19-0464; Rev 2; 5/98 KIT ATION EVALU E L B A AVAIL +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs ____________________________Features ♦ 8-Channel Single-Ended or 4-Channel Differential Inputs ♦ Single-Supply Operation: +2.7V to +5.25V ♦ Internal 2.5V Reference (MAX149) ♦ Low Power: 1.2mA (133ksps, 3V supply) 54µA (1ksps, 3V supply) 1µA (power-down mode) ♦ SPI/QSPI/MICROWIRE/TMS320-Compatible 4-Wire Serial Interface ♦ Software-Configurable Unipolar or Bipolar Inputs ♦ 20-Pin DIP/SSOP Packages The MAX149 has an internal 2.5V reference, while the MAX148 requires an external reference. Both parts have a reference-buffer amplifier with a ±1.5% voltageadjustment range. These devices provide a hard-wired SHDN pin and a software-selectable power-down, and can be programmed to automatically shut down at the end of a conversion. Accessing the serial interface automatically powers up the MAX148/MAX149, and the quick turn-on time allows them to be shut down between all conversions. This technique can cut supply current to under 60µA at reduced sampling rates. The MAX148/MAX149 are available in a 20-pin DIP and a 20-pin SSOP. For 4-channel versions of these devices, see the MAX1248/MAX1249 data sheet. Ordering Information PART† TEMP. RANGE MAX148ACPP 0°C to +70°C PIN-PACKAGE 20 Plastic DIP INL (LSB) ±1/2 ±1 MAX148BCPP 0°C to +70°C 20 Plastic DIP ±1/2 MAX148ACAP 0°C to +70°C 20 SSOP MAX148BCAP 0°C to +70°C 20 SSOP ±1 Ordering Information continued at end of data sheet. † Contact factory for availability of alternate surface-mount packages. __________Typical Operating Circuit ________________________Applications +3V Portable Data Logging Data Acquisition Medical Instruments Battery-Powered Instruments Pen Digitizers Process Control CH0 0V TO +2.5V ANALOG INPUTS VDD DGND MAX149 AGND CH7 VREF 4.7µF CPU COM CS SCLK DIN REFADJ 0.01µF VDD 0.1µF DOUT I/O SCK (SK) MOSI (SO) MISO (SI) SSTRB SHDN VSS Pin Configuration appears at end of data sheet. SPI and QSPI are trademarks of Motorola, Inc. MICROWIRE is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corp. ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1 For free samples & the latest literature: http://www.maxim-ic.com, or phone 1-800-998-8800. For small orders, phone 408-737-7600 ext. 3468. MAX148/MAX149 General Description The MAX148/MAX149 10-bit data-acquisition systems combine an 8-channel multiplexer, high-bandwidth track/hold, and serial interface with high conversion speed and low power consumption. They operate from a single +2.7V to +5.25V supply, and sample to 133ksps. Both devices’ analog inputs are software configurable for unipolar/bipolar and single-ended/differential operation. The 4-wire serial interface connects directly to SPI™/ QSPI™ and MICROWIRE™ devices without external logic. A serial-strobe output allows direct connection to TMS320-family digital signal processors. The MAX148/ MAX149 use either the internal clock or an external serialinterface clock to perform successive-approximation analog-to-digital conversions. MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VDD to AGND, DGND................................................. -0.3V to 6V AGND to DGND ...................................................... -0.3V to 0.3V CH0–CH7, COM to AGND, DGND ............ -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) VREF, REFADJ to AGND ........................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Digital Inputs to DGND .............................................. -0.3V to 6V Digital Outputs to DGND ........................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Digital Output Sink Current .................................................25mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) Plastic DIP (derate 11.11mW/°C above +70°C) ......... 889mW SSOP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) ................... 640mW CERDIP (derate 11.11mW/°C above +70°C) .............. 889mW Operating Temperature Ranges MAX148_C_P/MAX149_C_P .............................. 0°C to +70°C MAX148_E_P/MAX149_E_P............................ -40°C to +85°C MAX148_MJP/MAX149_MJP ........................ -55°C to +125°C Storage Temperature Range ............................ -60°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) ............................ +300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS VDD = +2.7V to +5.25V; COM = 0V; fSCLK = 2.0MHz; external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX149—4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX148—external reference, VREF = 2.500 V applied to VREF pin; TA = TMIN to TMAX; unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DC ACCURACY (Note 1) Resolution 10 Relative Accuracy (Note 2) INL MAX14_A MAX14_B Differential Nonlinearity DNL No missing codes over temperature Offset Error Gain Error (Note 3) Bits ±0.5 ±1.0 LSB ±1 LSB MAX14_A ±0.15 ±1 MAX14_B MAX14_A MAX14_B ±0.15 ±2 ±1 ±2 LSB LSB Gain Temperature Coefficient ±0.25 ppm/°C Channel-to-Channel Offset Matching ±0.05 LSB DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS (10kHz sine-wave input, 0V to 2.500Vp-p, 133ksps, 2.0MHz external clock, bipolar input mode) Signal-to-Noise + Distortion Ratio SINAD 66 dB Up to the 5th harmonic -70 dB 70 dB Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk 65kHz, 2.500Vp-p (Note 4) -75 dB Small-Signal Bandwidth -3dB rolloff 2.25 MHz 1.0 MHz Total Harmonic Distortion THD Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SFDR Full-Power Bandwidth CONVERSION RATE Conversion Time (Note 5) tCONV Track/Hold Acquisition Time tACQ Internal clock, SHDN = FLOAT 5.5 7.5 Internal clock, SHDN = VDD 35 65 µs External clock = 2MHz, 12 clocks/conversion 6 1.5 µs Aperture Delay 30 ns Aperture Jitter <50 ps 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs VDD = +2.7V to +5.25V; COM = 0V; fSCLK = 2.0MHz; external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX149—4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX148—external reference, VREF = 2.500 V applied to VREF pin; TA = TMIN to TMAX; unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS CONVERSION RATE (continued) Internal Clock Frequency External Clock Frequency SHDN = FLOAT 1.8 SHDN = VDD Data transfer only MHz 0.225 0.1 2.0 0 2.0 MHz ANALOG/COM