AKM AKD4317

ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
AK4317
18Bit SCF DAC with ATT & MIXER
General Description
The AK4317 is a 1bit stereo DAC with channel separated volume and channel mixer. This DAC also
includes 18bit digital filter and analog LPF. A 1bit DAC can achieve monotonicity and low distortion with
no adjustment and is superior to traditional R-2R ladder based DACs. In the AK4317, the loss of
accuracy from clock jitter is also improved by using SCF techniques for on-chip post filter. Therefore, the
AK4317 is suitable for the system like STB including PLL circuit.
Features
† Sampling Rate Ranging from 8kHz to 50kHz
† On chip Perfect filtering
• 8 times FIR Interpolator
• 2nd order SCF
• 2nd order CTF
† Digital de-emphasis for 32, 44.1, 48kHz sampling
† L/R Separated Volume
† L/R Mixing
† Soft Mute
† Audio I/F format : MSB justified, LSB justified, I2S
† Master Clock: 256fs or 384fs
† High Tolerance to Clock Jitter
† THD+N: -86dB
† DR: 92dB
† Power Supply:4.5 to 5.5V
† Small Package: 24pin VSOP
† AK4311 Compatible
0172-E-01
1997/5
-1-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
„ Ordering Guide
AK4317-VF
AKD4317
-40∼+85°C
Evaluation Board
24pin VSOP(0.65mm pitch)
„ Pin Layout
„ Compatibility with AK4311/A
1. Changed Specs
Parameter
Resolution
Operating Temperature
Power Supply
Digital I/F level
X'tal Oscillator
DR
Package
AK4311
16bit
-40∼85°C
3∼5.5V
CMOS
Yes
92dB
SSOP
AK4311A
16bit
-10∼70°C
3∼5.5V
CMOS
Yes
91dB
SSOP
AK4317
16/18bit
-40∼85°C
4.5∼5.5V
TTL
No
92dB
VSOP
2. Pin Compatibility
The following pin functions are changed from AK4311/A. But when X'tal oscillating circuit is not used, it
is possible to change AK4311/A to AK4317 without changing the board layout.
Pin No.
4
6
AK4311/A
XTO
CLKO
AK4317
DIF0
DIF1
0172-E-01
1997/5
-2-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
PIN/FUNCTION
No.
Pin Name
I/O
Function
1
DVDD
-
Digital Power Supply
2
DVSS
-
Digital Ground Pin
3
PD
I
Power-Down Mode Pin
When at "L", the AK4317 is in power-down mode and is held in reset.
The AK4317 should always be reset upon power-up.
4
DIF0
I
Digital Input Format Pin
5
MCLK
I
Master Clock Input Pin
6
DIF1
I
Digital Input Format Pin
7
BICK
I
Audio Serial Data Clock Pin
8
SDATA
I
Audio Serial Data Input Pin
2's complement MSB-first data is input on this pin.
9
LRCK
I
L/R Clock Pin
10
CDATA
I
Control Data Input Pin
Must be tied to "H" or "L" if this pin is not used.
11
CCLK
I
Control Clock Pin
Must be tied to "H" or "L" if this pin is not used.
12
CS
I
Chip Select Pin
Must be tied to "H" if this pin is not used.
13
TST2
O
Test Pin
Must be left floating.
14
SMUTE
I
Soft Mute Pin
When this pin goes "H", soft mute cycle is initiated.
When returning "L", the output mute releases.
15
DEM
I
De-emphasis Enable Pin
16
CKS
I
Master Clock Select Pin
MCLK=256fs,"H": MCLK=384fs
17
AOUT1
O
Channel 1 analog output pin
18
AOUT0
O
Channel 0 analog output pin
19
VCOM
I
Common Voltage Pin, AVDD/2
Normally connected to AVSS with a 0.1uF ceramic capacitor in parallel
with a 10uF electrolytic cap.
20
AVDD
-
Analog Power Supply Pin
21
AVSS
-
Analog Ground pin
22
VREF
I
Voltage Reference Input Pin
The differential Voltage between this pin and AVSS set the analog output
range. Normally connected to AVSS with a 0.1uF ceramic capacitor.
23
DZF
O
Zero Input Detect Pin
24
TST1
I
Test Pin
Must be left floating or tied to AVSS.
(Internal Pull-down pin)
(Internal Pull-down pin)
(Internal Pull-down pin)
Note: All input pins except pull-down pins should not be left floating.
