOV @DRk +dis24, Rm
3
9
m
k/4
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOV @DRk +dis24, WRj
7
9
j/2
k/4
dis[15:8]
dis[7:0]
MOVS WRj, Rm
1
A
j/2
m
MOVZ WRj, RM
0
A
j/2
m
MOV WRj, @WRj
0
B
j/2
8
j/2
0
MOV WRj, @DRk
0
B
k/4
A
j/2
0
MOV @WRj, WRj
1
B
j/2
8
j/2
0
MOV @DRk, WRj
1
B
k/4
A
j/2
0
MOV dir8, Rm
7
A
m
1
MOV dir8, WRj
7
A
j/2
5
dir8 addr
MOV dir8, DRk
7
A
k/4
D
dir8 addr
5.22
dir8 addr
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Instruction
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
MOV dir16, Rm
7
A
m
1
dir16 addr (high)
dir16 addr
(low)
MOV dir16, WRj
7
A
j/2
7
dir16 addr (high)
dir16 addr
(low)
MOV dir16, DRk
7
A
k/4
F
dir16 addr (high)
dir16 addr
(low)
MOV @WRj, Rm
7
A
j/2
9
m
0
MOV @DRk, Rm
7
A
k/4
B
m
0
Table 5.31. INC/DEC Instructions
Instruction
Byte 0(x)
Byte 1
1
INC Rm, #short
0
B
m
00
vv
2
INC WRj, #short
0
B
j/2
01
vv
3
INC DRk, #short
0
B
k/4
11
vv
4
DEC Rm, #short
1
B
m
00
vv
5
DEC WRj, #short
1
B
j/2
01
vv
6
DEC DRk, #short
1
B
k/4
11
vv
Table 5.32. Encoding for INC/DEC Instructions
vv
#short
00
1
01
2
10
4
Table 5.33. Shifts Instructions
Instruction
Byte 0(x)
Byte 1
1
SRA Rm
0
E
m
0
2
SRA WRj
0
E
j/2
4
3
SRL Rm
1
E
m
0
4
SRl WRj
1
E
j/2
4
5
SLL Rm
3
E
m
0
6
SLL WRj
3
E
j/2
4
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.23
TSC80251
5.3. Instruction Set Summary
This section contains tables that summarize the instruction set. For each instruction there is a short description, its
length in bytes, and its execution time in states.
Notes:
The instruction execution times given in the tables are for code executing from on-chip code memory and for
data that is read from and written to on-chip RAM. Execution times are increased by executing code from
external memory, accessing peripheral SFRs, accessing data in external memory, using wait states, or extending
the ALE pulse.
For some instructions, accessing the Port SFRs, Px, x = 0-3, increases the execution time. These cases are noted
individually in the tables.
5.3.1. Execution Times for Instructions that Access the Ports SFRs
The execution times for some instructions increases when the instruction accesses a Port SFR (Px, with x = 0-3) as
opposed to any other SFR. Table 5.34. lists these instructions and the execution times for Case 0 :
Case 0: Code executes from on-chip ROM/OTPROM/EPROM and accesses locations in on-chip data RAM. The
Port SFRs are not accessed.
In cases 1 to 4, the instructions access a Port SFR :
Case 1: Code executes from on-chip ROM/OTPROM/EPROM and accesses a Port SFR.
Case 2: Code executes from external memory with no wait state and a short ALE (not extended) and accesses a
Port SFR.
Case 3: Code executes from external memory with one wait state and a short ALE (not extended) and accesses a
Port SFR.
Case 4: Code executes from external memory with one wait state and an extended ALE, and accesses a Port SFR.
The times for Cases 1 through 4 are expressed as the number of state times to add to the state times given for Case 0.
5.24
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.34. State Times to Access the Port SFRs
Instruction
Instruct
on
Case 0
Execution Times
Additional State Times
Binary
Source
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
ADD A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
ADD Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
ADDC A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
ANL A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
ANL CY, bit
3
2
1
2
3
4
ANL CY, bit51
1
1
1
2
3
4
ANL CY, /bit
3
2
1
2
3
4
ANL CY, /bit51
1
1
1
2
3
4
ANL dir8, #data
3
3
2
4
6
8
ANL dir8, A
2
2
2
4
6
8
ANL Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
CLR bit
4
3
2
4
6
8
CLR bit51
2
2
2
4
6
8
CMP Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
CPL bit
4
3
2
4
6
8
CPL bit51
2
2
2
4
6
8
DEC dir8
2
2
2
4
6
8
INC dir8
2
2
2
4
6
8
MOV A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
MOV bit, CY
4
3
2
4
6
8
MOV bit51, CY
2
2
2
4
6
8
MOV CY, bit
3
2
1
2
3
4
MOV CY, bit51
1
1
1
2
3
4
MOV dir8, #data
3
3
1
2
3
4
MOV dir8, A
2
2
1
2
3
4
MOV dir8, Rm
4
3
1
2
3
4
MOV dir8, Rn
2
3
1
2
3
4
MOV Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
MOV Rn, dir8
1
2
1
2
3
4
ORL A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
ORL CY, bit
3
2
1
2
3
4
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.25
TSC80251
Instruction
Case 0
Execution Times
Additional State Times
Binary
Source
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
ORL CY, bit51
1
1
1
2
3
4
ORL CY, /bit
3
2
1
2
3
4
ORL CY, /bit51
1
1
1
2
3
4
ORL dir8, #data
3
3
1
2
3
4
ORL dir8, A
2
2
2
4
6
8
ORL Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
SETB bit
4
3
2
4
6
8
SETB bit51
2
2
2
4
6
8
SUB Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
SUBB A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
XCh A, dir8
3
3
2
4
6
8
XRL A, dir8
1
1
1
2
3
4
XRL dir8, #data
3
3
2
4
6
8
XRL dir8, A
2
2
2
4
6
8
XRL Rm, dir8
3
2
1
2
3
4
5.26
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.35. Summary of Add and Subtract Instructions
Add
Subtract
Add with Carry
Subtract with Borrow
Mnemonic
ADD
ADD
SUB
ADDC
SUBB
ADD <dest>, <src>
SUB <dest>, <src>
ADDC <dest>, <src>
SUBB <dest>, <src>
<dest>, <src>
dest opnd ← dest opnd + src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd – src opnd
(A) ← (A) + src opnd + carry bit
(A) ← (A) – src opnd – carry bit
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
A, Rn
Reg to acc
1
1
2
2
A, dir8
Direct byte to acc
2
1 (2)
2
1 (2)
A, @Ri
Indirect addr to acc
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to acc
2
1
2
1
Rmd, Rms
Byte reg to/from byte reg
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word reg to/from word reg
3
3
2
2
DRkd, DRks
Dword reg to/from dword reg
3
5
2
4
Rm, #data
Immediate 8-bit data to/from byte reg
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Immediate 16-bit data to/from word reg
5
4
4
3
DRk, #0data16
16-bit unsigned immediate data to/from
dword reg
5
6
4
5
Rm, dir8
Direct addr to/from byte reg
4
3 (2)
2
2 (2)
WRj, dir8
Direct addr to/from word reg
4
4
3
3
Rm, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to/from byte reg
5
3
4
2
WRj, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to/from word reg
5
4
4
3
Rm, @WRj
Indirect addr (64K) to/from byte reg
4
3
3
2
Rm, @DRk
Indirect addr (16M) to/from byte reg
4
4
3
3
A, Rn
Reg to/from acc with carry
1
1
2
2
A, dir8
Direct byte to/from acc with carry
2
1 (2)
2
1 (2)
A, @Ri
Indirect RAM to/from acc with carry
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to/from acc with carry
2
1
2
1
Note :
1.
2.
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 to the number of states.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.27
TSC80251
Table 5.36. Summary of Compare Instructions
Compare
Mnemonic
CMP <dest>, <src>
<dest> <src>
<dest>,
dest opnd – src opnd
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
Rmd, Rms
Reg with reg
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word reg with word reg
3
3
2
2
DRkd, DRks
Dword reg with dword reg
3
5
2
4
Rm, #data
Reg with immediate data
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Word reg with immediate 16-bit data
5
4
4
3
DRk, #0data16
Dword reg with
immediate data
zero-extended
16-bit
5
6
4
5
DRk, #1data16
Dword reg with
immediate data
one-extended
16-bit
5
6
4
5
Rm, dir8
Direct addr from byte reg
4
3 (1)
2
2 (1)
WRj, dir8
Direct addr from word reg
4
4
3
3
Rm, dir16
Direct addr (64K) from byte reg
5
3
4
2
WRj, dir16
Direct addr (64K) from word reg
5
4
4
3
Rm, @WRj
Indirect addr (64K) from byte reg
4
3
3
2
Rm, @DRk
Indirect addr (16M) from byte reg
4
4
3
3
CMP
Note :
1. If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 to the number of states.
5.28
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.37. Summary of Increment and Decrement Instructions
Increment
Increment
Increment
Decrement
Decrement
Mnemonic
INC
DEC
(DPTR) ← (DPTR) + 1
byte ← byte + 1
dest opnd ← dest opnd + src opnd
byte ← byte – 1
dest opnd ← dest opnd – src opnd
INC DPTR
INC byte
INC <dest>, <src>
DEC byte
DEC <dest>, <src>
<dest>, <src>
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
A
acc
1
1
1
1
Rn
Reg
1
1
2
2
(2)
2
2 (2)
A, dir8
Direct byte
2
2
A, @Ri
Indirect RAM
1
3
2
4
Rm, #short
Byte reg by 1, 2, or 4
3
2
2
1
ADD
SUB
WRj, #short
Word reg by 1, 2, or 4
3
2
2
1
DRk, #short
Double word reg by 1, 2, or 4
3
4
2
3
INC
DPTR
Data pointer
1
1
1
1
Notes :
1.
2.
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 to the number of states.
Table 5.38. Summary of Multiply, Divide and Decimal-adjust Instructions
Multiply
Divide
Decimal-adjust ACC
for Addition (BCD)
Mnemonic
MUL
DIV
DA
MUL <reg1, reg2>
MUL AB
DIV <reg1>, <reg2>
DIV AB
DA A
<dest> <src>
<dest>,
(2)
(B:A) = A x B
(2)
(A) = Quotient; (B) = Remainder
(2)
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
AB
Multiply A and B
1
5
1
5
Rmd, Rms
Multiply byte reg and byte reg
3
6
2
5
WRjd, WRjs
Multiply word reg and word reg
3
12
2
11
AB
Divide A and B
1
10
1
10
Rmd, Rms
Divide byte reg and byte reg
3
11
2
10
WRjd, WRjs
Divide word reg and word reg
3
21
2
20
A
Decimal adjust acc
1
1
1
1
Note :
1.
2.
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 3:0), add 1 to the number of states.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.29
TSC80251
Table 5.39. Summary of Logical Instructions
Logical AND
Logical OR
Logical Exclusive OR
Clear
Complement
Rotate
Mnemonic
<dest>, <src>
A, Rn
dest opnd ← dest opnd Λ src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd V src opnd
dest opnd ← dest opnd ∀ src opnd
(A) ← 0
(Ai) ← ∅ (Ai)
ANL <dest>, <src>
ORL <dest>, <src>
XRL <dest>, <src>
CLR A
CPL A
RXX A
Notes
Reg to acc
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
1
1
2
2
2
1 (2)
A, dir8
Direct byte to acc
2
1 (2)
A, @Ri
Indirect addr to acc
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to acc
2
1
2
1
(4)
2
2 (4)
dir8, A
Acc to direct byte
2
2
dir8, #data
Immediate data to direct byte
3
3 (4)
3
3 (4)
Rmd, Rms
Byte reg to/from byte reg
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word reg to/from word reg
3
3
2
2
Rm, #data
Immediate 8-bit data to/from byte reg
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Immediate 16-bit data to/from word reg
5
4
4
3
DRk, #0data16
16-bit unsigned immediate data to/from
dword reg
5
6
4
5
Rm, dir8
Direct addr to/from byte reg
4
3 (2)
3
2 (2)
WRj, dir8
Direct addr to/from word reg
4
4
3
3
Rm, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to/from byte reg
5
3
4
2
WRj, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to/from word reg
5
4
4
3
Rm, @WRj
Indirect addr (64K) to/from byte reg
4
3
3
2
Rm, @DRk
Indirect addr (16M) to/from byte reg
4
4
3
3
CLR
A
Clear acc
1
1
1
1
CPL
A
Complement acc
1
1
1
1
RL
A
Rotate acc left
1
1
1
1
RLC
A
Rotate acc left through the carry
1
1
1
1
RR
A
Rotate acc right
1
1
1
1
RRC
A
Rotate acc right through the carry
1
1
1
1
ANL
ORL
XRL
5.30
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.40. Summary of Logical Instructions (Cont’d)
Shift
SWAP
Mnemonic
SLL
SRA
SRL
SWAP
SXX Rm or Wj
A
<dest>, <src>
A3:0 ´ A7:4
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
Rm
Shift byte reg left through the MSB
3
2
2
1
WRj
Shift word reg left through the MSB
3
2
2
1
Rm
Shift byte reg right
3
2
2
1
WRj
Shift word reg right
3
2
2
1
Rm
Shift byte reg left
3
2
2
1
WRj
Shift word reg left
3
2
2
1
A
Swap nibbles within the acc
1
2
1
2
Note :
1.
2.
3.
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 3:0), add 1 to the number of states.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 3:0), add 2 to the number of states.