INPUTS Input Voltage Range, SingleEnded and Differential (Note 6) Unipolar, COM = 0V 0 to VREF Bipolar, COM = VREF / 2 ±VREF / 2 Multiplexer Leakage Current On/off leakage current, VCH_ = 0V or VDD ±0.01 Input Capacitance ±1 16 V µA pF INTERNAL REFERENCE (MAX149 only, reference buffer enabled) VREF Output Voltage TA = +25°C (Note 7) 2.470 2.500 VREF Short-Circuit Current 2.530 30 V mA VREF Temperature Coefficient MAX149 ±30 ppm/°C Load Regulation (Note 8) 0mA to 0.2mA output load 0.35 mV Capacitive Bypass at VREF Internal compensation mode 0 External compensation mode 4.7 Capacitive Bypass at REFADJ µF 0.01 REFADJ Adjustment Range µF ±1.5 % EXTERNAL REFERENCE AT VREF (Buffer disabled) VREF Input Voltage Range (Note 9) VREF Input Current VDD + 50mV 1.0 VREF = 2.500V VREF Input Resistance 100 18 Shutdown VREF Input Current 150 25 0.01 µA kΩ 10 VDD 0.5 REFADJ Buffer-Disable Threshold V µA V EXTERNAL REFERENCE AT REFADJ Capacitive Bypass at VREF Reference Buffer Gain REFADJ Input Current Internal compensation mode 0 External compensation mode 4.7 µF MAX149 2.06 MAX148 2.00 V/V MAX149 ±50 MAX148 ±10 µA _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX148/MAX149 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) VDD = +2.7V to +5.25V; COM = 0V; fSCLK = 2.0MHz; external clock (50% duty cycle); 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps); MAX149—4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin; MAX148—external reference, VREF = 2.500 V applied to VREF pin; TA = TMIN to TMAX; unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DIGITAL INPUTS (DIN, SCLK, CS, SHDN) DIN, SCLK, CS Input High Voltage VIH DIN, SCLK, CS Input Low Voltage VIL DIN, SCLK, CS Input Hysteresis VDD ≤ 3.6V 2.0 VDD > 3.6V 3.0 VHYST IIN VIN = 0V or VDD DIN, SCLK, CS Input Capacitance CIN (Note 10) VSH VDD - 0.4 SHDN Input Mid Voltage VSM 1.1 SHDN Input Low Voltage VSL IS VFLT SHDN Maximum Allowed Leakage, Mid Input V ±1 µA 15 pF V ±0.01 SHDN Input High Voltage SHDN Voltage, Floating 0.8 0.2 DIN, SCLK, CS Input Leakage SHDN Input Current V V VDD - 1.1 SHDN = 0V or VDD SHDN = FLOAT V ±4.0 µA VDD / 2 SHDN = FLOAT V 0.4 V ±100 nA DIGITAL OUTPUTS (DOUT, SSTRB) Output Voltage Low VOL Output Voltage High VOH Three-State Leakage Current Three-State Output Capacitance IL COUT ISINK = 5mA 0.4 ISINK = 16mA 0.8 ISOURCE = 0.5mA VDD - 0.5 CS = VDD V V ±0.01 CS = VDD (Note 10) ±10 µA 15 pF 5.25 V POWER REQUIREMENTS Positive Supply Voltage VDD 2.70 Operating mode, full-scale input (Note 11) Positive Supply Current Supply Rejection (Note 12) 4 IDD VDD = 5.25V 1.6 3.0 VDD = 3.6V 1.2 2.0 VDD = 5.25V 3.5 15 VDD = 3.6V 1.2 10 30 70 IDD Full power-down IDD Fast power-down (MAX149) PSR Full-scale input, external reference = 2.500V, VDD = 2.7V to 5.25V ±0.3 _______________________________________________________________________________________ mA µA mV +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs (VDD = +2.7V to +5.25V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER SYMBOL Acquisition Time CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS tACQ 1.5 µs DIN to SCLK Setup tDS 100 ns DIN to SCLK Hold tDH 0 ns MAX14_ _C/E 20 200 Figure 1 _M MAX14_ 20 240 SCLK Fall to Output Data Valid tDO Figure 1 ns CS Fall to Output Enable tDV Figure 1 240 ns CS Rise to Output Disable tTR Figure 2 240 ns CS to SCLK Rise Setup tCSS 100 ns CS to SCLK Rise Hold tCSH 0 ns SCLK Pulse Width High tCH 200 ns SCLK Pulse Width Low tCL 200 SCLK Fall to SSTRB tSSTRB ns Figure 1 240 ns tSDV External clock mode only, Figure 1 240 ns CS Rise to SSTRB Output Disable tSTR External clock mode only, Figure 2 240 ns SSTRB Rise to SCLK Rise tSCK Internal clock mode only (Note 7) CS Fall to SSTRB Output Enable 0 ns Note 1: Tested at VDD = 2.7V; COM = 0V; unipolar single-ended input mode. Note 2: Relative accuracy is the deviation of the analog value at any code from its theoretical value after the full-scale range has been calibrated. Note 3: MAX149—internal reference, offset nulled; MAX148—external reference (VREF = +2.500V), offset nulled. Note 4: Ground “on” channel; sine wave applied to all “off” channels. Note 5: Conversion time defined as the number of clock cycles multiplied by the clock period; clock has 50% duty cycle. Note 6: The common-mode range for the analog inputs is from AGND to VDD. Note 7: Sample tested to 0.1% AQL. Note 8: External load should not change during conversion for specified accuracy. Note 9: ADC performance is limited by the converter’s noise floor, typically 300µVp-p. Note 10: Guaranteed by design. Not subject to production testing. Note 11: The MAX148 typically draws 400µA less than the values shown. Note 12: Measured as |VFS(2.7V) - VFS(5.25V)|. __________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (VDD = 3.0V, VREF = 2.500V, fSCLK = 2.0MHz, CLOAD = 20pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) 0.125 MAX148/9-02 0.125 MAX148/9-01 0.10 INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. TEMPERATURE INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE VDD = 2.7V 0.100 0.100 MAX149 0 0.075 INL (LSB) INL (LSB) 0.05 INL (LSB) MAX148/9-03 INTEGRAL NONLINEARITY vs. CODE 0.050 MAX149 0.075 0.050 MAX148 -0.05 MAX148 0.025 0.025 -0.10 0 256 512 CODE 768 1024 0 2.25 0 2.75 4.25 3.25 3.75 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 4.75 5.25 -60 -20 20 60 100 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX148/MAX149 TIMING CHARACTERISTICS ____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (VDD = 3.0V, VREF = 2.500V, fSCLK = 2.0MHz, CLOAD = 20pF, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) 1.50 FULL POWER-DOWN MAX149 1.25 1.00 CLOAD = 20pF 0.75 MAX148 0.50 2.25 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2.25 5.25 2.75 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 2.5000 2.4995 2.4990 2.25 3.25 2.75 3.75 1.1 1.0 MAX148 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.9 RLOAD = ∞ CODE = 1010101000 20 0 60 100 -60 140 -20 20 60 100 TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) MAX149 INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE MAX148/9-09 2.501 INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V) VDD = 5.25V 2.500 VDD = 3.6V 2.499 VDD = 2.7V 2.498 2.497 2.496 2.495 2.494 -60 -20 20 60 100 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) 