LP3936 Lighting Management System for Six White LEDs and One RGB or FLASH LED General Description Features LP3936 is a complete lighting management system designed for portable wireless applications. It contains a boost DC/DC converter, 4 white LED drivers to drive the main LCD panel backlight, 2 white LED drivers for sub-LCD panel and 1 set of RGB LED drivers. Both WLED groups have 8-bit programmable constant current drivers that are separately adjustable and matched to 1% (typ.). For efficient backlighting the backlight intensity can be adjusted using the 8-bit ADC with ambient light detection circuit. n High Efficiency 250 mA Magnetic Boost DC-DC Converter with Programmable Output Voltage n PWM controlled RGB LED drivers with programmable color, brightness, turn on/off slopes and blinking n FLASH function with 3 drivers, each up to 120 mA current n 4 constant current White LED drivers with programmable 8-bit adjustment (0 … 25 mA/LED) n 2 constant current White LED drivers with programmable 8-bit adjustment (0 … 25 mA/LED) n 8-bit ADC for ambient light sensor with averaging n Combined MicroWire/SPI and I2C compatible serial interface n Low current Standby mode (software controlled) n Low voltage digital interface down to 1.8V n Space efficient 32-pin thin CSP laminate package The RGB LED drivers are PWM-driven with programmable color, intensity and blinking patterns. In addition, they feature a FLASH function to support picture taking with cameraenabled cellular phones. An efficient magnetic boost converter provides the required bias operating from a single Li-Ion battery. The DC/DC converter output voltage is user programmable for adapting to different LED types and for efficiency optimization. All functions are software controllable through an I2C and MicroWire/SPI compatible interface and 16 internal registers. Applications n Cellular Phones n PDAs Typical Application 20081401 © 2004 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200814 www.national.com LP3936 Lighting Management System for Six White LEDs and One RGB or FLASH LED June 2004 LP3936 Connection Diagrams and Package Mark Information 32-Lead Thin CSP Package, 4.5 x 5.5 x 0.8 mm, 0.5 mm pitch See NS Package Number SLD32A 20081403 20081402 Bottom View Top View 20081404 Note: The actual physical placement of the package marking will vary from part to part. The package marking “XY” designates the date code. “UZ” and “TT” are NSC internal codes for die manufacturing and assembly traceability. Both will vary considerably. Package Mark — Top View Ordering Information Order Number www.national.com Package Marking Supplied As LP3936SL LP3936SL 1000 units, Tape-and-Reel LP3936SLX LP3936SL 2500 units, Tape-and-Reel 2 LP3936 Pin Description Pin Name Type 1 GND_BOOST Ground 2 FB Input 3 VDD2 Power Description Power Switch Ground Boost Converter Feedback Supply Voltage for Internal Digital Circuits 4 GND2 Ground 5 WLED1 LED Output Open Drain, White LED1 Output Ground Return for VDD2 (Internal Digital) 6 WLED2 LED Output Open Drain, White LED2 Output 7 WLED3 LED Output Open Drain, White LED3 Output 8 WLED4 LED Output Open Drain, White LED4 Output 9 GND_WLED Ground 10 WLED5 LED Output Open Drain, White LED5 Output 11 WLED6 LED Output Open Drain, White LED6 Output 12 VDDA Output Internal LDO Output, 2.8V 13 GND1 Ground Ground Return for VDD1 (Internal Analog) 14 VDD1 Power Supply Voltage for Internal Analog Circuits 15 AIN Input 16 AREF Output Reference Voltage for Ambient Light Sensor, 1.23V 17 GND_T Ground Ground Internal Reference Bypass Capacitor 4+2 White LED Driver Ground Ambient Light Sensor Input 18 VREF Output 19 RT Input 20 MW_SEL Logic Input MicroWire — I2C select (MW_SEL=1 in MicroWire Mode) 21 NRST Logic Input Low Active Reset Input 22 CS Logic Input/Output MicroWire Chip-Select (in) / I2C SDA (in/out) 23 DO Logic Output MicroWire Data Output 24 DI Logic Input MicroWire Data Input 25 SCL Logic Input MicroWire Clock / I2C SCL Input 26 RGB_EN Logic Input LED Control for On/Off or PWM Dimming 27 VDD_IO Power 28 ROUT LED Output Open Drain Output, Red LED 29 GOUT LED Output Open Drain Output, Green LED 30 BOUT LED Output Open Drain Output, Blue LED 31 GND_RGB Ground Ground for RGB Drivers 32 OUT Output Open Drain, Boost Converter Power Switch Oscillator Resistor Supply Voltage for Logic IO signals 