Table 5.41. Summary of Move Instructions
Move (2)
Move with Sign Extension
Move with Zero Extension
Move Code Byte
Move to external Mem
Move from external Mem
Mnemonic
MOV
destination ← src opnd
destination ← src opnd with sign extend
destination ← src opnd with zero extend
A ← code byte
external mem ← (A)
A ← source opnd in external mem
MOV <dest>, <src>
MOVS <dest>, <src>
MOVZ <dest>, <src>
MOVC <dest>, <src>
MOVX <dest>, <src>
MOVX <dest>, <src>
<dest>, <src>
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
A, Rn
Reg to acc
1
1
2
2
A, dir8
Direct byte to acc
2
1 (3)
2
1 (3)
A, @Ri
Indirect RAM to acc
1
2
2
3
A, #data
Immediate data to acc
2
1
2
1
Rn, A
Acc to reg
1
1
2
2
(3)
3
2 (3)
Rn, dir8
Direct byte to reg
2
1
Rn, #data
Immediate data to reg
2
1
3
2
(3)
2
2 (3)
dir8, A
Acc to direct byte
2
2
dir8, Rn
Reg to direct byte
2
2 (3)
3
3 (3)
dir8, dir8
Dir byte to direct byte
3
3
3
3
dir8, @Ri
Indir RAM to direct byte
2
3
3
4
dir8, #data
Immediate data to direct byte
3
3 (3)
3
3 (3)
@Ri, A
Acc to indirect RAM
1
3
2
4
@Ri, dir8
Dir byte to indirect RAM
2
3
3
4
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.31
TSC80251
Mnemonic
MOV
<dest>, <src>
Notes
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
@Ri, #data
Imeediate data to indirect RAM
2
3
3
4
DPTR, #data16
Load Data Pointer with a 16-bit const
3
2
3
2
Rmd, Rms
Byte reg to byte reg
3
2
2
1
WRjd, WRjs
Word reg to word reg
3
2
2
1
DRkd, DRks
Dword reg to dword reg
3
3
2
2
Rm, #data
Immediate 8-bit data to byte reg
4
3
3
2
WRj, #data16
Immediate 16-bit data to word reg
5
3
4
2
DRk, #0data16
zero-ext 16bit immediate data to dword reg
5
5
4
4
DRk, #1data16
one-ext 16bit immediate data to dword reg
5
5
4
4
DRk, dir8
Direct addr to dword reg
4
6
3
5
DRk, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to dword reg
4
6
4
5
(3)
3
2 (3)
Rm, dir8
Direct addr to byte reg
4
WRj, dir8
Direct addr to word reg
4
4
3
3
Rm, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to byte reg
5
3
4
2
WRj, dir16
Direct addr (64K) to word reg
5
4
4
3
Rm, @WRj
Indirect addr (64K) to byte reg
4
2
3
2
Rm, @DRk
Indirect addr (16M) to byte reg
4
4
3
3
WRjd, @WRjs
Indirect addr (64K) to word reg
4
4
3
3
WRj, @DRk
Indirect addr (16M) to word reg
4
5
3
4
(3)
3
3
3 (3)
dir8, Rm
Byte reg to direct addr
4
dir8, WRj
Word reg to direct addr
4
5
3
4
dir16, Rm
Byte reg to direct addr (64K)
5
4
4
3
dir16, WRj
Word reg to direct addr (64K)
5
5
4
4
@WRj, Rm
Byte reg to indirect addr (64K)
4
4
3
3
@DRk, Rm
Byte reg to indirect addr (16M)
4
5
3
4
@WRjd, WRjs
Word reg to indirect addr (64K)
4
5
3
4
@DRk, WRj
Word reg to indirect addr (16M)
4
6
3
5
dir8, DRk
Dword reg to direct addr
4
7
3
6
dir16, DRk
Dword reg to direct addr (64K)
5
7
4
6
Rm, @WRj +dis16
Indirect addr with disp (64K) to byte reg
5
6
4
5
WRj, @WRj +dis16 Indirect addr with disp (64K) to word reg
5
7
4
6
Rm, @DRk +dis24
5
7
4
6
WRj, @WRj +dis24 Indirect addr with disp (16M) to word reg
5
8
4
7
@WRj +dis16, Rm
5
6
4
5
@WRj +dis16, WRj Word reg to indirect addr with disp (64K)
5
7
4
6
@DRk +dis24, Rm
5
7
4
6
5
8
4
7
Indirect addr with disp (16M) to byte reg
Byte reg to indirect addr with disp (64K)
Byte reg to indirect addr with disp (16M)
@DRk +dis24, WRj Word reg to indirect addr with disp (16M)
5.32
Binary Mode
4
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Mnemonic
<dest>, <src>
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Notes
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
MOVH
DRk(hi), #data16
16-bit immediate data into upper word of
dword reg
5
3
4
2
MOVS
WRj, Rm
Byte reg to word reg with sign extension
3
2
2
1
MOVZ
WRj, Rm
Byte reg to word reg with zeros extension
3
2
2
1
A, @A +DPTR
Code byte relative to DPTR to acc
1
6
1
6
A, @A +PC
Code byte relative to PC to acc
1
6
1
6
A, @Ri
External mem (8-bit addr) to acc (4)
1
4
2
5
A, @DPTR
External mem (16-bit addr) to acc (4)
1
5
1
5
@Ri, A
Acc to external mem (8-bit addr) (4)
1
4
1
4
@DPTR, A
Acc to external mem (16-bit addr) (4)
1
5
1
5
MOVC
MOVX
Note :
1.
2.
3.
4.
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
Instructions that move bits are in Table 5.43.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 to the number of states.
External memory addressed by instructions in the C51 Architecture is in the region specified by DPXL (reset value = 01h).
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.33
TSC80251
Table 5.42. Summary of Exchange, Push and Pop Instructions
Exchange Contents
Exchange Digit
Push
Pop
Mnemonic
XCH
XCHD
PUSH
POP
XCh <dest>, <src>
XCHD <dest>, <src>
PUSH <src>
POP <dest>
<dest> <src>
<dest>,
A src opnd
A3:0 on-chip RAM bits 3:0
SP ← SP +1; (SP) ← src
dest ← (SP); SP ← SP –1
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
A, Rn
Acc and reg
1
3
2
4
A, dir8
Acc and direct addr
2
3 (2)
2
3 (2)
A, @Ri
Acc and on-chip RAM (8-bit addr)
1
4
2
5
A, @Ri
Acc and low nibble in on-chip RAM (8-bit
addr)
1
4
2
5
dir8
Push direct byte onto stack
2
2
2
2
#data
Push immediate data onto stack
4
4
3
3
#data16
Push 16-bit immediate data onto stack
5
5
4
5
Rm
Push byte reg onto stack
3
4
2
3
WRj
Push word reg onto stack
3
6
2
5
DRk
Push double word reg onto stack
3
10
2
9
Dir
Pop direct byte from stack
2
3/3
2
3/3
Rm
Pop byte reg from stack
3
3
2
2
WRj
Pop word reg from stack
3
5
2
4
DRk
Pop double word reg from stack
3
9
2
8
Note :
1.
2.
5.34
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 to the number of states.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Table 5.43. Summary of Bit Instructions
Clear Bit
Set Bit
Complement Bit
AND Carry with Bit
AND Carry with Complement of Bit
OR Carry with Bit
ORL Carry with Complement of Bit
Move Bit to Carry
Move Bit from Carry
Mnemonic
CLR
SETB
CPL
ANL
ANL/
ORL
ORL/
MOV
bit ← 0
bit ← 1
bit ← ∅bit
CY ← CYΛ bit
CY ← CYΛ ∅bit
CY ← CY V bit
CY ← CY V ∅bit
CY ← bit
bit ← CY
CLR bit
SETB bit
CPL bit
ANL CY, bit
ANL CY, /bit
ANL CY, bit
ANL CY, /bit
MOV CY, bit
MOV bit, CY
<dest>, <src>
Notes
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
States
Bytes
States
CY
Clear carry
1
1
1
1
bit51
Clear direct bit
2
2 (2)
2
2 (2)
bit
Clear direct bit
4
4
3
3
CY
Set carry
1
1
1
1
bit51
Set direct bit
2
2 (2)
2
2 (2)
bit
Set direct bit
4
4 (2)
3
3 (2)
CY
Complement carry
1
1
1
1
bit51
Complement direct bit
2
2 (2)
2
2 (2)
bit
Complement direct bit
4
4 (2)
3
3 (2)
CY, bit51
And direct bit to carry
2
1 (3)
2
1 (3)
CY, bit
And direct bit to carry
4
3 (3)
3
2 (3)
CY, bit51
And complemented direct bit to carry
2
1 (3)
2
1 (3)
CY, /bit
And complemented direct bit to carry
4
3 (3)
3
2 (3)
CY, bit51
Or direct bit to carry
2
1 (3)
2
1 (3)
CY, bit
Or direct bit to carry
4
3 (3)
3
2 (3)
CY, bit51
Or complemented direct bit to carry
2
1 (3)
2
1 (3)
CY, /bit
Or complemented direct bit to carry
4
3 (3)
3
2 (3)
CY, bit51
Move direct bit to carry
2
1 (3)
2
1 (3)
CY, bit
Move direct bit to carry
4
3 (3)
3
2 (3)
bit51, CY
Move carry to direct bit
2
2 (2)
2
2 (2)
bit, CY
Move carry to direct bit
4
4 (2)
3
3 (2)
Note :
1.
2.
3.
A shaded cell denotes an instruction in the C51 Architecture.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 3:0), add 1 to the number of states.
If this instruction addresses an I/O Port (Px, x = 3:0), add 2 to the number of states.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.35
TSC80251
5.4. Instruction Descriptions
This section describes each instruction in the C251 Architecture.
Table 5.44. defines the symbols (–, ,1, 0, ?) used to indicate the effect of the instruction on the flags in the PSW and
PSW1 registers. For a conditional jump instruction, “!” indicates that a flag influences the decision to jump.
Table 5.44. Flag Symbols
Symbol
5.36
Description
–
The instruction does not modify the flag.
The instruction sets or clears the flag, as appropriate.
1
The instruction sets the flag.
0
The instruction clears the flag.
?
The instruction leaves the flag in an indeterminate state.
!
For a conditional jump instruction: the state of the flag before the instruction executes influences the
decision to jump or not jump.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ACALL <addr11>
Function:
Absolute call
Description:
Unconditionally calls a subroutine at the specified address. The instruction increments the 3–byte PC twice to obtain
the address of the following instruction, then pushes bytes 0 and 1 of the result onto the stack (byte 0 first) and
increments the stack pointer twice. The destination address is obtained by successively concatenating bits 15-11 of the
incremented PC, opcode bits 7-5, and the second byte of the instruction. The subroutine called must therefore start
within the same 2–Kbyte “page” of the program memory as the first byte of the instruction following ACALL.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The stack pointer (SP) contains 07h and the label ”SUBRTN” is at program memory location 0345h. After executing
the instruction ACALL SUBRTN at location 0123h, SP contains 09h; on–chip RAM locations 09h and 08h contain
01h and 25h, respectively; and the PC contains 0345h.
[Encoding]
a10 | a9 | a8 | 1
1
addr7–addr4
addr3–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ACALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.7:0)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.15:8)
(PC.10:0) ← page address
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.37
TSC80251
ADD <dest>,<src>
Function:
Add
Description:
Adds the source operand to the destination operand, which can be a register or the accumulator, leaving the result in
the register or accumulator. If there is a carry out of bit 7 (CY), the CY flag is set. If byte variables are added, and if
there is a carry out of bit 3 (AC), the AC flag is set. For addition of unsigned integers, the CY flag indicates that an
overflow occurred.
If there is a carry out of bit 6 but not out of bit 7, or a carry out of bit 7 but not bit 6, the OV flag is set. When adding
signed integers, the OV flag indicates a negative number produced as the sum of two positive operands, or a positive
sum from two negative operands.
Bit 6 and bit 7 in this description refer to the most significant byte of the operand (8, 16 or 32 bit)
Four source operand addressing modes are allowed: register, direct, register–indirect and immediate.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
n
n
n
n
n
Example:
Register 1 contains 0C3h (11000011B) and register 0 contains 0AAh (10101010B). After executing the instruction
ADD R1,R0 register 1 contains 6Dh (01101101B), the AC flag is clear, and the CY and OV flags are set.
ADD A,#data
[Encoding]
24
immed. data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(A) ← (A) + #data
ADD A,dir8
K
If this instruction addresses a Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 state.
[Encoding]
25
addr7–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(A) ← (A) + (dir8)
5.38
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ADD A,@Ri
[Encoding]
2
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ADD
(A) ← (A) + ((Ri))
ADD A,Rn
[Encoding]
2
1 rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ADD
(A) ← (A) + (Rn)
ADD Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
2
C
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(Rmd) ← (Rmd) + (Rms)
ADD WRjd, WRjs
[Encoding]
2
D
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(WRjd) ← (WRjd) + (WRjs)
ADD DRkd,DRks
[Encoding]
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.39
TSC80251
2
F
uuuu
UUUU
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(DRkd) ← (DRkd) + (DRks)
ADD Rm,#data
[Encoding]
2
E
ssss
0
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(Rm) ← (Rm) + #data
ADD WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
2
E
tttt
4
immed data hi
immed data low
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(WRj) ← (WRj) + #data16
ADD DRk,#0data16
[Encoding]
2
E
uuuu
8
immed data hi
immed data low
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(DRk) ← (DRk) + #data16
ADD Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
2
E
ssss
1
addr7–addr4
addr3–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(Rm) ← (Rm) + (dir8)
5.40
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ADD WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
2
E
tttt
5
addr7–addr4
addr3–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(WRj) ← (WRj) + (dir8)
ADD Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
2
E
ssss
3
addr15–
addr12
addr11–addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(Rm) ← (Rm) + (dir16)
addr7–addr4
addr3–addr0
addr7–addr4
addr3–addr0
ADD WRj,dir16
[Encoding]
2
E
tttt
7
addr15–
addr12
addr11–addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(WRj) ← (WRj) + (dir16)
ADD Rm,@WRj
[Encoding]
2
E
tttt
9
ssss
0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(Rm) ← (Rm) + ((WRj))
ADD Rm,@DRk
[Encoding]
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.41
TSC80251
2
E
uuuu
B
ssss
0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADD
(Rm) ← (Rm) + ((DRk))
5.42
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ADDC A,<src>
Function:
Add with carry
Description:
Simultaneously adds the specified byte variable, the CY flag and the accumulator contents, leaving the result in the
accumulator. If there is a carry out of bit 7 (CY), the CY flag is set; if there is a carry out of bit 3 (AC), the AC flag
is set. When adding unsigned integers, the CY flag indicates that an overflow occurred.