6 4.25 MAX148/9-08 2.0 SHUTDOWN CURRENT (µA) SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 2.5005 SHUTDOWN CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE MAX149 1.2 -20 2.5010 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) MAX148/9-07 1.3 -60 2.5015 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE 0.8 2.5020 MAX148/9-06 CLOAD = 50pF MAX148/9-05 3.0 SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 1.75 RL = ∞ CODE = 1010101000 MAX148/9-04 2.00 MAX149 INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs _______________________________________________________________________________________ 140 4.75 5.25 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs PIN NAME FUNCTION 1–8 CH0–CH7 9 COM Ground reference for analog inputs. COM sets zero-code voltage in single-ended mode. Must be stable to ±0.5LSB. 10 SHDN Three-Level Shutdown Input. Pulling SHDN low shuts the MAX148/MAX149 down; otherwise, they are fully operational. Pulling SHDN high puts the reference-buffer amplifier in internal compensation mode. Letting SHDN float puts the reference-buffer amplifier in external compensation mode. 11 VREF Reference-Buffer Output/ADC Reference Input. Reference voltage for analog-to-digital conversion. In internal reference mode (MAX149 only), the reference buffer provides a 2.500V nominal output, externally adjustable at REFADJ. In external reference mode, disable the internal buffer by pulling REFADJ to VDD. 12 REFADJ Input to the Reference-Buffer Amplifier. To disable the reference-buffer amplifier, tie REFADJ to VDD. 13 AGND Analog Ground 14 DGND Digital Ground 15 DOUT Serial-Data Output. Data is clocked out at SCLK’s falling edge. High impedance when CS is high. 16 SSTRB Serial-Strobe Output. In internal clock mode, SSTRB goes low when the MAX148/MAX149 begin the A/D conversion, and goes high when the conversion is finished. In external clock mode, SSTRB pulses high for one clock period before the MSB decision. High impedance when CS is high (external clock mode). 17 DIN Serial-Data Input. Data is clocked in at SCLK’s rising edge. 18 CS Active-Low Chip Select. Data will not be clocked into DIN unless CS is low. When CS is high, DOUT is high impedance. 19 SCLK 20 VDD Sampling Analog Inputs Serial-Clock Input. Clocks data in and out of serial interface. In external clock mode, SCLK also sets the conversion speed. (Duty cycle must be 40% to 60%.) Positive Supply Voltage VDD DOUT DOUT CLOAD 50pF 6k VDD 6k CLOAD 50pF DGND DGND a) High-Z to VOH and VOL to VOH b) High-Z to VOL and VOH to VOL Figure 1. Load Circuits for Enable Time 6k DOUT DOUT CLOAD 50pF 6k DGND a) VOH to High-Z CLOAD 50pF DGND b) VOL to High-Z Figure 2. Load Circuits for Disable Time _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX148/MAX149 ______________________________________________________________Pin Description MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs _______________Detailed Description The MAX148/MAX149 analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) use a successive-approximation conversion technique and input track/hold (T/H) circuitry to convert an analog signal to a 10-bit digital output. A flexible serial interface provides easy interface to microprocessors (µPs). Figure 3 is a block diagram of the MAX148/ MAX149. Pseudo-Differential Input The sampling architecture of the ADC’s analog comparator is illustrated in the equivalent input circuit (Figure 4). In single-ended mode, IN+ is internally switched to CH0–CH7, and IN- is switched to COM. In differential mode, IN+ and IN- are selected from the following pairs: CH0/CH1, CH2/CH3, CH4/CH5, and CH6/CH7. Configure the channels with Tables 2 and 3. In differential mode, IN- and IN+ are internally switched to either of the analog inputs. This configuration is pseudo-differential to the effect that only the signal at IN+ is sampled. The return side (IN-) must remain stable within ±0.5LSB (±0.1LSB for best results) with respect to AGND during a conversion. To accomplish this, connect a 0.1µF capacitor from IN- (the selected analog input) to AGND. During the acquisition interval, the channel selected as the positive input (IN+) charges capacitor CHOLD. The acquisition interval spans three SCLK cycles and ends on the falling SCLK edge after the last bit of the input control word has been entered. At the end of the CS SCLK DIN SHDN CH0 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 COM acquisition interval, the T/H switch opens, retaining charge on CHOLD as a sample of the signal at IN+. The conversion interval begins with the input multiplexer switching CHOLD from the positive input (IN+) to the negative input (IN-). In single-ended mode, IN- is simply COM. This unbalances node ZERO at the comparator’s input. The capacitive DAC adjusts during the remainder of the conversion cycle to restore node ZERO to 0V within the limits of 10-bit resolution. This action is equivalent to transferring a 16pF x [(V IN+) - (VIN-)] charge from CHOLD to the binary-weighted capacitive DAC, which in turn forms a digital representation of the analog input signal. Track/Hold The T/H enters its tracking mode on the falling clock edge after the fifth bit of the 8-bit control word has been shifted in. It enters its hold mode on the falling clock edge after the eighth bit of the control word has been shifted in. If the converter is set up for single-ended inputs, IN- is connected to COM, and the converter samples the “+” input. If the converter is set up for differential inputs, IN- connects to the “-” input, and the difference of |IN+ - IN-| is sampled. At the end of the conversion, the positive input connects back to IN+, and CHOLD charges to the input signal. The time required for the T/H to acquire an input signal is a function of how quickly its input capacitance is charged. If the input signal’s source impedance is high, the acquisition time lengthens, and more time must be 18 19 CAPACITIVE DAC 17 10 INPUT SHIFT REGISTER INT CLOCK VREF CONTROL LOGIC 1 OUTPUT SHIFT REGISTER 2 3 4 5 ANALOG INPUT MUX CLOCK IN 10+2-BIT SAR ADC OUT REF 8 REFADJ 12 VREF 11 +1.21V REFERENCE (MAX149) 16 CH0 DOUT SSTRB T/H 6 7 9 15 20k A ≈ 2.06* 20 14 13 +2.500V MAX148 MAX149 CH1 CH2 16pF CH3 CSWITCH CH4 VDD DGND CH5 CH6 CH7 COMPARATOR