3 www.national.com LP3936 Absolute Maximum Ratings Maximum Lead Temperature (Notes 1, 260˚C 2) (Reflow soldering, 3 times) (Note 4) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. ESD Rating (Note 5) VDD1, VDD2, VDD_IO, V(OUT, FB) Human Body Model: 2 kV Machine Model: 200V -0.3V to 6.0V Voltage on Logic Pins -0.3V to VDD_IO + 0.3V, with 6.0V max Voltage on LED Output Pins -0.3V to V(FB) + 0.3V, with 6.0V max Voltage on All Other Pins -0.3V to VDD1,2 + 0.3V, with 6.0V max I (ROUT, GOUT, BOUT) Operating Ratings (Notes 1, 2) VDD1, VDD2 150 mA I (VREF) 10 µA Continuous Power Dissipation (Note 3) 1.8V – VDD1,2 Recommended Load Current 0 mA to 250 mA Junction Temperature (TJ) Range −40˚C to +125˚C Ambient Temperature (TA) Range (Note 6) −40˚C to +85˚C Thermal Properties Internally Limited Junction Temperature (TJ-MAX) Storage Temperature Range 3.0V to 6.0V VDD_IO 125˚C Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA), −65˚C to +150˚C SLD32A Package (Note 7) 72˚C/W Electrical Characteristics (Notes 2, 8) Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C. Limits in boldface type apply over the operating ambient temperature range (−40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C). Unless otherwise noted, specifications apply to the Section Block Diagram with: VDD1 = VDD2 = VDD_IO = 3.6V, CVDD1, CVDD2, CVDDIO = 1 µF, CIN, COUT = 10 µF, CVDDA = 1 µF, CVREF = 0.1 µF, LBOOST = 10 µH (Note 9). Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max 3.0 3.6 6.0 V NSTBY = L (register) CS, SCL, DI, NRST = H VDD1, VDD2 = 3.6V 1 7 µA No-Load Supply Current (VDD1 and VDD2 current, boost off) NSTBY = H (reg.) EN_BOOST = L (reg.) SCL, CS, DI, NRST = H 170 300 µA Full Load Supply Current (VDD1 and VDD2 current, boost on) NSTBY = H (register) NRST, CS, SCL, DI = H RGB_EN = L WLED1 … 6 = L EN_AMBADC = L 1 mA VDD_IO Standby Supply Current NSTBY = L (register) CS, SCL, DI, NRST = H 1 µA VDD_IO Operating Supply Current 1 MHz Clock Frequency CL = 50 pF at DO pin 20 µA VREF Reference Voltage (Note 10) IREF ≤ 1 nA, Test Purposes Only 1.205 −2 1.23 1.255 +2 V % VDDA LDO Output Voltage IVDDA < 1 µA 2.688 –4 2.8 2.912 +4 %V VDD1,2 Supply Voltage IDD Standby Supply Current (VDD1 and VDD2 current) IDD_IO Condition Units Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Operating Ratings are conditions under which operation of the device is guaranteed. Operating Ratings do not imply guaranteed performance limits. For guaranteed performance limits and associated test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics tables. Note 2: All voltages are with respect to the potential at the GND pins (GND1, GND2, GND_T, GND_BOOST, GND_WLED, GND_RGB). Note 3: Internal thermal shutdown circuitry protects the device from permanent damage. Thermal shutdown engages at TJ = 160˚C (typ.) and disengages at TJ = 140˚C (typ.). Note 4: For detailed soldering specifications and information, please refer to National Semiconductor Application Note 1125: Laminate CSP/FBGA Package (AN-1125). Note 5: The Human body model is a 100 pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor into each pin. The machine model is a 200 pF capacitor discharged directly into each pin. MIL-STD-883 3015.7 www.national.com 4 (Continued) Note 6: In applications where high power dissipation and/or poor package thermal resistance is present, the maximum ambient temperature may have to be derated. Maximum ambient temperature (TA-MAX) is dependent on the maximum operating junction temperature (TJ-MAX-OP = 125˚C), the maximum power dissipation of the device in the application (PD-MAX), and the junction-to ambient thermal resistance of the part/package in the application (θJA), as given by the following equation: TA-MAX = TJ-MAX-OP − (θJA x PD-MAX). Note 7: Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance is highly application and board-layout dependent. In applications where high maximum power dissipation exists, special care must be paid to thermal dissipation issues in board design. Note 8: Min and Max limits are guaranteed by design, test, or statistical analysis. Typical numbers are not guaranteed, but do represent the most likely norm. Note 9: Low-ESR Surface-Mount Ceramic Capacitors (MLCCs) are used in setting electrical characteristics. Note 10: VREF pin (Bandgap reference output) is for