If there is a carry out of bit 6 but not out of bit 7, or a carry out of bit 7 but not bit 6, the OV flag is set. When adding
signed integers, the OV flag indicates a negative number produced as the sum of two positive operands, or a positive
sum from two negative operands.
Bit 6 and bit 7 in this description refer to the most significant byte of the operand (8, 16 or 32 bit)
Four source operand addressing modes are allowed: register, direct, register–indirect and immediate.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C3h (11000011B), register 0 contains 0AAh (10101010B) and the CY flag is set. After
executing the instruction ADDC A,R0 the accumulator contains 6Eh (01101110B), the AC flag is clear and the CY
and OV flags are set.
ADDC A,#data
[Encoding]
34
immed. data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (CY) + #data
ADDC A,dir8
[Encoding]
35
addr7–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (CY) + (dir8)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.43
TSC80251
ADDC A,@Ri
[Encoding]
3
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (CY) + ((Ri))
ADDC A,Rn
[Encoding]
3
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (CY) + (Rn)
5.44
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
AJMP addr11
Function:
Absolute jump
Description:
Transfers program execution to the specified address, which is formed at run time by concatenating the upper five bits
of the PC (after incrementing the PC twice), opcode bits 7-5, and the second byte of the instruction. The destination
must therefore be within the same 2–Kbyte “page” of program memory as the first byte of the instruction following
AJMP.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The label ”JMPADR” is at program memory location 0123h. After executing the instruction AJMP JMPADR at
location 0345h the PC contains 0123h.
[Encoding]
a10 | a9 | a8 | 0
1
addr7–addr4
addr3–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
AJMP
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(PC.10:0) ← page address
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.45
TSC80251
ANL <dest>,<src>
Function:
Logical–AND
Description:
Performs the bitwise logical–AND (Λ) operation between the specified variables and stores the results in the
destination variable.
The two operands allow 10 addressing mode combinations. When the destination is the register or accumulator, the
source can use register, direct, register–indirect or immediate addressing; when the destination is a direct address, the
source can be the accumulator or immediate data.
Note :
When this instruction is used to modify an output Port, the value used as the original Port data is read from the output data latch, not the input
pins.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
Register 1 contains 0C3h (11000011B) and register 0 contains 55h (01010101B). After executing the instruction ANL
R1, R0 register 1 contains 41h (01000001B).
When the destination is a directly addressed byte, this instruction clears combinations of bits in any RAM location or
hardware register. The mask byte determining the pattern of bits to be cleared would either be an immediate constant
contained in the instruction or a value computed in the register or accumulator at run time. The instruction ANL
P1,#01110011B clears bits 7, 3, and 2 of output Port 1.
ANL dir8,A
[Encoding]
52
addr7–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(dir8) ← (dir8) Λ (A)
ANL dir8,#data
[Encoding]
53
5.46
addr7–addr0
immed data
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(dir8) ← (dir8) Λ #data
ANL A,#data
[Encoding]
54
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(A) ← (A ) Λ #data
ANL A,dir8
[Encoding]
55
addr7–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(A) ← (A ) Λ (dir8)
ANL A,@Ri
[Encoding]
5
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode =[A5][Encoding]
ANL
(A) ← (A ) Λ ((Ri))
ANL A,Rn
[Encoding]
5
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ANL
(A) ← (A ) Λ (Rn)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.47
TSC80251
ANL Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
5
C
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(Rmd) ← (Rmd) Λ (Rms)
ANL WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
5
D
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(WRjd) ← (WRjd) Λ (WRjs)
ANL Rm,#data
[Encoding]
5
F
ssss
0
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(Rm) ← (Rm) Λ #data
ANL WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
5
E
tttt
4
immed data hi
immed data low
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(WRj) ← (WRj) Λ #data16
ANL Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
5.48
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
5
E
ssss
1
addr7–addr4
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(Rm) ← (Rm) Λ (dir8)
addr3–addr0
ANL WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
5
E
tttt
5
addr7–addr4
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(WRj) ← (WRj) Λ (dir8)
addr3–addr0
ANL Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
5
E
ssss
3
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(Rm) ← (Rm) Λ (dir16)
addr7-addr0
ANL WRj,dir16
[Encoding]
5
eE
tttt
7
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(WRj) ← (WRj) Λ (dir16)
addr7-addr0
ANL Rm,@WRj
[Encoding]
5
E
tttt
9
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(Rm) ← (Rm) Λ ((WRj))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
0
5.49
TSC80251
ANL Rm,@DRk
[Encoding]
5
E
uuuu
B
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(Rm) ← (Rm) Λ ((DRk))
5.50
0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ANL CY,<src-bit>
Function:
Logical–AND for bit variables
Description:
If the boolean value of the source bit is a logical 0, clear the CY flag; otherwise leave the CY flag in its current state.
A slash (”/”) preceding the operand in the assembly language indicates that the logical complement of the addressed
bit is used as the source value, but the source bit itself is not affected.
Only direct addressing is allowed for the source operand.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
Example :
Set the CY flag if, and only if, P1.0 = 1, ACC. 7 = 1 and OV = 0:
MOV CY,P1.0 ; Load carry with input pin state
ANL CY,ACC.7 ; AND carry with accumulator bit 7
ANL CY,/OV ; AND with inverse of overflow flag
ANL CY,bit51
[Encoding]
8
2
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(CY) ← (CY) Λ (bit51)
ANL CY,/bit51
[Encoding]
B
0
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(CY) ← (CY) Λ ∅ (bit51)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.51
TSC80251
ANL CY,bit
[Encoding]
A
9
8
0yyy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(CY) ← (CY) Λ (bit)
ANL CY,/bit
[Encoding]
A
9
F
0yyy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ANL
(CY) ← (CY) Λ ∅ (bit)
5.52
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
CJNE <dest>,<src>,rel
Function:
Compare and jump if not equal.
Description:
Compares the magnitudes of the first two operands and branches if their values are not equal. The branch destination
is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the last instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the
PC to the start of the next instruction. If the unsigned integer value of <dest–byte> is less than the unsigned integer
value of <src–byte>, the CY flag is set. Neither operand is affected.
The first two operands allow four addressing mode combinations: the accumulator may be compared with any directly
addressed byte or immediate data and any indirect RAM location or working register can be compared with an
immediate constant.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
3
_
_
3
3
Example :
The accumulator contains 34h and R7 contains 56h. After executing the first instruction in the sequence
CJNE R7,#60h,NOT_EQ ;R7 = 60h ; . . .
...
NOT_EQ:
JC
REQ_LOW ; IF R7 < 60h
;R7 > 60h
;...
...
the CY flag is set and program execution continues at label NOT_EQ. By testing the CY flag, this instruction
determines whether R7 is greater or less than 60h.
If the data being presented to Port 1 is also 34h, then executing the instruction, WAIT: CJNE A,P1,WAIT clears the
CY flag and continues with the next instruction in the sequence, since the accumulator does equal the data read from
Port 1. (If some other value was being input on Port 1, the program loops at this point until the Port 1 data changes to
34h.)
CJNE A,#data,rel
[Encoding]
B4
immed data
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(A) ≠ #data]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF [(A) < #data]
THEN
(CY) ← 1
ELSE
(CY) ← 0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.53
TSC80251
CJNE A,dir8,rel
[Encoding]
B5
addr7-addr0
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(A) ≠ (dir8)]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF [(A) < (dir8)]
THEN
(CY) ← 1
ELSE
(CY) ← 0
CJNE @Ri,#data,rel
[Encoding]
B
011i
immed data
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [((Ri)) ≠ #data]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF [((Ri)) < #data]
THEN
(CY) ← 1
ELSE
(CY) ← 0
5.54
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
CJNE Rn,#data,rel
[Encoding]
B
1rrr
immed data
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(Rn) ≠ #data]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF [(Rn) < #data]
THEN
(CY) ← 1
ELSE
(CY) ← 0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.55
TSC80251
CLR A
Function:
Clear accumulator
Description:
Clears the accumulator (i.e., resets all bits to zero).
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 5Ch (01011100B). The instruction CLR A clears the accumulator to 00h (00000000B).
[Encoding]
E
4
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CLR
(A) ← 0
5.56
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
CLR bit
Function:
Clear bit
Description:
Clears the specified bit. CLR can operate on the CY flag or any directly addressable bit.
FLAGS : Only for instructions with CY as the operand.
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
Example :
Port 1 contains 5Dh (01011101B). After executing the instruction CLR P1.2 Port 1 contains 59h (01011001B).
CLR bit51
[Encoding]
C2
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CLR
(bit51) ← 0
CLR CY
[Encoding]
C3
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CLR
(CY) ← 0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.57
TSC80251
CLR bit
K
If this instruction addresses a Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 2 states.
[Encoding]
A
9
C
0 yyy
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CLR
(bit) ← 0
5.58
bit addr
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
CMP <dest>,<src>
Function:
Compare
Description:
Subtracts the source operand from the destination operand. The result is not stored in the destination operand. If a
borrow is needed for bit 7, the CY (borrow) flag is set; otherwise it is clear.
When subtracting signed integers, the OV flag indicates a negative result when a negative value is subtracted from a
positive value, or a positive result when a positive value is subtracted from a negative value.
Bit 7 in this description refers to the most significant byte of the operand (8, 16 or 32 bit)
The source operand allows four addressing modes: register, direct, immediate and indirect.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
Example :
Register 1 contains 0C9h (11001001B) and register 0 contains 54h (01010100B). The instruction CMP R1,R0 clears
the CY and AC flags and sets the OV flag.
CMP Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
B
C
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(Rmd) - (Rms)
CMP WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
B
E
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(WRjd) - (WRjs)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.59
TSC80251
CMP DRkd,DRks
[Encoding]
B
F
uuuu
UUUU
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(DRkd) - (DRks)
CMP Rm,#data
[Encoding]
B
E
ssss
0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(Rm) - #data
immed data
CMP WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
B
E
tttt
4
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(WRj) - #data16
immed data low
CMP DRk, #0data16
[Encoding]
B
E
uuuu
8
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP (DRk) - #0data16
immed data hi
CMP DRk,#1data16
[Encoding]
5.60
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
B
E
uuuu
C
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(DRk) - #1data16
immed data hi
CMP Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
B
E
ssss
1
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(Rm) - (dir8)
addr7-addr0
CMP WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
B
E
tttt
5
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(WRj) - (dir8)
CMP Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
B
E
ssss
3
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(Rm) - (dir8)
addr15-addr8
addr7-addr0
addr15-addr8
addr7-addr0
CMP WRj,dir16
[Encoding]
B
E
tttt
7
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(WRj) - (dir16)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.61
TSC80251
CMP Rm,@WRj
[Encoding]
B
E
tttt
9
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(Rm) - ((WRj))
ssss
0000
ssss
0000
CMP Rm,@DRk
[Encoding]
1011
1110
uuuu
1011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CMP
(Rm) - ((DRk))
5.62
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
CPL A
Function:
Complement accumulator
Description:
Logically complements (∅) each bit of the accumulator (one’s complement). Clear bits which are set and set bits which
are cleared.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 5Ch (01011100B). After executing the instruction CPL A the accumulator contains 0A3h
(10100011B).
[Encoding]
F4
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CPL
(A) ← ∅(A)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.63
TSC80251
CPL bit
Function:
Complement bit
Description:
Complements (∅) the specified bit variable. A clear bit is set, and a set bit is cleared. CPL can operate on the CY or
any directly addressable bit.
Note:
When this instruction is used to modify an output pin, the value used as the original data is read from the output data latch, not the input pin.
FLAGS : Only for instructions with CY as the operand.
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
Example :
Port 1 contains 5Bh (01011101B). After executing the instruction sequence CPL P1.1 CPL P1.2 Port 1 contains 5Bh
(01011011B).
CPL bit51
[Encoding]
B2
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CPL
(bit51) ← ∅(bit51)
CPL CY
[Encoding]
B3
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CPL
(CY) ← ∅(CY)
CPL bit
[Encoding]
5.64
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
A
9
B
0yyy
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
CPL
(bit) ← ∅(bit)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
bit addr
5.65
TSC80251
DA A
Function:
Decimal–adjust accumulator for addition
Description:
Adjusts the 8–bit value in the accumulator that resulted from the earlier addition of two variables (each in packed–BCD
format), producing two 4–bit digits. Any ADD or ADDC instruction may have been used to perform the addition.
If accumulator bits 3:0 are greater than nine (XXXX1010-XXXX1111), or if the AC flag is set, six is added to the
accumulator, producing the proper BCD digit in the low nibble. This internal addition sets the CY flag if a carry out
of the lowest 4 bits propagated through all higher bits, but it does not clear the CY flag otherwise.
If the CY flag is now set or if the upper four bits now exceed nine (1010XXXX-1111XXXX), these four bits are
incremented by six, producing the proper BCD digit in the high nibble. Again, this sets the CY flag if there was a carry
out of the upper four bits, but does not clear the carry. The CY flag thus indicates if the sum of the original two BCD
variables is greater than 100, allowing multiple–precision decimal addition. The OV flag is not affected.
All of this occurs during one instruction cycle. Essentially, this instruction performs the decimal conversion by adding
00h, 06h, 60h or 66h to the accumulator, depending on initial accumulator and PSW conditions.