INPUT CHOLD MUX – + ZERO RIN 9k TRACK HOLD T/H SWITCH COM AT THE SAMPLING INSTANT, THE MUX INPUT SWITCHES FROM THE SELECTED IN+ CHANNEL TO THE SELECTED IN- CHANNEL. AGND SINGLE-ENDED MODE: IN+ = CH0–CH7, IN- = COM. DIFFERENTIAL MODE: IN+ AND IN- SELECTED FROM PAIRS OF CH0/CH1, CH2/CH3, CH4/CH5, AND CH6/CH7. *A ≈ 2.00 (MAX148) Figure 3. Block Diagram 8 Figure 4. Equivalent Input Circuit _______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs +3V MAX148/MAX149 VDD OSCILLOSCOPE 0.1µF DGND SCLK AGND 0V TO +2.500V ANALOG INPUT 0.01µF CH7 MAX148 MAX149 COM SSTRB CS DOUT* SCLK +3V +3V REFADJ +3V DIN 2.5V VOUT 1000pF MAX872 VREF C1 0.1µF 2MHz OSCILLATOR CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 DOUT SSTRB COMP SHDN N.C. OPTIONAL FOR MAX149, REQUIRED FOR MAX148 * FULL-SCALE ANALOG INPUT, CONVERSION RESULT = $FFF (HEX) Figure 5. Quick-Look Circuit allowed between conversions. The acquisition time, tACQ, is the maximum time the device takes to acquire the signal, and is also the minimum time needed for the signal to be acquired. It is calculated by the following equation: tACQ = 7 x (RS + RIN) x 16pF where RIN = 9kΩ, RS = the source impedance of the input signal, and tACQ is never less than 1.5µs. Note that source impedances below 4kΩ do not significantly affect the ADC’s AC performance. Higher source impedances can be used if a 0.01µF capacitor is connected to the individual analog inputs. Note that the input capacitor forms an RC filter with the input source impedance, limiting the ADC’s signal bandwidth. Input Bandwidth The ADC’s input tracking circuitry has a 2.25MHz small-signal bandwidth, so it is possible to digitize high-speed transient events and measure periodic signals with bandwidths exceeding the ADC’s sampling rate by using undersampling techniques. To avoid high-frequency signals being aliased into the frequency band of interest, anti-alias filtering is recommended. Analog Input Protection Internal protection diodes, which clamp the analog input to VDD and AGND, allow the channel input pins to swing from AGND - 0.3V to V DD + 0.3V without damage. However, for accurate conversions near full scale, the inputs must not exceed VDD by more than 50mV or be lower than AGND by 50mV. If the analog input exceeds 50mV beyond the supplies, do not forward bias the protection diodes of off channels over 2mA. Quick Look To quickly evaluate the MAX148/MAX149’s analog performance, use the circuit of Figure 5. The MAX148/MAX149 require a control byte to be written to DIN before each conversion. Tying DIN to +3V feeds in control bytes of $FF (HEX), which trigger single-ended unipolar conversions on CH7 in external clock mode without powering down between conversions. In external clock mode, the SSTRB output pulses high for one clock period before the most significant bit of the conversion result is shifted out of DOUT. Varying the analog input to CH7 will alter the sequence of bits from DOUT. A total of 15 clock cycles is required per conversion. All transitions of the SSTRB and DOUT outputs occur on the falling edge of SCLK. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs Table 1. Control-Byte Format BIT 7 (MSB) BIT 6 BIT 5 BIT 4 BIT 3 BIT 2 BIT 1 BIT 0 (LSB) START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/BIP SGL/DIF PD1 PD0 BIT NAME DESCRIPTION 7(MSB) START The first logic “1” bit after CS goes low defines the beginning of the control byte. 6 5 4 SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 These three bits select which of the eight channels are used for the conversion (Tables 2 and 3). 3 UNI/BIP 1 = unipolar, 0 = bipolar. Selects unipolar or bipolar conversion mode. In unipolar mode, an analog input signal from 0V to VREF can be converted; in bipolar mode, the signal can range from -VREF/2 to +VREF/2. 2 SGL/DIF 1 = single ended, 0 = differential. Selects single-ended or differential conversions. In singleended mode, input signal voltages are referred to COM. In differential mode, the voltage difference between two channels is measured (Tables 2 and 3). 1 0(LSB) PD1 PD0 Selects clock and power-down modes. PD1 PD0 Mode 0 0 Full power-down 0 1 Fast power-down (MAX149 only) 1 0 Internal clock mode 1 1 External clock mode DIF = 1) Table 2. Channel Selection in Single-Ended Mode (SGL/D SEL2 0 SEL1 0 SEL0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 CH0 + CH1 CH2 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 + COM – – + How to Start a Conversion Start a conversion by clocking a control byte into DIN. With CS low, each rising edge on SCLK clocks a bit from DIN into the MAX148/MAX149’s internal shift register. After CS falls, the first arriving logic “1” bit defines the control byte’s MSB. Until this first “start” bit arrives, any number of logic “0” bits can be clocked into DIN with no effect. Table 1 shows the control-byte format. The MAX148/MAX149 are compatible with SPI/ QSPI and MICROWIRE devices. For SPI, select the correct clock polarity and sampling edge in the SPI control 10 CH3 – + – + – + – + – + – registers: set CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 0. MICROWIRE, SPI, and QSPI all transmit a byte and receive a byte at the same time. Using the Typical Operating Circuit, the simplest software interface requires only three 8-bit transfers to perform a conversion (one 8-bit transfer to configure the ADC, and two more 8-bit transfers to clock out the conversion result). See Figure 20 for MAX148/ MAX149 QSPI connections. ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs MAX148/MAX149 DIF = 0) Table 3. Channel Selection in Differential Mode (SGL/D SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 CH0 CH1 0 0 0 + – 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 – CH2 CH3 + – CH4 CH5 + – CH6 CH7 + – – + + – + – + CS tACQ SCLK 1 4 SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/ BIP DIN 8 SGL/ PD1 DIF 12 16 20 24 PD0 START SSTRB A/D STATE B9 MSB IDLE RB3 RB2 RB1 DOUT B8 ACQUISITION 1.5µs B7 B6 B5 B4 CONVERSION B3 B2 B1 B0 LSB S1 S0 FILLED WITH ZEROS IDLE (fSCLK = 2MHz) Figure 6. 24-Clock External Clock Mode Conversion Timing (MICROWIRE and SPI-Compatible, QSPI-Compatible with fSCLK ≤ 2MHz) Simple Software Interface Make sure the CPU’s serial interface runs in master mode so the CPU generates the serial clock. Choose a clock frequency from 100kHz to 2MHz. 1) Set up the control byte for external clock mode and call it TB1. TB1 should be of the format: 1XXXXX11 binary, where the Xs denote the particular channel and conversion mode selected. 