internal use only. A capacitor should always be placed between VREF and GND1. Block Diagram 20081405 5 www.national.com LP3936 Electrical Characteristics (Notes 2, 8) LP3936 Modes of Operation RESET: In the RESET mode all the internal registers are reset to the default values. Boost output register is set to 4.55V (register 0Dh = 07h), ext_pwm is enabled for color outputs (register 2Bh = 1Ch), EN_BOOST bit is high (register 0Bh bit 5) and all other registers are set to 00h. Reset is entered always if input NRST is LOW or internal Power On Reset is active. STANDBY: The STANDBY mode is entered if the register bit NSTBY is LOW and Reset is not active. This is the low power consumption mode, when all circuit functions are disabled. Registers can be written in this mode and the control bits are effective immediately after start up. STARTUP: INTERNAL STARTUP SEQUENCE powers up all the needed internal blocks (VREF, Bias, Oscillator, etc.). To ensure the correct oscillator initialization, a 10 ms delay is generated by the internal state-machine. Thermal shutdown (THSD) disables the chip operation and Startup mode is entered until no thermal shutdown event is present. BOOST STARTUP: Soft start for boost output is generated in the BOOST STARTUP mode. In this mode the boost output is raised in PFM mode during the 10 ms delay generated by the state-machine. The Boost startup is entered from Internal Startup Sequence if EN_BOOST is HIGH or from Normal mode when EN_BOOST is written HIGH. NORMAL: During NORMAL mode the user controls the chip using the Control Registers. The registers can be written in any sequence and any number of bits can be altered in a register in one write. 20081406 www.national.com 6 LP3936 Logic Interface Characteristics (1.8V ≤ VDD_IO ≤ VDD1,2) (Note 11) Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Units LOGIC INPUTS DI, SCL, NRST, RGB_EN, CS, MW_SEL VIL Input Low Level VIH Input High Level II Logic Input Current fSCL Clock Frequency 0.5 V VDD_IO − 0.5 V −1.0 I2C Mode MicroWire Mode 1.0 µA 400 kHz 8 MHz 0.6 V 1.0 µA LOGIC OUTPUTS DO, CS VOL Output Low Level IDO, VOH Output High Level IDO = − 3 mA IL Output Leakage Current VDO = 2.8V CS = 3 mA 0.3 VDD_IO − 0.6 VDD_IO − 0.3 V Note 11: In I2C mode operating ratings are limited to 3.0V ≤ VDD1,2 ≤ 4.5V and –20˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C. Control Interface The LP3936 supports two different interfaces modes: 1) MicroWire/SPI interface 2) I2C compatible interface is selected. The following table shows the selections for both interface modes. User can define the interface by MW_SEL pin. The pin configuration will also change depending on which interface MW_SEL Interface Pin Configuration 1 MicroWire/SPI SCL DI DO CS (clock) (data in) (data out) (chip select) 0 I2C Compatible SCL CS = SDA (clock) (data in/out) Comment Use pull up resistor for SCL Use pull up resistor for SDA The Address and Data are transmitted MSB first. The Chip Select signal CS must be low during the Cycle transmission. CS resets the interface when high and it has to be taken high between successive Cycles. Data is clocked in on the rising edge of the SCL clock signal, while data is clocked out on the falling edge of SCL. The MicroWire interface mode can also support SPI interface. The difference with normal SPI interface is that in LP3936 the Read operation from a new address needs two read cycles. If repetitive reads are made from the same address, a correct value is obtained on every read cycle. MicroWire/SPI Interface The Microwire transmission consists of 16-bit Write and Read Cycles. One cycle consists of 7 Address bits, 1 Read/ Write (R/W) bit and 8 Data bits. Read is done in two cycles: address is provided in the first cycle and the data is sent out on the next cycle. R/W bit high state defines a Write Cycle and low defines a Read Cycle. DO output is normally in high-impedance state and it is active only during Write and Read Cycles. A pull-up or pull-down resistor may be needed in DO line if a floating logic signal can cause unintended current consumption in other circuits where DO is connected. MicroWire Write Cycle 20081407 7 www.national.com LP3936 MicroWire/SPI Interface (Continued) MicroWire Read Cycle 1 20081408 MicroWire Read Cycle 2 20081409 MicroWire Timing Diagram 20081410 MicroWire Timing