Note :
DA A cannot simply convert a Hexadecimal number in the accumulator to BCD notation, nor does DA A apply to decimal subtraction.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
3
3
Example :
The accumulator contains 56h (01010110B), which represents the packed BCD digits of the decimal number 56.
Register 3 contains 67h (01100111B), which represents the packed BCD digits of the decimal number 67. The CY flag
is set. After executing the instruction sequence ADDC A,R3.
DA A the accumulator contains 0BEh (10111110B) and the CY and AC flags are clear. The Decimal Adjust instruction
then alters the accumulator to the value 24h (00100100B), indicating the packed BCD digits of the decimal number
24, the lower two digits of the decimal sum of 56, 67, and the carry–in. The CY flag is set by the Decimal Adjust
instruction, indicating that a decimal overflow occurred. The true sum of 56, 67 and 1 is 124. BCD variables can be
incremented or decremented by adding 01h or 99h. If the accumulator contains 30h (representing the digits of 30
decimal), then the instruction sequence:
ADD A, #99h.
DA A
leaves the CY flag set and 29h in the accumulator, since 30 + 99 = 129. The low byte of the sum can be interpreted
to mean 30 - 1 = 29.
[Encoding]
1101
5.66
0100
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DA
(Contents of accumulator are BCD)
IF [[(A.3:0) > 9] V [(AC) = 1]]
THEN (A.3:0) ← (A.3:0) + 6
AND
IF [[(A.7:4) > 9] V [(CY) = 1]]
THEN (A.7:4) ← (A.7:4) + 6
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.67
TSC80251
DEC byte
Function:
Decrement
Description:
Decrements the specified byte variable by 1. An original value of 00h underflows to 0FFh. Four operands addressing
modes are allowed: accumulator, register, direct or register–indirect.
Note :
When this instruction is used to modify an output Port, the value used as the original Port data is read from the output data latch, not the input
pins.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
Register 0 contains 7Fh (01111111B). On–chip RAM locations 7Eh and 7Fh contain 00h and 40h, respectively. After
executing the instruction sequence:
DEC @R0
DEC R0
DEC @R0
register 0 contains 7Eh and on–chip RAM locations 7Eh and 7Fh are set to 0FFh and 3Fh, respectively.
DEC A
[Encoding]
0001
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DEC
(A) ← (A) - 1
DEC dir8
[Encoding]
0001
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DEC
(dir8) ← (dir8) - 1
5.68
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
DEC @Ri
[Encoding]
0001
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
DEC
((Ri)) ← ((Ri)) - 1
DEC Rn
[Encoding]
0001
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
DEC
(Rn) ← (Rn) - 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.69
TSC80251
DEC <dest>,<src>
Function:
Decrement
Description:
Decrements the specified variable at the destination operand by 1, 2 or 4. An original value of 00h underflows to 0FFh.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
Register 0 contains 7Fh (01111111B). After executing the instruction sequence DEC R0,#1 register 0 contains 7Eh.
DEC Rm,#short
[Encoding]
0001
1011
ssss
01vv
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DEC
(Rm) ← (Rm) - #short
DEC WRj,#short
[Encoding]
0001
1011
tttt
01vv
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DEC
(WRj) ← (WRj) - #short
DEC DRk,#short
[Encoding]
0001
1011
uuuu
11vv
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DEC
(DRk) ← (DRk) - #short
5.70
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
DIV <dest>,<src>
Function:
Divide
Description:
Divides the unsigned integer in the register by the unsigned integer operand in register addressing mode and clears the
CY and OV flags.
For byte operands (<dest>,<src> = Rmd,Rms) the result is 16 bits. The 8–bit quotient is stored in the higher byte of
the word where Rmd resides; the 8–bit remainder is stored in the lower byte of the word where Rmd resides. For
example: register 1 contains 251 (0FBh or 11111011B) and register 5 contains 18 (12h or 00010010B). After executing
the instruction DIV R1,R5 register 0 contains 13 (0Dh or 00001101B); register 1 contains 17 (11h or 00010001B), since
251 = (13 x 18) + 17; and the CY and OV bits are clear (See Flags).
FLAGS : The CY flag is cleared. The N flag is set if the MSB of the quotient is set. The Z flag
is set if the quotient is zero.:
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
0
Exception: if <src> contains 00h, the values returned in both operands are undefined; the CY flag is cleared, OV flag
is set, and the rest of the flags are undefined.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
0
?
1
?
?
DIV Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
1000
1100
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DIV (8–bit operands)
(Rmd) ← remainder (Rmd) / (Rms)
if <dest>md = 0,2,4,..,14
(Rmd+1) ← quotient (Rmd) / (Rms)
(Rmd-1) ← remainder (Rmd) / (Rms)
if <dest> md = 1,3,5,..,15
(Rmd) ← quotient (Rmd) / (Rms)
DIV WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.71
TSC80251
1000
1101
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DIV (16–bit operands)
(WRjd) ← remainder (WRjd) / (WRjs)
if <dest> jd = 0, 4, 8, ... 28
(WRjd+2) ← quotient (WRjd) / (WRjs)
(WRjd-2) ← remainder (WRjd) / (WRjs))
if <dest> jd = 2, 6, 10, ... 30
(WRjd) ← quotient (WRjd) / (WRjs
For example, for a destination register WR4, assume the quotient is 1122h and the remainder is 3344h. Then, the results
are stored in these register file locations:
5.72
Location
4
5
6
7
Contents
33h
44h
11h
22h
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
DIV AB
Function:
Divide
Description:
Divides the unsigned 8–bit integer in the accumulator by the unsigned 8–bit integer in register B. The accumulator
receives the integer part of the quotient; register B receives the integer remainder. The CY and OV flags are cleared.
Exception: if register B contains 00h, the values returned in the accumulator and register B are undefined; the CY flag
is cleared and the OV flag is set.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
0
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
0
?
1
?
?
For division by zero:
FLAGS :
Example :
The accumulator contains 251 (0FBh or 11111011B) and register B contains 18 (12h or 00010010B). After executing
the instruction DIV AB the accumulator contains 13 (0Dh or 00001101B); register B contains 17 (11h or 00010001B),
since 251 = (13 x 18) + 17; and the CY and OV flags are clear.
[Encoding]
1000
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DIV
(A) ← quotient (A)/(B)
(B) ← remainder (A)/(B)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.73
TSC80251
DJNZ <byte>,<rel-addr>
Function:
Decrement and jump if not zero
Description:
Decrements the specified location by 1 and branches to the address specified by the second operand if the resulting
value is not zero. An original value of 00h underflows to 0FFh. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed
relative–displacement value in the last instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the
following instruction.
The location decremented may be a register or directly addressed byte.
Note :
When this instruction is used to modify an output Port, the value used as the original Port data is read from the output data latch, not the input
pins.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The on–chip RAM locations 40h, 50h, and 60h contain 01h, 70h, and 15h, respectively. After executing the following
instruction sequence:
DJNZ 40h,LABEL1
DJNZ 50h,LABEL2
DJNZ 60h,LABEL
on–chip RAM locations 40h, 50h, and 60h contain 00h, 6Fh, and 15h, respectively, and program execution continues
at label LABEL2. (The first jump was not taken because the result was zero.)
This instruction provides a simple way of executing a program loop a given number of times, or for adding a moderate
time delay (from 2 to 512 machine cycles) with a single instruction.
The instruction sequence,
TOGGLE :
MOV
R2, #8
CPL
P1.7
DJNZ
R2, TOGGLE
toggles P1.7 eight times, causing four output pulses to appear at bit 7 of output Port 1. Each pulse lasts three states:
two for DJNZ and one to alter the pin.
DJNZ dir8,rel
[Encoding]
1101
0101
addr7-addr0
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DJNZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(dir8) ← (dir8) - 1
IF [[(dir8) > 0] or [(dir8) < 0]]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.74
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
DJNZ Rn,rel
[Encoding]
1101
1rrr
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
DJNZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(Rn) ← (Rn) - 1
IF [[(Rn) > 0] or [(Rn) < 0]]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.75
TSC80251
ECALL <dest>
Function:
Extended call
Description:
Calls a subroutine located at the specified address. The instruction adds four to the program counter to generate the
address of the next instruction and then PUSHes the 24–bit result onto the stack (high byte first), incrementing the stack
pointer by three. The 8 bits of the high word and the 16 bits of the low word of the PC are then loaded, respectively,
with the second, third and fourth bytes of the ECALL instruction. Program execution continues with the instruction
at this address. The subroutine may therefore begin anywhere in the full 16–Mbyte memory space.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The stack pointer contains 07h and the label ”SUBRTN” is assigned to program memory location 123456h. After
executing the instruction ECALL SUBRTN at location 054321h, SP contains 0Ah; on–chip RAM locations 08h, 09h
and 0Ah contain 05h, 43h and 21h, respectively; and the PC contains 123456h.
ECALL addr24
[Encoding]
1001
1010
addr23- addr16
addr15-addr8
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ECALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 4
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.23:16)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.15:8)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.7:0)
(PC) ← (addr.23:0)
ECALL @DRk
[Encoding]
1001
5.76
1001
uuuu
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ECALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 4
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.23:16)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.15:8)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.7:0)
(PC) ← ((DRk))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.77
TSC80251
EJMP <dest>
Function:
Extended jump
Description:
Causes an unconditional branch to the specified address by loading the 8 bits of the high order and 16 bits of the low
order words of the PC with the second, third, and fourth instruction bytes. The destination may be therefore be anywhere
in the full 16–Mbyte memory space.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The label ”JMPADR” is assigned to the instruction at program memory location 123456h. The instruction is EJMP
JMPADR
EJMP addr24
[Encoding]
1000
1010
addr23- addr16
addr15-addr8
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
EJMP
(PC)← (addr.23:0)
EJMP @DRk
[Encoding]
1000
1001
uuuu
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
EJMP
(PC) ← ((DRk))
5.78
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ERET
Function:
Extended return
Description:
POPs byte 2, byte 1, and byte 0 of the 3–byte PC successively from the stack and decrements the stack pointer by 3.
Program execution continues at the resulting address, which normally is the instruction immediately following
ECALL.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The stack pointer contains 0Bh. On–chip RAM locations 08h, 09h and 0Ah contain 01h, 23h and 49h, respectively.
After executing the instruction ERET the stack pointer contains 08h and program execution continues at location
012349h.
[Encoding]
1010
1010
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ERET
(PC.7:0) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC.15:8) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC.23:16) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.79
TSC80251
INC <Byte>
Function:
Increment
Description:
Increments the specified byte variable by 1. An original value of 0FFh overflows to 00h. Three addressing modes are
allowed for 8–bit operands: register, direct, or register–indirect.
Note :
When this instruction is used to modify an output Port, the value used as the original Port data is read from the output data latch, not the input
pins.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
Register 0 contains 7Eh (011111110B) and on–chip RAM locations 7Eh and 7Fh contain 0FFh and 40h, respectively.
After executing the instruction sequence:
INC @R0
INC R0
INC @R0
register 0 contains 7Fh and on–chip RAM locations 7Eh and 7Fh contain 00h and 41h, respectively.
INC A
[Encoding]
0000
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
INC
(A) ← (A) + 1
INC dir8
[Encoding]
0000
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
INC
(dir8) ← (dir8) + 1
5.80
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
INC @Ri
[Encoding]
0000
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
INC
((Ri) ← ((Ri)) + 1
INC Rn
[Encoding]
0000
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
INC
(Rn) ← (Rn) + 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.81
TSC80251
INC <dest>,<src>
Function:
Increment
Description:
Increments the specified variable by 1, 2 or 4. An original value of 0FFh overflows to 00h.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
Register 0 contains 7Eh (011111110B). After executing the instruction INC R0,#1 register 0 contains 7Fh.
INC Rm,#short
[Encoding]
0000
1011
ssss
00vv
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
INC
(Rm) ← (Rm) + #short
INC WRj,#short
[Encoding]
0000
1011
tttt
01vv
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
INC
(WRj) ← (WRj) + #short
INC DRk,#short
[Encoding]
0000
1011
uuuu
11vv
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
INC
(DRk) ← (DRk) + #shortdata pointer
5.82
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
INC DPTR
Function:
Increment data pointer
Description:
Increments the 16–bit data pointer by one. A 16–bit increment (modulo 216 ) is performed; an overflow of the low byte
of the data pointer (DPL) from 0FFh to 00h increments the high byte of the data pointer (DPH) by one. An overflow
of the high byte (DPH) does not increment the high word of the extended data pointer (DPX = DR56).
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
Registers DPH and DPL contain 12h and 0FEh, respectively. After the instruction sequence:
INC DPTR
INC DPTR
INC DPTR
DPH and DPL contain 13h and 01h, respectively.
[Encoding]
1010
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
INC
(DPTR) ← (DPTR) + 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.83
TSC80251
JB bit51,rel JB bit,rel
Function:
Jump if bit set
Description:
If the specified bit is a one, jump to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The branch
destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the third instruction byte to the PC, after
incrementing the PC to the first byte of the next instruction. The bit tested is not modified.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
Input Port 1 contains 11001010B and the accumulator contains 56h (01010110B). After the instruction sequence:
JB P1.2,LABEL1
JB ACC.2,LABEL2
program execution continues at label LABEL2.
5.84
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Variations
JB bit51,rel
0010
0000
bit addr
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JB
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (bit51) = 1
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
JB bit,rel
[Encoding]
1010
1001
0010
0yyy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JB
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(bit) = 1]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
rel addr
5.85
TSC80251
JBC bit51,rel JBC bit,rel
Function:
Jump if bit is set and clear bit.
Description:
If the specified bit is one, branch to the specified address; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The bit is not
cleared if it is already a zero. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the
third instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the next instruction.
Note :
When this instruction is used to test an output pin, the value used as the original data is read from the output data latch, not the input pin.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
!