2) Use a general-purpose I/O line on the CPU to pull CS low. 3) Transmit TB1 and, simultaneously, receive a byte and call it RB1. Ignore RB1. 4) Transmit a byte of all zeros ($00 hex) and, simultaneously, receive byte RB2. 5) Transmit a byte of all zeros ($00 hex) and, simultaneously, receive byte RB3. 6) Pull CS high. Figure 6 shows the timing for this sequence. Bytes RB2 and RB3 contain the result of the conversion, padded with one leading zero, two sub-LSB bits, and three trailing zeros. The total conversion time is a function of the serial-clock frequency and the amount of idle time between 8-bit transfers. To avoid excessive T/H droop, make sure the total conversion time does not exceed 120µs. Digital Output In unipolar input mode, the output is straight binary (Figure 17). For bipolar input mode, the output is twos complement (Figure 18). Data is clocked out at the falling edge of SCLK in MSB-first format. Clock Modes The MAX148/MAX149 may use either an external serial clock or the internal clock to perform the successive-approximation conversion. In both clock modes, the external clock shifts data in and out of the ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs ••• CS tCSH tCSS tCH tCL SCLK tCSH ••• tDS tDH ••• DIN tDV tDO tTR ••• DOUT Figure 7. Detailed Serial-Interface Timing ••• CS ••• tSTR tSDV SSTRB ••• ••• tSSTRB SCLK •••• tSSTRB •••• PD0 CLOCKED IN Figure 8. External Clock Mode SSTRB Detailed Timing MAX148/MAX149. The T/H acquires the input signal as the last three bits of the control byte are clocked into DIN. Bits PD1 and PD0 of the control byte program the clock mode. Figures 7–10 show the timing characteristics common to both modes. External Clock In external clock mode, the external clock not only shifts data in and out, but it also drives the analog-to-digital conversion steps. SSTRB pulses high for one clock period after the last bit of the control byte. Successive-approximation bit decisions are made and appear at DOUT on each of the next 12 SCLK falling edges (Figure 6). SSTRB and DOUT go into a high-impedance 12 state when CS goes high; after the next CS falling edge, SSTRB outputs a logic low. Figure 8 shows the SSTRB timing in external clock mode. The conversion must complete in some minimum time, or droop on the sample-and-hold capacitors may degrade conversion results. Use internal clock mode if the serial-clock frequency is less than 100kHz, or if serial-clock interruptions could cause the conversion interval to exceed 120µs. Internal Clock In internal clock mode, the MAX148/MAX149 generate their own conversion clocks internally. This frees the µP ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs MAX148/MAX149 CS SCLK 1 2 4 3 5 SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/ BIP DIN 7 8 SGL/ PD1 DIF PD0 6 9 10 11 18 12 19 20 21 22 23 24 START SSTRB tCONV B9 MSB DOUT A/D STATE IDLE ACQUISITION 1.5µs (fSCLK = 2MHz) CONVERSION 7.5µs MAX (SHDN = FLOAT) B8 B0 LSB B7 S1 S0 FILLED WITH ZEROS IDLE Figure 9. Internal Clock Mode Timing CS tCONV tSCK tCSH tCSS SSTRB tSSTRB SCLK tDO PD0 CLOCK IN DOUT NOTE: FOR BEST NOISE PERFORMANCE, KEEP SCLK LOW DURING CONVERSION. Figure 10. Internal Clock Mode SSTRB Detailed Timing from the burden of running the SAR conversion clock and allows the conversion results to be read back at the processor’s convenience, at any clock rate from 0MHz to 2MHz. SSTRB goes low at the start of the conversion and then goes high when the conversion is complete. SSTRB is low for a maximum of 7.5µs (SHDN = FLOAT), during which time SCLK should remain low for best noise performance. An internal register stores data when the conversion is in progress. SCLK clocks the data out of this register at any time after the conversion is complete. After SSTRB goes high, the next falling clock edge produces the MSB of the conversion at DOUT, followed by the remaining bits in MSB-first format (Figure 9). CS does not need to be held low once a conversion is started. Pulling CS high prevents data from being clocked into the MAX148/MAX149 and three-states DOUT, but it does not adversely affect an internal clock mode conversion already in progress. When internal clock mode is selected, SSTRB does not go into a highimpedance state when CS goes high. Figure 10 shows the SSTRB timing in internal clock mode. In this mode, data can be shifted in and out of the MAX148/MAX149 at clock rates exceeding 2.0MHz if the minimum acquisition time (tACQ) is kept above 1.5µs. Data Framing The falling edge of CS does not start a conversion. The first logic high clocked into DIN is interpreted as a start bit and defines the first bit of the control byte. A conversion starts on SCLK’s falling edge, after the eighth ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs Table 4. Typical Power-Up Delay Times REFERENCE BUFFER REFERENCEBUFFER COMPENSATION MODE VREF CAPACITOR (µF) POWER-DOWN MODE POWER-UP DELAY (µs) MAXIMUM SAMPLING RATE (ksps) Enabled Internal — Fast 5 26 Enabled Internal — Full 300 26 Enabled External 4.7 Fast See Figure 14c 133 Enabled External 4.7 Full See Figure 14c 133 Disabled — — Fast 2 133 Disabled — — Full 2 133 bit of the control byte (the PD0 bit) is clocked into DIN. The start bit is defined as follows: The first high bit clocked into DIN with CS low any time the converter is idle; e.g., after VDD is applied. OR The first high bit clocked into DIN after bit 3 of a conversion in progress is clocked onto the DOUT pin. If CS is toggled before the current conversion is complete, the next high bit clocked into DIN is recognized as a start bit; the current conversion is terminated, and a new one is started. The fastest the MAX148/MAX149 can run with CS held low between conversions is 15 clocks per conversion. Figure 11a shows the serial-interface timing necessary to perform a conversion every 15 SCLK cycles in external clock mode. If CS is tied low and SCLK is continuous, guarantee a start bit by first clocking in 16 zeros. Most microcontrollers (µCs) require that conversions occur in multiples of 8 SCLK clocks; 16 clocks per conversion is typically the fastest that a µC can drive the MAX148/MAX149. Figure 11b shows the serialinterface timing necessary to perform a conversion every 16 SCLK cycles in external clock mode. __________ Applications Information Power-On Reset When power is first applied, and if SHDN is not pulled low, internal power-on reset circuitry activates the MAX148/MAX149 in internal clock mode, ready to convert with SSTRB = high. After the power supplies stabilize, the internal reset time is 10µs, and no conversions should be performed during this phase. SSTRB is high on power-up and, if CS is low, the first logical 1 on DIN is interpreted as a start bit. Until a conversion takes place, DOUT shifts out zeros. (Also see Table 4.) 