Parameters VDD1,2 = 3.0V – 6V, VDD_IO = 1.8V – VDD1,2 Symbol www.national.com Limit Parameter Min Max Units 1 Cycle Time 120 2 Enable Lead Time 60 ns 3 Enable Lag Time 60 ns 4 Clock Low Time 60 ns 5 Clock High Time 60 ns 6 Data Setup Time 0 ns 7 Data Hold Time 10 ns 8 Data Access Time 35 ns 9 Disable Time 30 ns 8 ns Symbol LP3936 MicroWire Timing Parameters (Continued) Limit Parameter Min Max 55 Units 10 Output Data Valid 11 Output Data Hold Time 15 ns ns 12 CS Inactive Time 10 ns Note: Data guaranteed by design. I2C Compatible Interface I2C SIGNALS In I2C mode the LP3936 pin SCL is used for the I2C clock and the pin CS is used for the I2C data signal SDA. Both these signals need a pull-up resistor according to I2C specification. Unused pin DO can be left unconnected and pin DI must be connected to VDD_IO or GND. I2C DATA VALIDITY The data on SDA line must be stable during the HIGH period of the clock signal (SCL). In other words, state of the data line can only be changed when CLK is LOW. 20081411 I2C START AND STOP CONDITIONS START and STOP bits classify the beginning and the end of the I2C session. START condition is defined as SDA signal transitioning from HIGH to LOW while SCL line is HIGH. STOP condition is defined as the SDA transitioning from LOW to HIGH while SCL is HIGH. The I2C master always generates START and STOP bits. The I2C bus is considered to be busy after START condition and free after STOP condition. During data transmission, I2C master can generate repeated START conditions. First START and repeated START conditions are equivalent, function-wise. 20081412 TRANSFERRING DATA Every byte put on the SDA line must be eight bits long, with the most significant bit (MSB) being transferred first. Each byte of data has to be followed by an acknowledge bit. The acknowledge related clock pulse is generated by the master. The transmitter releases the SDA line (HIGH) during the acknowledge clock pulse. The receiver must pull down the SDA line during the 9th clock pulse, signifying an acknowledge. A receiver which has been addressed must generate an acknowledge after each byte has been received. After the START condition, the I2C master sends a chip address. This address is seven bits long followed by an eighth bit which is a data direction bit (R/W). The LP3936 address is 36h. For the eighth bit, a “0” indicates a WRITE and a “1” indicates a READ. The second byte selects the register to which the data will be written. The third byte contains data to write to the selected register. 9 www.national.com LP3936 I2C Compatible Interface (Continued) I2C Chip Address 20081413 I2C Write Cycle 20081414 w = write (SDA = “0”) r = read (SDA = “1”) ack = acknowledge (SDA pulled down by either master or slave) rs = repeated start id = chip address, 36h for LP3936 When a READ function is to be accomplished, a WRITE function must precede the READ function, as shown in the Read Cycle waveform. I2C Read Cycle 20081415 I2C Timing Diagram 20081432 www.national.com 10 LP3936 I2C Compatible Interface (Continued) I2C Timing Parameters VDD1, 2 = 3.0V to 4.5V, VDD_IO = 1.8V to VDD1, Symbol 2 Limits Parameter Min Units Max 1 Hold Time (repeated) START Condition 0.6 µs 2 Clock Low Time 1.3 µs 3 Clock High Time 600 ns 4 Setup Time for a Repeated START Condition 600 ns 5 Data Hold Time 300 6 Data Setup Time 100 7 Rise Time of SDA and SCL 20 + 0.1Cb 300 8 Fall Time of SDA and SCL 15 + 0.1Cb 300 9 Set-Up Time for STOP Condition 600 ns 10 Bus Free Time between a STOP and a START Condition 1.3 µs Cb Capacitive Load for Each Bus Line 10 900 ns ns ns ns 200 pF Note: Data guaranteed by design. A/D Converter for Ambient Light Measurement Electrical Characteristics Symbol Parameter VIN RANGE Input Voltage DNL Differential Non-Linearity GE Gain Error Conditions Min AD Output: 00h Typ Max 1.23 AD Output: FFh V 2.46 –1.5 ±1 −5 Units V +1.5 LSB +5 LSB PSS Power Supply Sensitivity 3.1V ≤ VDD ≤ 4.2V ± 1/2 f(conv) Conversion Rate Without Averaging 217 Hz With Averaging (64 samples) 3.4 Hz 100 ms tSTARTUP Startup Time LSB IAIN Input Current 1.23 < AIN < 2.6V ± 0.1 µA IAREF Maximum Output Current AREF Output Current Sink 200 µA RAREF AREF Output Resistance 110 Ω ADC output AIN[7:0] can be read from address 0CH after startup time. Overflow bit can be read from bit D7 in address 0BH. The overflow bit