_
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 56h (01010110B). After the instruction sequence:
JBC ACC.3,LABEL1
JBC ACC.2,LABEL2
the accumulator contains 52h (01010010B) and program execution continues at label LABEL2.
JBC bit51,rel
[Encoding]
0001
0000
bit addr
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JBC
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(bit51) = 1]
THEN
(bit51) ← 0
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
JBC bit,rel
[Encoding]
1010
1001
0001
0yyy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JBC
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(bit51) = 1]
THEN
(bit51) ← 0
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.86
rel addr
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JC rel
Function:
Jump if carry is set
Description:
If the CY flag is set, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The branch destination
is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing
the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
!
_
_
_
_
Example :
The CY flag is clear. After the instruction sequence:
JC
CPL
JC
LABEL1
CY
LABEL 2
the CY flag is set and program execution continues at label LABEL2.
[Encoding]
0100
0000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JC
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(CY) = 1]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.87
TSC80251
JE rel
Function:
Jump if equal
Description:
If the Z flag is set, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The branch destination
is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing
the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
!
Example :
The Z flag is set. After executing the instruction JE LABEL1 program execution continues at label LABEL1.
[Encoding]
0110
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JE
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(Z) = 1]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.88
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JG rel
Function:
Jump if greater than
Description:
If the Z flag and the CY flag are both clear, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction.
The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the
PC, after incrementing the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
!
_
Example :
The instruction JG LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at label LABEL1 if the Z flag and the CY flag are
both clear.
[Encoding]
0011
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JG
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [[(Z) = 0] AND [(CY) = 0]]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.89
TSC80251
JLE rel
Function:
Jump if less than or equal
Description:
If the Z flag or the CY flag is set, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The
branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC,
after incrementing the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
!
!
Example :
The instruction JLE LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at LABEL1 if the Z flag or the CY flag is set.
[Encoding]
0010
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding] Source Mode =
[Encoding]
JLE
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [[(Z) = 1] OR [(CY) = 1]]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.90
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JMP @A+DPTR
Function:
Jump indirect
Description:
Adds the 8–bit unsigned content of the accumulator with the 16–bit data pointer and load the resulting sum into the
lower 16 bits of the program counter. This is the address for subsequent instruction fetches. The contents of the
accumulator and the data pointer are not affected.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains an even number from 0 to 6. The following sequence of instructions branchs to one of four
AJMP instructions in a jump table starting at JMP_TBL :
MOV
DPTR,#JMP_TBL
JMP
@A+DPTR
AJMP
LABEL0
AJMP
LABEL1
AJMP
LABEL2
AJMP
LABEL3
If the accumulator contains 04h at the start this sequence, execution jumps to LABEL2. Remember that AJMP is a
two–byte instruction, so the jump instructions start at every other address.
[Encoding]
0111
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JMP
(PC.15:0) ← (A) + (DPTR)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.91
TSC80251
JNB bit51,rel JNB bit,rel
Function:
Jump if bit not set
Description:
If the specified bit is clear, branch to the specified address; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The branch
destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the third instruction byte to the PC, after
incrementing the PC to the first byte of the next instruction. The bit tested is not modified.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
Input Port 1 contains 11001010B and the accumulator contains 56h (01010110B). After executing the instruction
sequence:
JNB P1.3,LABEL1
JNB ACC.3,LABEL2
program execution continues at label LABEL2.
JNB bit51,rel
[Encoding]
0011
0000
bit addr
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JNB
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(bit51) = 0]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
JNB bit,rel
[Encoding]
1010
1001
0011
00yy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JNB
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF [(bit) = 0]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.92
rel addr
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JNC rel
Function: Jump if carry not set
Description:
If the CY flag is clear, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The branch
destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC, after
incrementing the PC twice to point to the next instruction. The CY flag is not modified.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
!
_
_
_
_
Example :
The CY flag is set. The instruction sequence:
JNC
CPL
JNC
LABEL1
CY
LABEL2
clears the CY flag and causes program execution to continue at label LABEL2.
[Encoding]
0101
0000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JNC
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(CY) = 0]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.93
TSC80251
JNE rel
Function:
Jump if not equal
Description:
If the Z flag is clear, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The branch destination
is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing
the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
!
Example :
The instruction JNE LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at LABEL1 if the Z flag is clear.
[Encoding]
0111
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JNE
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(Z) = 0]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.94
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JNZ rel
Function:
Jump if accumulator not zero
Description:
If any bit of the accumulator is set, branch to the specified address; otherwise proceed with the next instruction. The
branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC,
after incrementing the PC twice. The accumulator is not modified.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
!
Example :
The accumulator contains 00h. After executing the instruction sequence:
JNZ
INC
JNZ
LABEL1
A
LABEL2
the accumulator contains 01h and program execution continues at label LABEL2.
[Encoding]
0111
0000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JNZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(A) ≠ 0]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.95
TSC80251
JSG rel
Function:
Jump if greater than (signed)
Description:
If the Z flag is clear and the N flag and the OV flag have the same value, branch to the address specified; otherwise
proceed with the next instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in
the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
!
!
!
Example :
The instruction JSG LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at LABEL1 if the Z flag is clear and the N flag
and the OV flag have the same value.
[Encoding]
0001
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JSG
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(Z) = 0] AND [(N) = (OV)]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.96
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JSGE rel
Function:
Jump if greater than or equal (signed)
Description:
If the N flag and the OV flag have the same value, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next
instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction
byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
!
!
!
Example :
The instruction JSGE LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at LABEL1 if the N flag and the OV flag have
the same value.
[Encoding]
0101
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JSGE
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(N) = (OV)]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.97
TSC80251
JSL rel
Function:
Jump if less than (signed)
Description:
If the N flag and the OV flag have different values, branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next
instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction
byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
!
!
!
Example :
The instruction JSL LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at LABEL1 if the N flag and the OV flag have
different values.
[Encoding]
0100
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JSL
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(N) ≠ (OV)]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.98
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
JSLE rel
Function:
Jump if less than or equal (signed)
Description:
If the Z flag is set OR if the the N flag and the OV flag have different values, branch to the address specified; otherwise
proceed with the next instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in
the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
!
!
!
Example :
The instruction JSLE LABEL1 causes program execution to continue at LABEL1 if the Z flag is set OR if the the N
flag and the OV flag have different values.
[Encoding]
0000
1000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JSLE
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [[(Z) = 1] OR [(N) ≠ (OV)]]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.99
TSC80251
JZ rel
Function:
Jump if accumulator zero
Description:
If all bits of the accumulator are clear (zero), branch to the address specified; otherwise proceed with the next
instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative displacement in the second instruction
byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice. The accumulator is not modified.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
!
Example :
The accumulator contains 01h. After executing the instruction sequence:
JZ
LABEL1
DEC A
JZ
LABEL2
the accumulator contains 00h and program execution continues at label LABEL2.
[Encoding]
0110
0000
rel. addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
JZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF [(A) = 0]
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.100
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
LCALL <dest>
Function:
Long call
Description:
Calls a subroutine located at the specified address. The instruction adds three to the program counter to generate the
address of the next instruction and then PUSHes the 16–bit result onto the stack (low byte first). The stack pointer is
incremented by two. The high and low bytes of the PC are then loaded, respectively, with the second and third bytes
of the LCALL instruction. Program execution continues with the instruction at this address. The subroutine may
therefore begin anywhere in the 64–Kbyte region of memory where the next instruction is located.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The stack pointer contains 07h and the label ”SUBRTN” is assigned to program memory location 1234h. After
executing the instruction LCALL SUBRTN at location 0123h, the stack pointer contains 09h, on–chip RAM locations
08h and 09h contain 01h and 26h and the PC contains 1234h.
LCALL addr16
[Encoding]
0001
0010
addr15-addr8
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
LCALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.7:0)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.15:8)
(PC) ← (addr.15:0)
LCALL @WRj
[Encoding]
1001
1001
tttt
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
LCALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.7:0)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC.15:8)
(PC) ← ((WRj))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.101
TSC80251
LJMP <dest>
Function:
Long Jump
Description:
Causes an unconditional branch to the specified address, by loading the high and low bytes of the PC (respectively)
with the second and third instruction bytes. The destination may therefore be anywhere in the 64–Kbyte memory region
where the next instruction is located.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The label ”JMPADR” is assigned to the instruction at program memory location 1234h. After executing the instruction
LJMP JMPADR at location 0123h, the program counter contains 1234h.
LJMP addr16
[Encoding]
0000
0010
addr15–addr8
addr7–addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
LJMP
(PC) ← (addr.15:0)
LJMP @WRj
[Encoding]
1000
1001
tttt
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
LJMP
(PC) ← ((WRj))
5.102
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MOV <dest>,<src>
Function:
Move byte variable
Description:
Copies the byte variable specified by the second operand into the location specified by the first operand. The source
byte is not affected.
This is by far the most flexible operation. Twenty–four combinations of source and destination addressing modes are
allowed.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
On–chip RAM location 30h contains 40h, on–chip RAM location 40h contains 10h, and input Port 1 contains
11001010B (0CAh). After executing the instruction sequence:
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
R0,#30h
;R0 < = 30h
A,@R0
;A < = 40h
R1,A ;R1 < = 40h
B,@R1
;B < = 10h
@R1,P1
;RAM (40h) < = 0CAh
P2,P1 ;P2 #0CAh
register 0 contains 30h, the accumulator and register 1 contain 40h, register B contains 10h and on–chip RAM location
40h and output Port 2 contain 0CAh (11001010B).
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.103
TSC80251
MOV A,#data
[Encoding]
0111
0100
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(A) ← #data
MOV dir8,#data
[Encoding]
0111
0101
addr7-addr0
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← #data
MOV @Ri,#data
[Encoding]
0111
011i
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((Ri)) ← #data
MOV Rn,#data
[Encoding]
0111
1rrr
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(Rn) ← #data
MOV dir8,dir8
[Encoding]
1000
5.104
0101
addr7-addr0
addr7-addr0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← (dir8)
MOV dir8,@Ri
[Encoding]
1000
011i
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← ((Ri))
MOV dir8,Rn
[Encoding]
1000
1rrr
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← (Rn)
MOV @Ri,dir8
[Encoding]
1010
011i
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
((Ri)) ← (dir8)
MOV Rn,dir8
[Encoding]
1010
1rrr
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(Rn) ← (dir8)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.105
TSC80251
MOV A,dir8
[Encoding]
1110
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(A) ← (dir8)
MOV A,@Ri
[Encoding]
1110
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(A) ← ((Ri))
MOV A,Rn
[Encoding]
1110
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(A) ← (Rn)
MOV dir8,A
[Encoding]
1111
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← (A )
MOV @Ri,A
[Encoding]
1111
5.106
011i
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
((Ri)) ← (A)
MOV Rn,A
[Encoding]
1111
111r
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
MOV
(Rn) ← (A)
MOV Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
0111
1100
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rmd) ← (Rms)
MOV WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
0111
1101
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRjd) ← (WRjs)
MOV DRkd,DRks
[Encoding]
0111
1111
uuuu
UUUU
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(DRkd) ← (DRks)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.107
TSC80251
MOV Rm,#data
[Encoding]
0111
1110
ssss
0000
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← #data
MOV WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
0111
1110
tttt
0100
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj) ← #data16
immed data low
MOV DRk,#0data16
[Encoding]
0111
1110
uuuu
1000
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(DRk) ← #0data16
immed data low
MOV DRk,#1data16
[Encoding]
0111
1110
uuuu
1100
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(DRk) ← #1data16
immed data low
MOV Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
0111
5.108
1110
ssss
0001
addr7-addr0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← (dir8)
MOV WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
0111
1110
tttt
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj) ← (dir8)
MOV DRk,dir8
[Encoding]
0111
1110
uuuu
1101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(DRk) ← (dir8)
MOV Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
0111
1110
ssss
0011
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← (dir16)
addr7-addr0
MOV WRj, dir16
[Encoding]
0111
1110
tttt
0111
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj ← (dir16)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
addr7-addr0
5.109
TSC80251
MOV DRk,dir16
[Encoding]
0111
1110
uuuu
1111
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(DRk) ← (dir16)
addr7-addr0
MOV Rm,@WRj
[Encoding]
0111
1110
tttt
1001
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← ((WRj))
ssss
0000
ssss
0000
tttt
0000
MOV Rm,@DRk
[Encoding]
0111
1110
uuuu
1011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← ((DRk))
MOV WRjd,@WRjs
[Encoding]
0000
1011
TTTT
1000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRjd) ← ((WRjs))
MOV WRj,@DRk
[Encoding]
0000
5.110
1011
uuuu
1010
tttt
0000
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj) ← ((DRk))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.111
TSC80251
MOV dir8,Rm
[Encoding]
0111
1010
ssss
0011
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← (Rm)
MOV dir8,WRj
[Encoding]
0111
1010
tttt
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← (WRj)
MOV dir8,DRk
[Encoding]
0111
1010
uuuu
1101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir8) ← (DRk)
MOV dir16,Rm
[Encoding]
0111
1010
ssss
0011
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir16) ← (Rm)
addr7-addr0
MOV dir16,WRj
[Encoding]
0111
5.112
1010
tttt
0111
addr15-addr8
addr7-addr0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir16) ← (WRj)
MOV dir16,DRk
[Encoding]
0111
1010
uuuu
1111
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(dir16) ← (DRk)
addr7-addr0
MOV @WRj,Rm
[Encoding]
0111
1010
tttt
1001
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((WRj)) ← (Rm)
ssss
0000
ssss
0000
TTTT
0000
MOV @DRk,Rm
[Encoding]
0111
1010
uuuu
1011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((DRk)) ← (Rm)
MOV @WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
0001
1011
tttt
1000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((WRjd)) ← (WRjs)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.113
TSC80251
MOV @DRk,WRj
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
4
3
States
6
5
[Encoding]
0001
1011
uuuu
1010
tttt
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((DRk)) ← (WRj)
0000
MOV Rm,@WRj + dis16
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
6
5
[Encoding]
0000
1001
ssss
tttt
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← ((WRj) + dis16)
dis low
MOV WRj,@WRj + dis16
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
7
6
[Encoding]
0100
1001
tttt
TTTT
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj) ← ((WRj) + dis16)
5.114
dis low
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MOV Rm,@DRk + dis24
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
7
6
[Encoding]
0010
1001
ssss
uuuu
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(Rm) ← ((DRk) + dis24)
dis low
MOV WRj,@DRk + dis24
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
8
7
[Encoding]
0110
1001
tttt
uuuu
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj) ← ((DRk) + dis24)
dis low
MOV @WRj + dis16,Rm
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
6
5
[Encoding]
0001
1001
tttt
ssss
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((WRj) + dis16) ← (Rm)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
dis low
5.115
TSC80251
MOV @WRj + dis16,WRj
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
7
6
[Encoding]
0101
1001
tttt
TTTT
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((WRj) + dis16) ← (WRj)
dis low
MOV @DRk + dis24,Rm
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
7
6
[Encoding]
0011
1001
uuuu
ssss
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((DRk) + dis24) ← (Rm)
dis low
MOV @DRk + dis24,WRj
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
5
4
States
8
7
[Encoding]
0111
1001
uuuu
tttt
dis hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
((DRk) + dis24) ← (WRj)
5.116
dis low
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MOV <dest-bit>,<src-bit>
Function
Move bit data
Description
Copies the boolean variable specified by the second operand into the location specified by the first operand. One of
the operands must be the CY flag; the other may be any directly addressable bit. Does not affect any other register.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
n
_
_
_
_
Example :
The CY flag is set, input Port 3 contains 11001001B and output Port 1 contains 35h (00110101B). After executing the
instruction sequence:
MOV P1.3,CY
MOV CY,P3.3
MOV P1.2,CY
the CY flag is clear and Port 1 contains 39h (00111001B).