14 Reference-Buffer Compensation In addition to its shutdown function, SHDN selects internal or external compensation. The compensation affects both power-up time and maximum conversion speed. The100kHz minimum clock rate is limited by droop on the sample-and-hold and is independent of the compensation used. Float SHDN to select external compensation. The Typical Operating Circuit uses a 4.7µF capacitor at VREF. A 4.7µF value ensures reference-buffer stability and allows converter operation at the 2MHz full clock speed. External compensation increases power-up time (see the Choosing Power-Down Mode section and Table 4). Pull SHDN high to select internal compensation. Internal compensation requires no external capacitor at VREF and allows for the shortest power-up times. The maximum clock rate is 2MHz in internal clock mode and 400kHz in external clock mode. Choosing Power-Down Mode You can save power by placing the converter in a lowcurrent shutdown state between conversions. Select full power-down mode or fast power-down mode via bits 1 and 0 of the DIN control byte with SHDN high or floating (Tables 1 and 5). In both software power-down modes, the serial interface remains operational, but the ADC does not convert. Pull SHDN low at any time to shut down the converter completely. SHDN overrides bits 1 and 0 of the control byte. Full power-down mode turns off all chip functions that draw quiescent current, reducing supply current to 2µA (typ). Fast power-down mode turns off all circuitry except the bandgap reference. With fast power-down mode, the supply current is 30µA. Power-up time can be shortened to 5µs in internal compensation mode. Table 4 shows how the choice of reference-buffer compensation and power-down mode affects both power-up ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs 1 8 15 1 8 15 1 SCLK S DIN S CONTROL BYTE 0 S CONTROL BYTE 1 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S1 S0 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S1 S0 DOUT CONTROL BYTE 2 CONVERSION RESULT 1 CONVERSION RESULT 0 SSTRB Figure 11a. External Clock Mode, 15 Clocks/Conversion Timing ••• CS 1 8 16 1 8 16 SCLK S DIN S CONTROL BYTE 0 DOUT ••• ••• CONTROL BYTE 1 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S1 S0 B9 B8 B7 B6 ••• CONVERSION RESULT 1 CONVERSION RESULT 0 Figure 11b. External Clock Mode, 16 Clocks/Conversion Timing CLOCK MODE EXTERNAL EXTERNAL SHDN SETS SOFTWARE POWER-DOWN SETS EXTERNAL CLOCK MODE DIN DOUT MODE S X X X X X 1 1 SETS EXTERNAL CLOCK MODE S X X X X X 0 0 10 + 2 DATA BITS S X X X X X 1 1 VALID DATA 10 + 2 DATA BITS POWERED UP POWERED UP SOFTWARE POWER-DOWN INVALID DATA HARDWARE POWERDOWN POWERED UP Figure 12a. Timing Diagram Power-Down Modes, External Clock delay and maximum sample rate. In external compensation mode, power-up time is 20ms with a 4.7µF compensation capacitor when the capacitor is initially fully discharged. From fast power-down, start-up time can be eliminated by using low-leakage capacitors that do not discharge more than 1/2LSB while shut down. In powerdown, leakage currents at VREF cause droop on the reference bypass capacitor. Figures 12a and 12b show the various power-down sequences in both external and internal clock modes. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX148/MAX149 CS MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs CLOCK MODE INTERNAL SETS POWER-DOWN SETS INTERNAL CLOCK MODE DIN S X X X X X 1 0 S X X X X X 0 0 DOUT S DATA VALID DATA VALID CONVERSION SSTRB CONVERSION POWER-DOWN POWERED UP MODE POWERED UP Figure 12b. Timing Diagram Power-Down Modes, Internal Clock Table 5. Software Power-Down and Clock Mode Table 6. Hard-Wired Power-Down and Internal Clock Frequency Full Power-Down SHDN STATE DEVICE MODE REFERENCEBUFFER COMPENSATION INTERNAL CLOCK FREQUENCY 1 Fast Power-Down 1 Enabled Internal 225kHz 0 Internal Clock Floating Enabled External 1.8MHz 1 External Clock 0 Power-Down N/A N/A PD1 PD0 DEVICE MODE 0 0 0 1 1 AVERAGE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. CONVERSION RATE (USING FULLPD) AVERAGE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. CONVERSION RATE WITH EXTERNAL REFERENCE 1000 100 8 CHANNELS 10 1 CHANNEL 1 0.1 0.1 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M CONVERSION RATE (Hz) Figure 13. Average Supply Current vs. Conversion Rate with External Reference 16 100 MAX148/9-F14A VREF = VDD = 3.0V RLOAD = ∞ CODE = 1010101000 AVERAGE SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) MAX148/9-13 AVERAGE SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 10,000 RLOAD = ∞ CODE = 1010101000 8 CHANNELS 10 1 CHANNEL 1 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1k CONVERSION RATE (Hz) Figure 14a. MAX149 Supply Current vs. Conversion Rate, FULLPD ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs MAX148/9-F14B AVERAGE SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 10,000 RLOAD = ∞ CODE = 1010101000 1000 8 CHANNELS 1 CHANNEL 100 10 1 0.1 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M CONVERSION RATE (Hz) Figure 14b. MAX149 Supply Current vs. Conversion Rate, FASTPD TYPICAL REFERENCE-BUFFER POWER-UP DELAY vs. TIME IN SHUTDOWN MAX148/9-F14C 2.0 POWER-UP DELAY (ms) results may be clocked out after the MAX148/MAX149 enter a software power-down. The first logical 1 on DIN is interpreted as a start bit and powers up the MAX148/MAX149. Following the start bit, the data input word or control byte also determines clock mode and power-down states. For example, if the DIN word contains PD1 = 1, then the chip remains powered up. If PD0 = PD1 = 0, a power-down resumes after one conversion. 