indicates that input voltage exceeds the input voltage range of the ADC. The ADC output value in this case is FFH. When averaging is on, the overflow is high, if any of the 64 conversion results in the averaging period overflows. Thus the averaged result may be considerably below maximum and the overflow can still be high, if the input signal is noisy. Examples for optical sensor are photodiode SHF2400 and phototransistor SFH3410 from Osram or BSC 3216 G1 optical sensor from TDK. ADC can be used for temperature measurement with a thermistor. It enables temperature compensated LED driving. If ADC is not used, it should be disabled by writing en_ambadc bit low. AIN and AREF pins can be left unconnected 11 www.national.com LP3936 A/D Converter for Ambient Light Measurement (Continued) 20081416 Magnetic Boost DC/DC Converter The LP3936 Boost DC/DC Converter generates a 4.1V–5.3V supply voltage for the LEDs from single Li-Ion battery (3V … 4.5V). The output voltage is controlled with an 8-bit register in 9 steps. The converter is a magnetic switching PFM/PWM mode DC/DC converter with a current limit. The converter has a 1 MHz switching frequency when timing resistor RT is 82 kΩ. The topology of the magnetic boost converter is called CPM control, current programmed mode, where the inductor current is measured and controlled with the feedback. The user can program the output voltage of the boost converter. The control changes the resistor divider in the feedback loop. The following figure shows the boost topology with the protection circuitry. Three different protection schemes are implemented: 1) Over voltage protection, limits the maximum output voltage a. Keeps the output below breakdown voltage. b. Prevents boost operation if battery voltage is much higher than desired output. 2) Over current protection, limits the maximum inductor current a. Voltage over switching NMOS is monitored; too high voltages turn the switch off. 3) Duty cycle limiting, done with digital control. 20081417 www.national.com 12 LP3936 Boost Output Voltage Control User can control the boost output voltage by boost output 8-bit register. Boost[7:0] Register 0Dh Binary Hex BOOST Output Voltage (typical) 0000 0000 00 4.10 0000 0001 01 4.25 0000 0011 03 4.40 0000 0111 07 4.55 Default 0000 1111 0F 4.70 0001 1111 1F 4.85 0011 1111 3F 5.00 0111 1111 7F 5.15 1111 1111 FF 5.30 Boost Output Voltage Control 20081418 Magnetic Boost DC/DC Converter Electrical Characteristics Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Units ILOAD Load Current 3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 4.5V VOUT = 4.55V 0 250 mA VOUT Output Voltage Accuracy (FB Pin) 1 mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 225 mA 3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ V (FB)−0.5V VOUT = 4.55V −5 +5 % Output Voltage (FB Pin) 1 mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 250 mA 3.0V < VIN < 4.55V + V(SCHOTTKY) 4.55 V 1 mA ≤ ILOAD ≤ 250 mA VIN > 4.55V + V(SCHOTTKY) VIN–V(SCHOTTKY) V 0.4 RDSON Switch ON Resistance VDD1,2 = 3.6V, ISW = 0.5A fPWF PWM Mode Switching Frequency RT = 82 kΩ Frequency Accuracy RT = 82 kΩ −6 ±3 −10 tSTARTUP Startup Time ICL_OUT OUT Pin Current Limit 0.5 1 +6 +10 25 VDD = 3.6V 600 400 750 Ω MHz % ms 1050 1200 mA PFM/PWM Mode User can change the Boost converters mode between PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) and PFM (Pulse Frequency Modulation). The startup is done on PFM mode and then the device runs on PWM mode (as a default). User can set PFM mode by turning “pfm_mode” register bit HIGH. PFM is recommended to use with light loads and PWM with high loads. Boost Standby Mode User can set boost converter to STANDBY mode by writing register bit EN_BOOST low. This mode can be useful when driving LEDs directly from battery voltage. This may be possible if LED forward voltage is low, battery voltage is high and LED current is low. When EN_BOOST is written high, the converter starts for 10 ms in PFM mode and then goes to PWM mode if PWM mode has been selected (default). Unused Boost Converter If the boost converter is not used, it should be disabled by writing bit en_boost low. OUT pin should be connected to GND and FB pin to the LED supply voltage. 