MOV bit51,CY
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
2
2
States
2K
2K
[Encoding]
1001
0010
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(bit51) ← (CY)
MOV CY,bit51
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
2
2
States
1K
1K
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.117
TSC80251
[Encoding]
1010
0010
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(CY) ← (bit51)
MOV bit,CY
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
4
3
States
4
3
[Encoding]
1010
1001
1001
0yyy
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(bit) ← (CY)
bit addr
MOV CY,bit
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
4
3
States
3
2
[Encoding]
1010
1001
1010
0yyy
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(CY) ← (bit)
5.118
bit addr
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MOV DPTR,#data16
Function:
Load data pointer with a 16–bit constant
Description:
Loads the 16–bit data pointer (DPTR) with the specified 16–bit constant. The high byte of the constant is loaded into
the high byte of the data pointer (DPH). The low byte of the constant is loaded into the low byte of the data pointer
(DPL).
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
After executing the instruction MOV DPTR,#1234h DPTR contains 1234h (DPH contains 12h and DPL contains 34h).
[Encoding]
1001
0000
immed data hi
immed data low
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(DPTR) ← #data16
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.119
TSC80251
MOVC A,@A+<base-reg>
Function:
Move code byte
Description:
Loads the accumulator with a code byte or constant from program memory. The address of the byte fetched is the sum
of the original unsigned 8–bit accumulator contents and the contents of a 16–bit base register, which may be the 16
LSBs of the data pointer or PC. In the latter case, the PC is incremented to the address of the following instruction before
being added with the accumulator; otherwise the base register is not altered. 16–bit addition is performed.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains a number between 0 and 3. The following instruction sequence translates the value in the
accumulator to one of four values defined by the DB (define byte) directive.
RELPC:
INC
MOVC
RET
DB
DB
DB
DB
A
A,@A+PC
66h
77h
88h
99h
If the subroutine is called with the accumulator equal to 01h, it returns with 77h in the accumulator. The INC A before
the MOVC instruction is needed to ”get around” the RET instruction above the table. If several bytes of code separated
the MOVC from the table, the corresponding number would be added to the accumulator instead.
MOVC A,@A+PC
[Encoding]
1000
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVC
(PC) ← (PC) + 1
(A) ← ((A) + (PC))
MOVC A,@A+DPTR
[Encoding]
1001
5.120
0011
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVC
(A) ← ((A) + (DPTR))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.121
TSC80251
MOVH DRk,#data16
Function:
Move immediate 16–bit data to the high word of a dword (double–word) register.
Description:
Moves 16–bit immediate data to the high word of a dword (32–bit) register. The low word of the dword register is
unchanged.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The dword register DRk contains 5566 7788h. After the instruction MOVH DRk,#1122h executes, DRk contains 1122
7788h.
[Encoding]
0111
1010
uuuu
1100
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode =[A5] [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVH
(DRk).31-16 ← #data16
5.122
immed data low
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MOVS WRj,Rm
Function:
Move 8–bit register to 16–bit register with sign extension
Description:
Moves the contents of an 8–bit register to the low byte of a 16–bit register. The high byte of the 16–bit register is filled
with the sign extension, which is obtained from the MSB of the 8– bit source register.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
8–bit register Rm contains 055h (01010101B) and the 16–bit register WRj contains 0FFFFh (11111111 11111111B).
The instruction MOVS WRj,Rm moves the contents of register Rm (01010101B) to register WRj (i.e., WRj contains
00000000 01010101B).
[Encoding]
0001
1010
tttt
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVS
(WRj).7-0 ← (Rm).7-0
(WRj).15-8 ← MSB
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.123
TSC80251
MOVX <dest>,<src>
Function:
Move external
Description:
Transfers data between the accumulator and a byte in external data RAM. There are two types of instructions. One
provides an 8–bit indirect address to external data RAM; the second provides a 16–bit indirect address to external data
RAM.
In the first type of MOVX instruction, the contents of R0 or R1 in the current register bank provides an 8–bit address
on Port 0. 8 bits are sufficient for external I/O expansion decoding or for a relatively small RAM array. For larger arrays,
any Port pins can be used to output higher address bits. These pins would be controlled by an output instruction
preceding the MOVX.
In the second type of MOVX instruction, the data pointer generates a 16–bit address. Port 2 outputs the upper 8 address
bits (from DPH) while Port 0 outputs the lower 8 address bits (from DPL).
For both types of moves in nonpage mode, the data is multiplexed with the lower address bits on Port 0. In page mode,
the data is multiplexed with the contents of P2 on Port 2 (8–bit address) or with the upper address bits on Port 2 (16–bit
address).
It is possible in some situations to mix the two MOVX types. A large RAM array with its upper address lines driven
by P2 can be addressed via the data pointer, or with code to output upper address bits to P2 followed by a MOVX
instruction using R0 or R1.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The TSC80251 Microcontroller is operating in nonpage mode. An external 256–byte RAM using multiplexed
address/data lines (e.g., an Intel 8155 RAM/I/O/Timer) is connected to Port 0. Port 3 provides control lines for the
external RAM. Ports 1 and 2 are used for normal I/O. R0 and R1 contain 12h and 34h. Location 34h of the external
RAM contains 56h. After executing the instruction sequence:
MOVX A,@R1
MOVX @R0,A
the accumulator and external RAM location 12h contain 56h.
MOVX A,@DPTR
[Encoding]
1110
0000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVX
(A) ← ((DPTR))
5.124
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MOVX A,@Ri
[Encoding]
1110
001i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVX
(A) ← ((Ri))
MOVX @DPTR,A
[Encoding]
1111
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVX
((DPTR)) ← (A)
MOVX @Ri,A
[Encoding]
1111
001i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOVX
((Ri)) ← (A)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.125
TSC80251
MOVZ WRj,Rm
Function:
Move 8–bit register to 16–bit register with zero extension
Description:
Moves the contents of an 8–bit register to the low byte of a 16–bit register. The upper byte of the 16–bit register is filled
with zeros.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
8–bit register Rm contains 055h (01010101B) and 16–bit register WRj contains 0FFFFh (11111111 11111111B). The
instruction MOVZ WRj,Rm moves the contents of register Rm (01010101B) to register WRj. At the end of the
operation, WRj contains 00000000 01010101B.
[Encoding]
0000
1010
tttt
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MOV
(WRj).7-0 ← (Rm).7-0
(WRj).15-8 ← 0
5.126
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MUL <dest>,<src>
Function:
Multiply
Description:
Multiplies the unsigned integer in the source register with the unsigned integer in the destination register. Only register
addressing is allowed.
For 8–bit operands, the result is 16 bits. The most significant byte of the result is stored in the low byte of the word
where the destination register resides. The least significant byte is stored in the following byte register. The OV flag
is set if the product is greater than 255 (0FFh); otherwise it is cleared.
For 16–bit operands, the result is 32 bits. The most significant word is stored in the low word of the the dword where
the destination register resides. The least significant word is stored in the following word register. In this operation,
the OV flag is set if the product is greater than 0FFFFh, otherwise it is cleared. The CY flag is always cleared. The
N flag is set when the MSB of the result is set. The Z flag is set when the result is zero.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
0
_
Example :
Register R1 contains 80 (50h or 10010000B) and register R0 contains 160 (0A0h or 10010000B). After executing the
instruction MUL R1,R0 which gives the product 12800 (3200h), register R0 contains 32h (00110010B), register R1
contains 00h, the OV flag is set and the CY flag is clear.
MUL Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
1010
1100
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MUL (8–bit operands)
if <dest> md = 0, 2, 4, .., 14
Rmd ← high byte of the Rmd x Rms
Rmd+1 ← low byte of the Rmd x Rms
if <dest> md = 1, 3, 5, .., 15
Rmd-1 ← high byte of the Rmd x Rms
Rmd ← low byte of the Rmd x Rms
MUL WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
1010
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
1101
tttt
TTTT
5.127
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode =[A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MUL (16–bit operands)
if <dest> jd = 0, 4, 8, .., 28
WRjd ← high word of the WRjd x WRjs
WRjd+2 ← low word of the WRjd x WRjs
if <dest> jd = 2, 6, 10, .., 30
WRjd-2 ← high word of the WRjd x WRjs
WRjd← low word of the WRjd x WRjs
5.128
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
MUL AB
Function:
Multiply
Description:
Multiplies the unsigned 8–bit integers in the accumulator and register B. The low byte of the 16–bit product is left in
the accumulator, and the high byte is left in register in B. If the product is greater than 255 (0FFh) the OV flag is set;
otherwise it is clear. The CY flag is always clear.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
0
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 80 (50h) and register B contains 160 (0A0h). After executing the instruction MUL AB which
gives the product 12800 (3200h), register B contains 32h (00110010B), the accumulator contains 00h, the OV flag is
set and the CY flag is clear.
[Encoding]
1010
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
MUL
(A) ← low byte of (A) X (B)
(B) ← high byte of (A) X (B)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.129
TSC80251
NOP
Function:
No operation
Description:
Execution continues at the following instruction. Affects the PC register only.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
We assume we are executing an internal code and you want to produce a low–going output pulse on bit 7 of Port 2 that
lasts exactly 11 states. A simple CLR–SETB sequence generates an eight–state pulse. (Each instruction requires four
states to write to a Port SFR.) You can insert three additional states (if no interrupts are enabled) with the following
instruction sequence :
CLR P2.7
NOP
NOP
NOP
SETB P2.7
[Encoding]
0000
0000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
NOP
(PC) ← (PC) + 1
5.130
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ORL <dest> <src>
Function:
Logical–OR for byte variables
Description:
Performs the bitwise logical–OR operation (V) between the specified variables, storing the results in the destination
operand.
The destination operand can be a register, an accumulator or direct address.
The two operands allow twelve addressing mode combinations. When the destination is the accumulator, the source
can be register, direct, register–indirect or immediate addressing; when the destination is a direct address, the source
can be the accumulator or immediate data. When the destination is register the source can be register, immediate, direct
and indirect addressing.
Note:
When this instruction is used to modify an output Port, the value used as the original Port data is read from the output data latch, not the input
pins.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C3h (11000011B) and R0 contains 55h (01010101B). After executing the instruction, ORL
A, R0 the accumulator contains 0D7h (11010111B).
When the destination is a directly addressed byte, the instruction can set combinations of bits in any RAM location
or hardware register. The pattern of bits to be set is determined by a mask byte, which may be a constant data value
in the instruction or a variable computed in the accumulator at run time. After executing the instruction ORL P1,
#00110010B sets bits 5, 4 and 1 of output Port 1.
ORL dir8,A
[Encoding]
0100
0010
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(dir8) ← (dir8) V (A)
ORL dir8,#data
[Encoding]
0100
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
0011
addr7-addr0
immed data
5.131
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(dir8) ← (dir8) V #data
ORL A,#data
[Encoding]
0100
0100
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(A) ← (A) V #data
ORL A,dir8
[Encoding]
0100
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(A) ← (A) V (dir8)
ORL A,@Ri
[Encoding]
0100
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ORL (A) ← (A) V ((Ri))
ORL A,Rn
[Encoding]
0100
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
ORL
(A) ← (A) V (Rn)
5.132
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ORL Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
0100
1100
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(Rmd) ← (Rmd) V (Rms)
ORL WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
0100
1101
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(WRjd)←(WRjd) V (WRjs)
ORL Rm,#data
[Encoding]
0100
1110
ssss
0000
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(Rm) ← (Rm) V #data
ORL WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
0100
1110
tttt
0100
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(WRj) ← (WRj) V #data16
immed data low
ORL Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
0100
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
1110
ssss
0001
addr7-addr0
5.133
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(Rm) ← (Rm) V (dir8)
ORL WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
0100
1110
tttt
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(WRj) ← (WRj) V (dir8)
ORL Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
0100
1110
ssss
0011
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(Rm) ← (Rm) V (dir16)
addr7-addr0
ORL WRj,dir16
[Encoding]
0100
1110
tttt
0111
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(WRj) ← (WRj) V (dir16)
addr7-addr0
ORL Rm,@WRj
[Encoding]
0100
1110
tttt
1001
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(Rm) ← (Rm) V ((WRj))
5.134
0000
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ORL Rm,@DRk
[Encoding]
0100
1110
uuuu
1011
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(Rm) ← (Rm) V ((DRk))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
0000
5.135
TSC80251
ORL CY,<src-bit>
Function:
Logical–OR for bit variables
Description:
Sets the CY flag if the Boolean value is a logical 1; leaves the CY flag in its current state otherwise. A slash (”/”)
preceding the operand in the assembly language indicates that the logical complement of the addressed bit is used as
the source value, but the source bit itself is not affected.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
n
_
_
_
_
Example :
Set the CY flag if and only if P1.0 = 1, ACC.7 = 1 or OV = 0.