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 TIME IN SHUTDOWN (sec) Figure 14c. Typical Reference-Buffer Power-Up Delay vs. Time in Shutdown Software Power-Down Software power-down is activated using bits PD1 and PD0 of the control byte. As shown in Table 5, PD1 and PD0 also specify the clock mode. When software shutdown is asserted, the ADC operates in the last specified clock mode until the conversion is complete. Then the ADC powers down into a low quiescent-current state. In internal clock mode, the interface remains active and conversion Hardware Power-Down Pulling SHDN low places the converter in hardware power-down (Table 6). Unlike software power-down mode, the conversion is not completed; it stops coincidentally with SHDN being brought low. SHDN also controls the clock frequency in internal clock mode. Letting SHDN float sets the internal clock frequency to 1.8MHz. When returning to normal operation with SHDN floating, there is a tRC delay of approximately 2MΩ x CL, where CL is the capacitive loading on the SHDN pin. Pulling SHDN high sets internal clock frequency to 225kHz. This feature eases the settling-time requirement for the reference voltage. With an external reference, the MAX148/MAX149 can be considered fully powered up within 2µs of actively pulling SHDN high. Power-Down Sequencing The MAX148/MAX149 auto power-down modes can save considerable power when operating at less than maximum sample rates. Figures 13, 14a, and 14b show the average supply current as a function of the sampling rate. The following discussion illustrates the various power-down sequences. Lowest Power at up to 500 Conversions/Channel/Second The following examples show two different power-down sequences. Other combinations of clock rates, compensation modes, and power-down modes may give lowest power consumption in other applications. Figure 14a depicts the MAX149 power consumption for one or eight channel conversions utilizing full powerdown mode and internal-reference compensation. A 0.01µF bypass capacitor at REFADJ forms an RC filter with the internal 20kΩ reference resistor with a 0.2ms time constant. To achieve full 10-bit accuracy, 8 time constants or 1.6ms are required after power-up. Waiting this 1.6ms in FASTPD mode instead of in full power-up can reduce power consumption by a factor of 10 or more. This is achieved by using the sequence shown in Figure 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX148/MAX149 AVERAGE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. CONVERSION RATE (USING FASTPD) MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs COMPLETE CONVERSION SEQUENCE 1.6ms WAIT DIN CH1 (ZEROS) 1 00 1 FULLPD 01 1 FASTPD (ZEROS) CH7 11 1 NOPD 00 1 FULLPD 01 FASTPD 1.21V REFADJ 0V τ = RC = 20kΩ x CREFADJ 2.50V VREF 0V tBUFFEN ≈ 75µs Figure 15. MAX149 FULLPD/FASTPD Power-Up Sequence +3.3V OUTPUT CODE 24k MAX149 510k 100k 12 REFADJ FULL-SCALE TRANSITION 11 . . . 111 11 . . . 110 11 . . . 101 0.01µF FS = VREF + COM ZS = COM VREF 1LSB = 1024 Figure 16. MAX149 Reference-Adjust Circuit Lowest Power at Higher Throughputs Figure 14b shows the power consumption with external-reference compensation in fast power-down, with one and eight channels converted. The external 4.7µF compensation requires a 75µs wait after power-up with one dummy conversion. This graph shows fast multi-channel conversion with the lowest power consumption possible. Full power-down mode may provide increased power savings in applications where the MAX148/MAX149 are inactive for long periods of time, but where intermittent bursts of high-speed conversions are required. Internal and External References The MAX149 can be used with an internal or external reference voltage, whereas an external reference is required for the MAX148. An external reference can be connected directly at VREF or at the REFADJ pin. An internal buffer is designed to provide 2.5V at VREF for both the MAX149 and the MAX148. The MAX149’s internally trimmed 1.21V reference is buffered with a 2.06 gain. The MAX148’s REFADJ pin is also buffered with a 2.00 gain to scale an external 1.25V reference at REFADJ to 2.5V at VREF. 18 00 . . . 011 00 . . . 010 00 . . . 001 00 . . . 000 0 1 (COM) 2 3 INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB) FS FS - 3/2LSB Figure 17. Unipolar Transfer Function, Full Scale (FS) = VREF + COM, Zero Scale (ZS) = COM Internal Reference (MAX149) The MAX149’s full-scale range with the internal reference is 2.5V with unipolar inputs and ±1.25V with bipolar inputs. The internal reference voltage is adjustable to ±1.5% with the circuit in Figure 16. External Reference With both the MAX149 and MAX148, an external reference can be placed at either the input (REFADJ) or the output (VREF) of the internal reference-buffer amplifier. The REFADJ input impedance is typically 20kΩ for the MAX149, and higher than 100kΩ for the MAX148. At ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs MAX148/MAX149 Table 7. Full Scale and Zero Scale UNIPOLAR MODE BIPOLAR MODE Full Scale Zero Scale VREF + COM COM Positive Zero Negative Full Scale Scale Full Scale VREF / 2 + COM COM -VREF / 2 + COM OUTPUT CODE 011 . . . 111 FS = VREF + COM 2 011 . . . 110 ZS = COM 000 . . . 010 000 . . . 001 000 . . . 000 SUPPLIES +3V -VREF + COM 2 VREF 1LSB = 1024 +3V GND +3V DGND -FS = R* = 10Ω 111 . . . 111 111 . . . 110 111 . . . 101 VDD AGND COM DGND DIGITAL CIRCUITRY 100 . . . 001 MAX148 MAX149 100 . . . 000 - FS COM* +FS - 1LSB *OPTIONAL INPUT VOLTAGE (LSB) *COM ≤ VREF / 2 Figure 18. Bipolar Transfer Function, Full Scale (FS) = VREF / 2 + COM, Zero Scale (ZS) = COM VREF, the DC input resistance is a minimum of 18kΩ. During conversion, an external reference at VREF must deliver up to 350µA DC load current and have 10Ω or less output impedance. If the reference has a higher output impedance or is noisy, bypass it close to the VREF pin with a 4.7µF capacitor. Using the REFADJ input makes buffering the external reference unnecessary. To use the direct VREF input, disable the internal buffer by tying REFADJ to VDD. In power-down, the input bias current to REFADJ is typically 25µA (MAX149) with REFADJ tied to VDD. Pull REFADJ to AGND to minimize the input bias current in power-down. Figure 19. Power-Supply Grounding Connection Transfer Function Table 7 shows the full-scale voltage ranges for unipolar and bipolar modes. The external reference must have a temperature coefficient of 20ppm/°C or less to achieve accuracy to within 1LSB over the 0°C to +70°C commercial temperature range. Figure 17 depicts the nominal, unipolar input/output (I/O) transfer function, and Figure 18 shows the bipolar input/output transfer function. Code transitions occur halfway between successive-integer LSB values. Output coding is binary, with 1LSB = 2.44mV (2.500V / 1024) for unipolar operation, and 1LSB = 2.44mV [(2.500V / 2 - -2.500V / 2) / 1024] for bipolar operation. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 19 MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs +3V 0.1µF ANALOG INPUTS +3V 1µF (POWER SUPPLIES) 1 CH0 VDD 20 2 CH1 SCLK 19 3 CH2 CS 18 PCS0 4 CH3 DIN 17 MOSI 5 CH4 6 CH5 DOUT 15 7 CH6 DGND 14 8 CH7 AGND 13 9 COM REFADJ 12 10 SHDN VREF 11 MAX148 MAX149 SCK MC683XX SSTRB 16 MISO (GND) 0.1µF +2.5V Figure 20. MAX148/MAX149 QSPI Connections, External Reference Layout, Grounding, and Bypassing XF CLKX CS SCLK TMS320LC3x MAX148 MAX149 CLKR DX DIN DR DOUT FSR SSTRB Figure 21. MAX148/MAX149-to-TMS320 Serial Interface 20 For best performance, use printed circuit boards. Wire-wrap boards are not recommended. Board layout should ensure that digital and analog signal lines are separated from each other. Do not run analog and digital (especially clock) lines parallel to one another, or digital lines underneath the ADC package. Figure 19 shows the recommended system ground connections. Establish a single-point analog ground (star ground point) at AGND, separate from the logic ground. Connect all other analog grounds and DGND to the star ground. No other digital system ground should be connected to this ground. For lowest-noise operation, the ground return to the star ground’s power supply should be low impedance and as short as possible. High-frequency noise in the VDD power supply may affect the high-speed comparator in the ADC. Bypass the supply to the star ground with 0.1µF and 1µF capacitors close to pin 20 of the MAX148/MAX149. Minimize capacitor lead lengths for best supply-noise rejection. If the power supply is very noisy, a 10Ω resistor can be connected as a lowpass filter (Figure 19). ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs SCLK DIN START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/BIP SGL/DIF PD1 PD0 HIGH IMPEDANCE SSTRB DOUT MSB B8 S1 S0 HIGH IMPEDANCE Figure 22. TMS320 Serial-Interface Timing Diagram High-Speed Digital Interfacing with QSPI The MAX148/MAX149 can interface with QSPI using the circuit in Figure 20 (fSCLK = 2.0MHz, CPOL = 0, CPHA = 0). This QSPI circuit can be programmed to do a conversion on each of the eight channels. The result is stored in memory without taxing the CPU, since QSPI incorporates its own microsequencer. The MAX148/MAX149 are QSPI compatible up to the maximum external clock frequency of 2MHz. TMS320LC3x Interface Figure 21 shows an application circuit to interface the MAX148/MAX149 to the TMS320 in external clock mode. The timing diagram for this interface circuit is shown in Figure 22. Use the following steps to initiate a conversion in the MAX148/MAX149 and to read the results: 1) The TMS320 should be configured with CLKX (transmit clock) as an active-high output clock and CLKR (TMS320 receive clock) as an active-high input clock. CLKX and CLKR on the TMS320 are tied together with the MAX148/MAX149’s SCLK input. 2) The MAX148/MAX149’s CS pin is driven low by the TMS320’s XF_ I/O port to enable data to be clocked into the MAX148/MAX149’s DIN. 3) An 8-bit word (1XXXXX11) should be written to the MAX148/MAX149 to initiate a conversion and place the device into external clock mode. Refer to Table 1 to select the proper XXXXX bit values for your specific application. 4) The MAX148/MAX149’s SSTRB output is monitored via the TMS320’s FSR input. A falling edge on the SSTRB output indicates that the conversion is in progress and data is ready to be received from the MAX148/MAX149. 5) The TMS320 reads in one data bit on each of the next 16 rising edges of SCLK. These data bits represent the 10 + 2-bit conversion result followed by 4 trailing bits, which should be ignored. 6) Pull CS high to disable the MAX148/MAX149 until the next conversion is initiated. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 21 MAX148/MAX149 CS MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs Ordering Information (continued) INL (LSB) __________________Pin Configuration PART† TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE MAX148AEPP -40°C to +85°C 20 Plastic DIP ±1/2 MAX148BEPP MAX148AEAP MAX148BEAP MAX148AMJP MAX148BMJP -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C -55°C to +125°C 20 Plastic DIP 20 SSOP 20 SSOP 20 CERDIP* 20 CERDIP* ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 MAX149ACPP 0°C to +70°C 20 Plastic DIP ±1/2 CH5 6 15 DOUT MAX149BCPP MAX149ACAP MAX149BCAP MAX149AEPP MAX149BEPP MAX149AEAP MAX149BEAP MAX149AMJP MAX149BMJP 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C -55°C to +125°C 20 Plastic DIP 20 SSOP 20 SSOP 20 Plastic DIP 20 Plastic DIP 20 SSOP 20 SSOP 20 CERDIP* 20 CERDIP* ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 CH6 7 14 DGND CH7 8 13 AGND COM 9 12 REFADJ TOP VIEW CH0 1 20 VDD CH1 2 19 SCLK 18 CS CH2 3 CH3 4 CH4 5 MAX148 MAX149 17 DIN 16 SSTRB 11 VREF SHDN 10 DIP/SSOP Contact factory for availability of alternate surface-mount packages. * Contact factory for availability of CERDIP package, and for processing to MIL-STD-883B. † ___________________Chip Information TRANSISTOR COUNT: 2554 22 ______________________________________________________________________________________ +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs SSOP.EPS ______________________________________________________________________________________ 23 MAX148/MAX149 ________________________________________________________Package Information ___________________________________________Package Information (continued) PDIPN.EPS MAX148/MAX149 +2.7V to +5.25V, Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 24 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 1998 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.