13 www.national.com LP3936 Boost Converter Typical Performance Characteristics VIN = 3.6V, VOUT = 4.55V if not otherwise stated. Boost Converter Efficiency Boost Frequency vs RT Resistor 20081420 20081419 Battery Current vs Voltage Battery Current vs Voltage 20081421 20081422 Boost Typical Waveforms at 100 mA Load Boost Startup with No Load 20081424 20081423 www.national.com 14 Boost Line Regulation Boost Load Regulation, 50 mA–100 mA 20081426 20081425 (PWM brightness control) • DUTY (dimming slope) • SLOPE (direct enable control) • ENABLE The main blinking cycle is controlled with 2-bit CYCLE control (0.25 / 0.5 / 1.0 / 2.0s). RGB LED Driver The RGB driver has three outputs that can independently drive one RGB LED or three LEDs of any kind. User has control over the following parameters separately for each LED: • ON and OFF (start and stop time in blinking cycle) 20081427 RGB PWM Operating Principle RGB_START is the master enable control for the whole RGB function. The internal PWM and blinking control can be disabled by setting the RGB_PWM control LOW. In this case the individual enable controls can be used to switch outputs on and off. RGB_EN input can be used for external hardware PWM control. RGB_EN input can be used as direct on/off or brightness (PWM) control. If RGB_EN input is not used, it must be tied to VDD_IO. Recommended maximum frequency of RGB LED external PWM control is 1 MHz. In the normal PWM mode the R, G and B switches are controlled in 3 phases (one phase per driver). During each phase the peak current set by external resistor is driven through the LED for the time defined by DUTY setting (0 µs–50 µs). As a time averaged current this means 0%–33% of the peak current. The PWM period is 150 µs and the pulse frequency is 6.67 kHz in normal mode. 20081428 Normal Mode PWM Waveforms at different duty settings 15 www.national.com LP3936 Boost Converter Typical Performance Characteristics VIN = 3.6V, VOUT = 4.55V if not otherwise stated. (Continued) LP3936 RGB LED Driver (Continued) In the FLASH mode all the outputs are controlled in one phase and the PWM period is 50 µs. The time averaged FLASH mode current is three times the normal mode current at the same DUTY value. Blinking can be controlled separately for each output. On and OFF times determine, when a LED turns on and off within the blinking cycle. When both ON and OFF are 0, the LED is on and doesn’t blink. If ON equals OFF but is not 0, the LED is permanently off. 20081429 Example Blinking Waveforms RGB Driver Electrical Characteristics (ROUT, GOUT, BOUT outputs) Symbol Parameter RDS-ON ON Resistance Conditions ILEAKAGE Off State Leakage Current VFB = 5.3V IMAX Maximum Sink Current (Note 12) Min Typ Max Units 2 4.5 Ω 0.04 1 µA 120 mA TSMAX Maximum Slope Period Maximum Duty Setting 0.93 s TSMIN Minimum Slope Period Maximum Duty Setting 31 ms TSRES Slope Resolution Maximum Duty Setting 62 ms TSTART/STOP Start/Stop Resolution Cycle 1s 1/16 s Duty Duty Step Size TBLINK Blinking Cycle Accuracy DCYCF Duty Cycle Range EN_FLASH = 1 0 DCYC Duty Cycle Range EN_FLASH = 0 0 DRESF Duty Resolution EN_FLASH = 1 (4-bit) 6.27 DRES Duty Resolution EN_FLASH = 0 (4-bit) 2.09 % FPWMF PWM Frequency EN_FLASH = 1 20 kHz FPWM PWM Frequency EN_FLASH = 0 6.67 kHz 1/16 −6 ±3 +6 % 94 % 31 % % Note 12: The total load current of the boost converter should be limited to 250 mA. RGB LED PWM Control (Note 13) RDUTY[3:0] GDUTY[3:0] BDUTY[3:0] DUTY sets the brightness of the LED by adjusting the duty cycle of the PWM driver. The minimum DUTY cycle  is 0% and the maximum  in the Flash mode is A 94% and in the normal mode 31% of the peak pulse current. The peak pulse current is determined by the external resistor, LED forward voltage drop and the boost voltage. RSLOPE[3:0] GSLOPE[3:0] BSLOPE[3:0] SLOPE sets the turn-on and turn-off slopes. Fastest slope is set by  and slowest by . SLOPE changes the duty cycle at constant, programmable rate. For each slope setting the maximum slope time appears at maximum DUTY setting. When DUTY is reduced, the slope time decreases proportionally. For example, in case of maximum DUTY, the sloping time can be adjusted from 31 ms  to 930 ms . For 50% DUTY  the sloping time is 17 ms  to 496 ms . The blinking cycle has no effect on SLOPE. RON[6:0] GON[6:0] BON[6:0] ON sets the beginning time of the turn-on slope. The on-time is relative to the selected blinking cycle length. On-setting N (N = 0–127) sets the on-time to N/128 * cycle length. ROFF[6:0] GOFF[6:0] BOFF[6:0] OFF sets the beginning time of the turn-off slope. Off-time is relative to blinking cycle length in the same way as on-time. www.national.com 16 (Note 13) (Continued) If ON = 0, OFF = 0 and RGB_PWM = 1, then RGB outputs are continuously on (no blinking), DUTY controls the brightness and SLOPE is ignored. If ON and OFF are the same, but not 0, RGB outputs are turned off. CYCLE[1:0] CYCLE sets the blinking cycle:  for 0.25s,  for 0.5s,  for 1s and  for 2s. CYCLE setting is common to all R, G and B drivers. RSW GSW BSW Enable for R switch Enable for G switch Enable for B switch RGB_START Master Switch: RGB_START = 0 → RGB OFF RGB_START = 1 → RGB ON, starts the new cycle from t = 0 RGB_PWM = 0 → RSW, GWS and BSW control directly the RGB outputs (on/off control only) RGB_PWM = 1 → Normal PWM RGB functionality (duty, slope, on/off times, cycle) RGB_PWM EN_FLASH EN_RED_PWM EN_GREEN_PWM EN_BLUE_PWM Flash Mode enable control for RGB. In Flash mode (EN_FLASH = 1) RGB outputs are PWM controlled simultaneously, not in 3-phase system as in the Normal Mode. EN_X_PWM = 0 → External PWM control from RGB_EN pin is disabled EN_X_PWM = 1 → External PWM control from RGB_EN pin is enabled Internal PWM control (DUTY) can be used independently of external PWM control. External PWM has the same effect on all enabled colors. Note 13: Application Note AN-1293, “Driving RGB LEDs Using LP3936 Lighting Management System” contains a thorough description of the RGB driver functionality including programming examples. Main and sub display outputs have separate enable control bits, EN_4LED and EN_2LED. PWM control of WLED outputs for dimming or on/off control is possible using RGB_EN pin together with EN_4LED_PWM and EN_2LED_PWM enable control bits from the user register. Recommended maximum frequency of WLED external PWM control is 1 kHz. WLED Drivers White LED drivers drive each white LED with a regulated constant current. The outputs are combined in two groups, four outputs for the main display backlight and two outputs for the sub display backlight. The current is controlled between 0 and 25.5 mA using the 8-bit current mode DAconverters. WLED outputs can be used to drive any kind of LED. 20081430 17 www.national.com LP3936 RGB LED PWM Control LP3936 WLED and CLED Driver Electrical Characteristics Symbol Parameter Conditions IRANGE Sink Current Range VFB = 4.55V, Control 00h–FFh IMAX Maximum Sink Current (Note 14) Min Typ Max Units 27 mA 28 mA 0–25.5 24 25.5 22 mA ILEAKAGE Leakage Current VFB = 5V 0.04 1 µA IMATCH Sink Current Matching (Note 15) ISINK = 13 mA, between WLED1 … 4 or WLED5 … 6 1.0 4 % Note 14: A minimum voltage, Dropout Voltage, is required on the WLED outputs for maintaining the LED current. The current reduction at lower voltages is shown in the graph WLED Output Current vs. Voltage. Note 15: Match % = 100% * (Max – Min)/Min lighter loads, the low ESR ceramics offer a much lower VOUT ripple than the higher ESR tantalums of the same value. At the higher loads, the ceramics offer a slightly lower VOUT ripple magnitude than the tantalums of the same value. However, the dv/dt of the VOUT ripple with the ceramics is much lower than the tantalums under all load conditions. Capacitor voltage rating must be sufficient, 10V is recommended. It should be noted that with some capacitor types the actual capacitance depends heavily on the capacitor DC voltage bias. WLED Current Adjustment WLED[7:0] WLED Current (Typical) Units 0000 0000 0 mA 0000 0001 0.1 mA 0000 0010 0.2 mA 0000 0011 0.3 mA • • 1111 1101 1111 1110 1111 1111 • • 25.3 25.4 25.5 • • mA mA mA INPUT CAPACITOR, CIN The input capacitor CIN directly affects the magnitude of the input ripple voltage and to a lesser degree the VOUT ripple. A higher value CIN will give a lower VIN ripple. Capacitor voltage rating must be sufficient, 10V is recommended. WLED Output Current vs Voltage Temperatures −40˚C, +25˚C, +85˚C OUTPUT DIODE, DOUT A Schottky diode should be used for the output diode. To maintain high efficiency the average current rating of the schottky diode should be larger than the peak inductor current (1A). Schottky diodes with a low forward drop and fast switching speeds are ideal for increasing efficiency in portable applications. Choose a