MOV CY,P1.0
;Load carry with input pin P1.0
ORL CY,ACC.7
;Or carry with the accumulator bit 7
ORL CY,/OV ;Or carry with the inverse of OV.
ORL CY,bit51
[Encoding]
0111
0010
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(CY) ← (CY) V (bit51)
ORL CY,/bit51
K If this instruction addresses a Port (Px, x = 0-3), add 1 state.
[Encoding]
1010
0000
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(CY) ← (CY) V¬ (bit51)
5.136
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
ORL CY,bit
[Encoding]
1010
1001
0111
0yyy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(CY) ← (CY) V (bit)
ORL CY,/bit
[Encoding]
1010
1001
1110
0yyy
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
ORL
(CY) ← (CY) V 0 (bit)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.137
TSC80251
POP <src>
Function:
Pop from stack.
Description:
Reads the contents of the on–chip RAM location addressed by the stack pointer, then decrements the stack pointer by
one. The value read at the original RAM location is transferred to the newly addressed location, which can be 8–bit
or 16–bit.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The stack pointer contains 32h and on–chip RAM locations 30h through 32h contain 01h, 23h, and 20h, respectively.
After executing the instruction sequence:
POP DPH
POP DPL
the stack pointer contains 30h and the data pointer contains 0123h. After executing the instruction POP SP the stack
pointer contains 20h. Note that in this special case the stack pointer was decremented to 2Fh before it was loaded with
the value popped (20h).
POP dir8
[Encoding]
1101
0000
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
POP
(dir8) ← ((SP)
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
POP Rm
[Encoding]
1101
1010
ssss
1000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
POP
(Rm) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
5.138
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
POP WRj
[Encoding]
1101
1010
tttt
1001
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
POP
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(WRj) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
POP DRk
[Encoding]
1101
1010
uuuu
1011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
POP
(SP) ← (SP) - 3
(DRk) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.139
TSC80251
PUSH <dest>
Function:
PUSH onto stack
Description:
Increments the stack pointer by one. The contents of the specified variable are then copied into the on–chip RAM
location addressed by the stack pointer.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example: On entering an interrupt routine, the stack pointer contains 09h and the data pointer contains 0123h. After
executing the instruction sequence:
PUSH DPL
PUSH DPH
the stack pointer contains 0Bh and on–chip RAM locations 0Ah and 0Bh contain 01h and 23h, respectively.
5.140
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
PUSH dir8
[Encoding]
1100
0000
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (dir8)
PUSH #data
[Encoding]
1100
1010
0000
0010
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← #data
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.141
TSC80251
PUSH #data16
[Encoding]
1100
1010
0000
0110
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← #data16
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
immed data low
PUSH Rm
[Encoding]
1100
1010
ssss
1000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (Rm)
5.142
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
PUSH WRj
[Encoding]
1100
1010
tttt
1001
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (DRk)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
PUSH DRk
[Encoding]
1011
1010
uuuu
1101
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (DRk)
(SP) ← (SP) + 3
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.143
TSC80251
RET
Function:
Return from subroutine
Description:
Pops the high and low bytes of the PC successively from the stack, decrementing the stack pointer by two. Program
execution continues at the resulting address, which normally is the instruction immediately following ACALL or
LCALL.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The stack pointer contains 0Bh and on–chip RAM locations 0Ah and 0Bh contain 01h and 23h, respectively. After
executing the instruction, RET the stack pointer contains 09h and program execution continues at location 0123h.
[Encoding]
0010
0010
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
RET
(PC).15:8 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC).7:0 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
5.144
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
RETI
Function:
Return from interrupt
Description:
This instruction pops two or four bytes from the stack, depending on the INTR bit in the CONFIG1 register .
If INTR = 0, RETI pops the high and low bytes of the PC successively from the stack and uses them as the 16–bit return
address in region FF:.The stack pointer is decremented by two. No other registers are affected, and neither PSW nor
PSW1 is automatically restored to its pre–interrupt status.
If INTR = 1, RETI pops four bytes from the stack: PSW1 and the three bytes of the PC. The three bytes of the PC are
the return address, which can be anywhere in the 16–Mbyte memory space. The stack pointer is decremented by four.
PSW1 is restored to its pre–interrupt status, but PSW is not restored to its pre–interrupt status. No other registers are
affected.
For either value of INTR, hardware restores the interrupt logic to accept additional interrupts at the same priority level
as the one just processed. Program execution continues at the return address, which normally is the instruction
immediately after the point at which the interrupt request was detected. If an interrupt of the same or lower priority
is pending when the RETI instruction is executed, that one instruction is executed before the pending interrupt is
processed.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
INTR = 0. The stack pointer contains 0Bh. An interrupt was detected during the instruction ending at location 0122h.
On–chip RAM locations 0Ah and 0Bh contain 01h and 23h, respectively. After executing the instruction, RETI the
stack pointer contains 09h and program execution continues at location 0123h.
[Encoding]
0011
0010
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
Operation for INTR = 0 :
RETI
(PC).15:8 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC).7:0 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
Operation for INTR = 1 :
RETI
(PC).15:8 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC).7:0 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC).23:16 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
PSW1 ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.145
TSC80251
RL A
Function:
Rotate accumulator left
Description:
Rotates the 8 bits in the accumulator one bit to the left. Bit 7 is rotated into the bit 0 position.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C5h (11000101B). After executing the instruction, RL A the accumulator contains 8Bh
(10001011B); the CY flag is unaffected.
[Encoding]
0010
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
RL
(A).a+1 ← (A).a
(A).0 ← (A).7
5.146
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
RLC A
Function:
Rotate accumulator left through the carry flag
Description:
Rotates the 8 bits in the accumulator and the CY flag one bit to the left. Bit 7 moves into the CY flag position and the
original state of the CY flag moves into bit 0 position.
Description:
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C5h (11000101B) and the CY flag is clear. After executing the instruction RLC A the
accumulator contains 8Ah (10001010B) and the CY flag is set.
[Encoding]
0011
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
RLC
(A).a+1 ← (A).a
(A).0 ← (CY)
(CY) ← (A) .7
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.147
TSC80251
RR A
Function:
Rotate accumulator right
Description:
Rotates the 8 bits in the accumulator one bit to the right. Bit 0 is moved into the bit 7 position.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C5h (11000101B). After executing the instruction, RR A the accumulator contains 0E2h
(11100010B) and the CY flag is unaffected.
[Encoding]
0000
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
RR
(A).a ← (A).a+1
(A).7 ← (A) .0
5.148
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
RRC A
Function:
Rotate accumulator right through carry flag
Description:
Rotates the 8 bits in the accumulator and the CY flag one bit to the right. Bit 0 moves into the CY flag position; the
original value of the CY flag moves into the bit 7 position.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C5h (11000101B) and the CY flag is clear. After executing the instruction RRC A the
accumulator contains 62h (01100010B) and the CY flag is set.
[Encoding]
0001
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
RRC
(A).a ← (A).a+1
(A).7 ← (CY)
(CY) ← (A).0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.149
TSC80251
SETB <bit>
Function:
Set bit
Description:
Sets the specified bit to one. SETB can operate on the CY flag or any directly addressable bit.
FLAGS : No
flags are affected except the CY flag for instruction with CY as the operand.
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
Example:
The CY flag is clear and output Port 1 contains 34h (00110100B). After executing the instruction sequence:
SETB CY
SETB P1.0
the CY flag is set and output Port 1 contains 35h (00110101B).
SETB bit51
[Encoding]
1101
0010
bit addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SETB
(bit51) ← 1
SETB CY
[Encoding]
1101
0011
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SETB
(CY) ← 1
5.150
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
SETB bit
[Encoding]
1010
1001
1101
0yyy
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SETB
(bit) ← 1
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
bit addr
5.151
TSC80251
SJMP rel
Function:
Short jump
Description:
Program control branches unconditionally to the specified address. The branch destination is computed by adding the
signed displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice. Therefore, the range
of destinations allowed is from 128 bytes preceding this instruction to 127 bytes following it.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The label ”RELADR” is assigned to an instruction at program memory location 0123h. The instruction SJMP
RELADR assembles into location 0100h. After executing the instruction, the PC contains 0123h.
Note :
In the above example, the instruction following SJMP is located at 102h. Therefore, the displacement byte of the instruction is the relative offset
(0123h-0102h) = 21h. Put another way, an SJMP with a displacement of 0FEh would be a one–instruction infinite loop.
[Encoding]
1000
0000
rel addr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SJMP
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(PC) ← (PC) + rel
5.152
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
SLL <src>
Function:
Shift logical left by 1 bit
Description:
Shifts the specified variable to the left by 1 bit, replacing the LSB with zero. The bit shifted out (MSB) is stored in the
CY bit.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
Example :
Register 1 contains 0C5h (11000101B). After executing the instruction SLL R 1 register 1 contains 8Ah (10001010B)
and CY = 1.
SLL Rm
[Encoding]
0011
1110
ssss
0000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SLL
(Rm).a+1 ← (Rm).a
(Rm).0 ← 0
CY ← (Rm).7
SLL WRj
[Encoding]
0011
1110
tttt
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SLL
(WRj).b+1 ← (WRj).b
(WRj).0 ← 0
CY← (WRj).15
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.153
TSC80251
SRA <src>
Function:
Shift arithmetic right by 1 bit
Description:
Shifts the specified variable to the arithmetic right by 1 bit. The MSB is unchanged. The bit shifted out (LSB) is stored
in the CY bit.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
Example :
Register 1 contains 0C5h (11000101B). After executing the instruction SRA R 1 register 1 contains 0E2h (11100010B)
and CY = 1.
SRA Rm
[Encoding]
0000
1110
ssss
0000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SRA
(Rm).7← (Rm).7
(Rm).a ← (Rm).a + 1
CY← (Rm).0
SRA WRj
[Encoding]
0000
1110
tttt
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SRA
(WRj).15 ← (WRj).15
(WRj).b ← (WRj).b+1
CY← (WRj).0
5.154
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
SRL <src>
Function:
Shift logical right by 1 bit
Description:
SRL shifts the specified variable to the right by 1 bit, replacing the MSB with a zero. The bit shifted out (LSB) is stored
in the CY bit.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
Example :
Register 1 contains 0C5h (11000101B). After executing the instruction SRL R 1 register 1 contains 62h (01100010B)
and CY = 1.
SRL Rm
[Encoding]
1101
0010
ssss
0000
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SRL
(Rm).7 ← 0
(Rm).a ← (Rm) a + 1
CY← (Rm).0
SRL WRj
[Encoding]
0001
1110
tttt
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SRL
(WRj).15 ← 0
(WRj).b ← (WRj).b+1
CY← (WRj).0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.155
TSC80251
SUB <dest>,<src>
Function:
Subtract
Description:
Subtracts the specified variable from the destination operand, leaving the result in the destination operand. SUB sets
the CY (borrow) flag if a borrow is needed for bit 7. Otherwise, CY is clear.
When subtracting signed integers, the OV flag indicates a negative number produced when a negative value is
subtracted from a positive value, or a positive result when a positive number is subtracted from a negative number.
Bit 7 in this description refers to the most significant byte of the operand (8, 16, or 32 bit)
The source operand allows four addressing modes: immediate, indirect, register and direct.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
n
n K
n
n
n
K For word and dword subtractions, AC is not affected.
Example :
Register 1 contains 0C9h (11001001B) and register 0 contains 54h (01010100B). After executing the instruction SUB
R1,R0 register 1 contains 75h (01110101B), the CY and AC flags are clear, and the OV flag is set.
SUB Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
1001
1100
ssss
SSSS
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode =[A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(Rmd) ← (Rmd) - (Rms)
SUB WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
1001
1101
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode =[A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(WRjd) ← (WRjd) - (WRjs)
5.156
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
SUB DRkd,DRks
[Encoding]
1001
1111
uuuu
UUUU
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(DRkd) ← (DRkd) - (DRks)
SUB Rm,#data
[Encoding]
1001
1110
ssss
0000
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(Rm) ← (Rm) - #data
SUB WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
1001
1110
tttt
0100
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(WRj) ← (WRj) - #data16
immed data low
SUB DRk,#data16
[Encoding]
1001
1110
uuuu
1000
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(DRk) ← (DRk) - #data16
immed data low
SUB Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
1001
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
1110
ssss
0001
addr7-addr0
5.157
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(Rm) ← (Rm) - (dir8)
SUB WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
1001
1110
tttt
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(WRj) ← (WRj) - (dir8)
SUB Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
1001
1110
ssss
0011
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(Rm) ← (Rm) - (dir16)
addr7-addr0
SUB WRj,dir16
[Encoding]
1001
1110
tttt
0111
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(WRj) ← (WRj) - (dir16)
addr7-addr0
SUB Rm,@WRj
[Encoding]
1001
1110
tttt
1001
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(Rm) ← (Rm) - ((WRj))
5.158
0000
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
SUB Rm,@DRk
[Encoding]
1001
1110
uuuu
1011
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUB
(Rm) ← (Rm) - ((DRk))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
0000
5.159
TSC80251
SUBB A,<src-byte>
Function:
Subtract with borrow
Description:
SUBB subtracts the specified variable and the CY flag together from the accumulator, leaving the result in the
accumulator. SUBB sets the CY (borrow) flag if a borrow is needed for bit 7 and clears CY otherwise. (If CY was set
before executing a SUBB instruction, this indicates that a borrow was needed for the previous step in a multiple
precision subtraction, so the CY flag is subtracted from the accumulator along with the source operand.) AC is set if
a borrow is needed for bit 3 and cleared otherwise. OV is set if a borrow is needed into bit 6, but not into bit 7, or into
bit 7, but not bit 6.
When subtracting signed integers the OV flag indicates a negative number produced when a negative value is
subtracted from a positive value or a positive result when a positive number is subtracted from a negative number.
Bit 6 and bit 7 in this description refer to the most significant byte of the operand (8, 16 or 32 bit)
The source operand allows four addressing modes: register, direct, register–indirect or immediate.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C9h (11001001B), register 2 contains 54h (01010100B), and the CY flag is set. After
executing the instruction SUBB A,R2 the accumulator contains 74h (01110100B), the CY and AC flags are clear, and
the OV flag is set.Notice that 0C9h minus 54h is 75h. The difference between this and the above result is due to the
CY (borrow) flag being set before the operation. If the state of the carry is not known before starting a single or
multiple–precision subtraction, it should be explicitly cleared by a CLR CY instruction.
SUBB A,#data
[Encoding]
1001
0100
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (CY) - #data
SUBB A,dir8
[Encoding]
1001
5.160
0101
addr7-addr0
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (CY) - (dir8)
SUBB A,@Ri
[Encoding]
1001
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (CY) - ((Ri))
SUBB A,Rn
[Encoding]
1001
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (CY) - (Rn)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.161
TSC80251
SWAP A
Function:
Swap nibbles within the accumulator
Description:
Interchanges the low and high nibbles (4–bit fields) of the accumulator (bits 3-0 and bits 7- 4). This operation can also
be thought of as a 4–bit rotate instruction.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The accumulator contains 0C5h (11000101B). After executing the instruction SWAP A the accumulator contains 5Ch
(01011100B).
[Encoding]
1100
0100
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
SWAP
(A).3:0 → ← (A).7:4
5.162
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
TRAP
Function:
Causes interrupt call
Description:
Causes an interrupt call that is vectored through location FF:007Bh. The operation of this instruction is not affected
by the state of the interrupt enable flag in PSW0 and PSW1. Interrupt calls can not occur immediately following this
instruction.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
The instruction TRAP causes an interrupt call to location 0FF007Bh during normal operation.
[Encoding]
1011
1001
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
TRAP
SP ← SP - 2
(SP) ← PC
PC ← (0FF007Bh)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.163
TSC80251
XCh A,<byte>
Function:
Exchange accumulator with byte variable
Description:
Loads the accumulator with the contents of the specified variable, at the same time writing the original accumulator
contents to the specified variable. The source/destination operand can use register, direct or register–indirect
addressing.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
R0 contains the address 20h, the accumulator contains 3Fh (00111111B) and on–chip RAM location 20h contains 75h
(01110101B). After executing the instruction XCh A,@R0. RAM location 20h contains 3Fh (00111111B) and the
accumulator contains 75h (01110101B).
XCh A,dir8
[Encoding]
1100
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XCh
(A) → ← (dir8)
XCh A,@Ri
[Encoding]
1100
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
XCh
(A) → ← ((Ri))
5.164
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
XCh A,Rn
Binary Mode
Source Mode
Bytes
1
2
States
3
4
[Encoding]
1100
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
XCh
(A) → ← (Rn)
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
5.165
TSC80251
XCHD A,@Ri
Function:
Exchange digit
Description:
Exchanges the low nibble of the accumulator (bits 3–0) generally representing a Hexadecimal or BCD digit, with that
of the on–chip RAM location indirectly addressed by the specified register. Does not affect the high nibble (bits 7–4)
of either register.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
_
_
Example :
R0 contains the address 20h, the accumulator contains 36h (00110110B), and on–chip RAM location 20h contains 75h
(01110101B). After executing the instruction, XCHD A,@R0 on–chip RAM location 20h contains 76h (01110110B)
and 35h (00110101B) in the accumulator.
[Encoding]
1101
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
XCHD
(A).3:0 → ← ((Ri)).3:0
5.166
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
XRL <dest>,<src>
Function:
Logical Exclusive–OR for byte variables
Description:
Performs the bitwise logical Exclusive–OR operation (∀) between the specified variables, storing the results in the
destination. The destination operand can be the accumulator, a register or a direct address.
The two operands allow 12 addressing mode combinations. When the destination is the accumulator or a register, the
source addressing can be register, direct, register–indirect or immediate; when the destination is a direct address, the
source can be the accumulator or immediate data.
Note :
When this instruction is used to modify an output Port, the value used as the original Port data is read from the output data latch, not the input
pins.
FLAGS :
CY
AC
OV
N
Z
_
_
_
Example :
The contains 0C3h (11000011B) and R0 contains 0AAh (10101010B). After executing the instruction, XRL A,R0 the
accumulator contains 69h (01101001B).
When the destination is a directly addressed byte, this instruction can complement combinations of bits in any RAM
location or hardware register. The pattern of bits to be complemented is then determined by a mask byte, either a
constant contained in the instruction or a variable computed in the accumulator at run time. The instruction XRL
P1,#00110001B complements bits 5, 4, and 0 of output Port 1.
XRL dir8,A
[Encoding]
0110
0010
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(dir8) ← (dir8) ∀ (A)
XRL dir8,#data
[Encoding]
0110
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
0011
addr7-addr0
immed data
5.167
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(dir8) ← (dir8) ∀ #data
5.168
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
XRL A,#data
[Encoding]
0110
0100
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(A) ← (A) ∀ #data
XRL A,dir8
[Encoding]
0110
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(A) ← (A) ∀ (dir8)
XRL A,@Ri
[Encoding]
0110
011i
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
XRL
(A) ← (A) ∀ ((Ri))
XRL A,Rn
[Encoding]
0110
1rrr
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [Encoding]
Source Mode = [A5][Encoding]
XRL
(A) ← (A) ∀ (Rn)
XRL Rmd,Rms
[Encoding]
0110
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
1100
ssss
SSSS
5.169
TSC80251
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(Rmd) ← (Rmd) ∀ (Rms)
XRL WRjd,WRjs
[Encoding]
0110
1101
tttt
TTTT
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(WRds) ← (WRjd) ∀ (WRjs)
XRL Rm,#data
[Encoding]
0110
1110
ssss
0000
immed data
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(Rm) ← (Rm) ∀ #data
XRL WRj,#data16
[Encoding]
0110
1110
tttt
0100
immed data hi
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(WRj) ← (WRj) ∀ #data16
immed data low
XRL Rm,dir8
[Encoding]
0110
1110
ssss
0001
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(Rm) ← (Rm) ∀ (dir8)
XRL WRj,dir8
[Encoding]
5.170
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
TSC80251
0110
1110
tttt
0101
addr7-addr0
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(WRj) ← (WRj) ∀ (dir8)
XRL Rm,dir16
[Encoding]
0110
1110
ssss
0011
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(Rm) ← (Rm) ∀ (dir16)
addr7-addr0
XRL WRj,dir16
[Encoding]
0110
1110
tttt
0111
addr15-addr8
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(WRj) ← (WRj) ∀ (dir16)
addr7-addr0
XRL Rm,@Wrj
[Encoding]
0110
1110
tttt
1001
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(Rm) ← (Rm) ∀ ((WRj))
0000
XRL Rm,@Drk
[Encoding]
0110
1110
uuuu
1011
ssss
Hex Code in:
Operation:
Binary Mode = [A5][Encoding]
Source Mode = [Encoding]
XRL
(Rm) ← (Rm) ∀ ((DRk))
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
0000
5.171
TSC80251
Glossary
This glossary defines acronyms, abbreviations, and terms that have special meaning in this manual.
#0data16
A 32–bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction. The upper 16–bit
part is filled with zeros.
#1data16
A 32–bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction. The upper 16–bit
part is filled with ones.
#data An
8–bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction.
#data16
A 16–bit constant that is immediately addressed in an instruction.
#short
A constant, equal to 1, 2 or 4, that is immediately addressed in an instruction.
accumulator
A register or storage location that forms the result of an arithmetic or logical
operation.
addr11
An 11–bit destination address. The destination can be anywhere within the same
2–Kbyte block of memory as the first byte of the next instruction.
addr16
A 16–bit destination address. The destination can be anywhere within the same
64–Kbyte region as the first byte of the next instruction.
addr24
A 24–bit destination address. The destination can be anywhere within the
16–Mbyte address space.
ALU
Arithmetic–logic unit. The part of the CPU that processes arithmetic and logical
operations.
assert
The term assert refers to the act of making a signal active (enabled). The polarity
(high/low) is defined by the signal name. Active–low signals are designated by a
pound symbol (#) suffix; active–high signals have no suffix. To assert RD# is to
drive it low; to assert ALE is to drive it high.
binary–code compatibility
The ability of a TSC80251 microcontroller to execute, without modification,
binary code written for an 80C51 microcontroller.
binary mode
An operating mode, selected by a configuration bit, that enables a TSC80251
microcontroller to execute, without modification, binary code written for a
80C51 microcontroller.
bit
A binary digit.
bit (operand)
An addressable bit in the C251 Architecture.
bit51
An addressable bit in the C251 Architecture.
byte
Any 8–bit unit of data.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
glossary.1
TSC80251
clear
The term clear refers to the value of a bit or the act of giving it a value. If a bit is
clear, its value is “0”; clearing a bit gives it a “0” value.
code memory
See program memory.
configuration bytes
Bytes that determine a set of operating parameters for the TSC80251 Product. For
TSC80251 EPROM and OTPROM versions, these bytes are programmable in an
EPROM area. For TSC83251 masked ROM versions, these bytes are additional
information provided in a masked ROM area. For TSC80251 ROMless version,
these bytes are configured in factory according to the part number.
dir8
An 8–bit direct address. This can be a memory address or an SFR address.
dir16
A 16–bit memory address (00:0000h-00:FFFFh) used in direct addressing.
DPTR
The 16–bit data pointer. In TSC80251 microcontrollers, DPTR is the lower 16 bits
of the 24–bit extended data pointer, DPX.
DPX
The 24–bit extended data pointer in TSC80251 microcontrollers. See also DPTR.
deassert
The term deassert refers to the act of making a signal inactive (disabled). The
polarity (high/low) is defined by the signal name. Active–low signals are
designated by a pound symbol (#) suffix; active–high signals have no suffix. To
deassert RD# is to drive it high; to deassert ALE is to drive it low.
double word
A 32–bit unit of data. In memory, a double word comprises four contiguous bytes.
dword
See double word.
EPROM
Erasable programmable read–only memory.
external address
A 16–bit or 17–bit address presented on the device pins. The address decoded by
an external device depends on how many of these address bits the external system
uses. See also internal address.
integer
Any member of the set consisting of the positive and negative whole numbers and
zero.
internal address
The 24–bit address that the device generates. See also external address.
interrupt handler
The module responsible for handling interrupts that are to be serviced by
user–written interrupt service routines.
interrupt latency
The delay between an interrupt request and the time when the first instruction in
the interrupt service routine begins execution.
interrupt response time
The time delay between an interrupt request and the resulting break in the current
instruction stream.
interrupt service routine
The software routine that services an interrupt.
LSB
Least–significant bit of a byte or a least–significant byte of a word.
MSB
Most–significant bit of a byte or a most–significant byte of a word.
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TSC80251
multiplexed bus
A bus on which the data is time–multiplexed with (some of) the address bits.
OTPROM
One–time–programmable read–only memory, a version of EPROM.
PC
Program counter.
program memory
A part of memory where instructions can be stored for fetching and execution.
RAM
Random access memory
rel
A signed (two’s complement) 8–bit, relative destination address. The destination
is –128 to +127 bytes relative to the first byte of the next instruction.
reserved bits
Register bits that are not used in this device but may be used in future
implementations. Avoid any software dependence on these bits. In most cases: the
value read from this bit is indeterminate; do not set this bit.
ROM
Read only memory
set
The term set refers to the value of a bit or the act of giving it a value. If a bit is set,
its value is “1”; setting a bit gives it a “1” value.
SFR
Special Function Register.
sign extension
A method for converting data to a larger format by filling the extra bit positions with
the value of the sign. This conversion preserves the positive or negative value of
signed integers.
source–code compatibility
The ability of an TSC80251 microcontroller to execute recompiled source code
written for an 80C51 microcontroller.
source mode
An operating mode that is selected by a configuration bit. In source mode, a
TSC80251 microcontroller can execute recompiled source code written for a
80C51 microcontroller. In source mode, the TSC80251 microcontroller cannot
execute unmodified binary code written for an 80C51 microcontroller. See binary
mode.
SP
Stack pointer.
SPX
Extended stack pointer.
state time (or state)
The basic time unit of the microcontroller; the combined period of the two internal
timing signals, PH1 and PH2. (The internal clock generator produces PH1 and PH2
by halving the frequency of the signal on XTAL1.) With a 16–MHz crystal, one
state time equals 125 ns. Because the device can operate at many frequencies, this
manual defines time requirements in terms of state times rather than in specific
units of time.
word
A 16–bit unit of data. In memory, a word comprises two contiguous bytes.
Rev. C – May 7, 1999
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