reverse breakdown of the schottky diode larger than the output voltage. Do not use ordinary rectifier diodes, since slow switching speeds and long recovery times cause the efficiency and the load regulation to suffer. INDUCTOR, L The high switching frequency enables the use of the small surface mount inductor. A 10 µH shielded inductor is suggested. Values below 4.7 µH should not be used. The inductor should have a saturation current rating higher than the peak current it will experience during circuit operation (A1A). Less than 300 mΩ ESR is suggested for high efficiency. Open core inductors cause flux linkage with circuit components and interfere with the normal operation of the circuit. This should be avoided. For high efficiency, choose an inductor with a high frequency core material such as ferrite to reduce the core losses. To minimize radiated noise, use a toroid, pot core or shielded core inductor. The inductor should be connected to the OUT pin as close to the IC as possible. Examples of suitable inductors are TDK types LLF4017T-100MR90C and VLF4012AT-100MR79 and Coilcraft type DO3314T-103 (unshielded). 20081431 Recommended External Components OUTPUT CAPACITOR, COUT The output capacitor COUT directly affects the magnitude of the output ripple voltage. In general, the higher the value of COUT, the lower the output ripple magnitude. Multilayer ceramic capacitors with low ESR are the best choice. At the www.national.com 18 LP3936 Recommended External Components (Continued) List of Recommended External Components Symbol Value Unit CVDD1 VDD1 bypass capacitor Symbol Explanation 1 µF Ceramic, X7R Type CVDD2 VDD2 bypass capacitor 1 µF Ceramic, X7R COUT Output capacitor from FB to GND 10 µF Ceramic, X7R/Y5V CIN Input capacitor from Battery Voltage to GND 10 µF Ceramic, X7R/Y5V CVDDIO VDDIO bypass capacitor 1 µF Ceramic, X7R CVDDA Internal LDO output capacitor, between VDDA and GND 1 µF Ceramic, X7R RT Oscillator Frequency Bias Resistor 82 kΩ 1% (Note 16) RDO DO output pull-up resistor 100 kΩ CVREF Reference Voltage Capacitor, between VREF and GND 100 nF Ceramic, X7R LBOOST Boost converter inductor 10 µH Shielded, Low ESR, ISAT A1A DOUT Rectifying Diode, VF @ Maxload 0.3 V RGB RGB LED User Defined (See Application Note AN-1293 for resistor size calculation) RR, RG, RB Current Limit Resistors LEDs Schottky Diode White LEDs Note 16: Resistor RT tolerance change will change the timing accuracy of the RGB block. Also the boost converter switching frequency will be affected. Control Registers All user accessible control registers and register bits are shown in the following table. ADDR 00H SETUP D7 D6 Control register rgb_pwm rgb_start D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 cycle cycle rsw gsw bsw pfm_mode ron 01H ron ron ron ron ron ron ron 02H roff roff roff roff roff roff roff roff 03H gon gon gon gon gon gon gon gon 04H goff goff goff goff goff goff goff goff 05H bon bon bon bon bon bon bon bon 06H boff boff boff boff boff boff boff boff rslope 07H rslope, rduty rslope rslope rslope rduty rduty rduty rduty 08H gslope, gduty gslope gslope gslope gslope gduty gduty gduty gduty 09H bslope, bduty bslope bslope bslope 0AH wled current 1 wled1 0BH enables 0CH Amb. Light data 0DH bslope bduty bduty bduty bduty] wled1 wled1 wled1 wled1 wled1 wled1 wled1 overflow nstby en_boost en_flash en_ambave en_ambadc en_4led en_2led ain ain ain ain ain ain ain ain boost output boost boost boost boost boost boost boost boost 2AH wled current 2 wled2 wled2 wled2 wled2 wled2 wled2 wled2 wled2 2BH ext pwm enable en_redpwm en_greenpwm en_bluepwm en_4ledpwm en_2ledpwm Default value of each register is 0000 0000 except the following — boost output default is 0000 0111 = 07h (4.55V). — enables default is x010 0000 = 20h (boost enabled) — ext_pwm_enable default is 0001 1100 = 1Ch (RGB_EN control enabled for color outputs) Register 0Ch all bits (ain[7:0]) and bit D7 in register 0Bh (overflow) are read only. All other bits are read-write. 19 www.national.com LP3936 Lighting Management System for Six White LEDs and One RGB or FLASH LED Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 32-Lead Thin CSP Package, 4.5 x 5.5 x 0.8 mm, 0.5 mm Pitch NS Package Number SLD32A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. 2. 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