0172-E-01
1997/5
-3-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
(AVSS,DVSS=0V; Note 1 )
Parameter
Power Supplies:
Analog
Digital
DADD-AVDD
Symbol
min
max
Units
AVDD
DVDD
VDA
-0.3
-0.3
-
6.0
6.0
0.3
V
V
V
-
±10
mA
Input Current, Any Pin Except Supplies
IIN
Input Voltage
VIND
-0.3
AVDD+0.3
V
Ambient Operating Temperature
Ta
-40
85
°C
Storage Temperature
Tstg
-65
150
°C
Note: 1 . All voltages with respect to ground.
WARNING: Operation at or beyond these limits may result in permanent damage to the device.
Normal operation is not guaranteed at these extremes.
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
(AVSS,DVSS=0V; Note 1 )
Parameter
Power Supplies:
Voltage Reference
Analog
Digital
Symbol
min
typ
max
Units
(Note 2 )
AVDD
DVDD
4.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
5.5
AVDD
V
V
(Note 3 )
VREF
2.5
-
AVDD
V
Notes: 2. AVDD and DVDD should be powered at the same time or AVDD should be powered earlier
than DVDD.
3. Analog output voltage scales with the voltage of VREF.
AOUT([email protected])=2.8Vpp*VREF/5.
* AKM assumes no responsibility for the usage beyond the conditions in this data sheet.
0172-E-01
1997/5
-4-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
ANALOG CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD,DVDD=5.0V; VREF=AVDD; fs=44.1kHz; Signal Frequency=1kHz; 18bit Input Data;
Measurement Bandwidth=10Hz∼20kHz; RL≥10kΩ; unless otherwise specified)
Parameter
min
Resolution
typ
max
18
Dynamic Characteristics
Units
Bits
(Note 4 )
THD+N
(0dB Output)
-80
-86
dB
Dynamic Range
(-60dB Output, A weight)
88
92
dB
S/N
(A weight)
88
92
dB
80
90
dB
Interchannel Isolation(1kHz)
DC Accuracy
Interchannel Gain Mismatch
Gain Drift
(Note 5 )
0.15
0.3
dB
20
-
ppm/°C
2.8
2.94
Vpp
DC Accuracy
Output Voltage
(Note 6 )
2.66
Load Resistance
10
kΩ
Power Supplies
Power Supply Current
Normal Operation (PD="H")
AVDD
DVDD
Power-Down-Mode (PD="L")
AVDD+DVDD
(Note 7 )
12
4
18
6
mA
mA
10
50
uA
Power Dissipation (AVDD+DVDD)
Normal Operation
Power-Down-Mode
(Note 7 )
80
50
120
mW
uW
Power Supply Rejection
50
(Note 8 )
dB
Notes: 4. Measured by AD725C(SHIBASOKU). Averaging mode. Refer to the eva board manual.
5. The voltage on VREF pin is held +5V externally.
6. Full-scale voltage(0dB). Output voltage scales with the voltage of VREF pin.
AOUT([email protected])=2.8Vpp*VREF/5.
7. Power Dissipation in the power-down mode is applied with no external clocks
(MCLK,BICK,LRCK held "H" or "L").
8. PSR is applied to AVDD,DVDD with 1kHz, 100mVpp. VREF pin is held +5V.
0172-E-01
1997/5
-5-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
FILTER CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD,DVDD=4.5V∼5.5V; fs=44.1kHz; DEM="0")
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Units
±0.1dB (Note 9 )
-6.0dB
PB
0
-
22.05
20.0
-
kHz
kHz
(Note 9 )
SB
Digital Filter
Passband
Stopband
24.1
kHz
Passband Ripple
PR
Stopband Attenuation
SA
43
GD
-
14.7
-
1/fs
-
±0.5
-
dB
Group Delay
(Note 10 )
±0.06
dB
dB
Digital Filter + SCF + CTF
Frequency Response 0∼20.0kHz
Note: 9. The passband and stopband frequencies scale with fs.
For example, PB=0.4535*fs(@±0.1dB), SB=0.546*fs.
10. The calculating delay time which occurred by digital filtering. This time is from setting the
16/18bit data of both channels to input register to the output of analog signal.
DIGITAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD,DVDD=4.5∼5.5V)
Parameter
Symbol
min
typ
max
Units
VIH
VIL
2.2
-
-
0.8
V
V
DVDD-0.5
-
-
0.5
V
V
-
-
±10
uA
High-Level Input Voltage
Low-Level Input Voltage
High-Level Output Voltage
Low-Level Output Voltage
(Iout=-100A)
(Iout=100A)
VOH
VOL
Input Leakage Current
(Note 11 )
Iin
Notes: 11. DIF0,DIF1,DEM,TST1 pins have internal pull-down devices, nominally 160kΩ.
0172-E-01
1997/5
-6-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS
(Ta=25°C; AVDD,DVDD=4.5∼5.5V; CL=20pF)
Parameter
Master Clock Timing
256fs:
Pulse Width Low
Pulse Width High
384fs:
Pulse Width Low
Pulse Width High
Symbol
fCLK
tCLKL
tCLKH
fCLK
tCLKL
tCLKH
min
typ
2.048
28
28
3.072
23
23
max
Unit
12.8
MHz
ns
ns
MHz
ns
ns
19.2
kHz
kHz
%
LRCK
Frequency
Duty Cycle
fs
Duty
Serial Interface Timing
BICK Period
BICK Pulse Width Low
Pulse Width High
BICK rising to LRCK edge (Note 12 )
LRCK Edge to BICK rising (Note 12 )
SDATA Hold Time
SDATA Setup Time
tBCK
tBCKL
tBCKH
tBLR
tLRB
tSDH
tSDS
312.5
100
100
50
50
50
50
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
tCCKL
tCCKH
tCDS
tCDH
tCSW
tCSS
tCSH
100
100
50
50
100
50
50
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
tPD
150
ns
Control Interface Timing
CCLK Pulse Width Low
Pulse Width High
CDATA Latch Hold Time
CDATA Latch Setup Time
CS Pulse Width Low
CCLK to CS falling
CS rising to CCLK
Reset Timing
PD Pulse Width
(Note 13 )
8
45
44.1
50
55
Notes: 12. BICK rising edge must not occur at the same time as LRCK edge.
13. The AK4317 can be reset by bringing PD "L" to "H" only upon power up.
0172-E-01
1997/5
-7-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
„ Timing Diagram
tPD
PD
VIL
Reset Timing
0172-E-01
1997/5
-8-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
OPERATION OVERVIEW
„ System Clock
The external clocks which are required to operate the AK4317 are MCLK, LRCK, BICK. The master
clock(MCLK)should be synchronized with LRCK but the phase is not critical. The MCLK is used to
operate the digital interpolation filter and the delta-sigma modulator. The frequency of MCLK is
determined by the sampling rate (LRCK) and CKS pin. Table 1 illustrates corresponding clock
frequencies. When the 384fs is selected, the internal master clock becomes 256fs(=384fs*2/3). Refer to
Figure 1 .
All external clocks(MCLK,BICK,LRCK) should always be present whenever the AK4317 is in normal
operation mode(PD="H"). If these clocks are not provided, the AK4317 may draw excess current because
the device utilizes dynamic refreshed logic internally. If the external clocks are not present, the AK4317
should be in the power-down mode(PD="L"). After exiting reset at power-up etc., the AK4317 is in powerdown mode until MCLK and LRCK are input.
Clock
frequency
LRCK (fs)
8k∼50kHz
∼64fs
BICK
MCLK
CKS="L"
256fs
CKS="H"
384fs
Table 1 . System Clocks
Figure 1 . MCLK divider
„Audio Serial Interface Format
Data is shifted in via the SDATA pin using BICK and LRCK inputs. Four serial data modes which are
compatible with AK4319 are supported and selected by the DIF0 and DIF1 pins as shown in Table 2 . In
all modes the serial data is MSB-first, 2's compliment format and is latched on the rising edge of BICK.
Mode 2 can be used for 16 MSB justified formats by zeroing the unused LSBs.
DIF1 DIF0
Mode
BICK
Figure
0
0
0: 16bit LSB Justified
≥32fs
Figure 2
0
1
1: 18bit LSB Justified
≥36fs
Figure 2
1
0
2: 18bit MSB Justified
≥36fs
Figure 3
1
1
≥36fs Figure 4
or 32fs
2
3: I S Compatible
Table 2 . Serial Data Modes
0172-E-01
1997/5
-9-
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
Figure 2 . Mode 0,1 Timing
Figure 3 . Mode 2 Timing
Figure 4 . Mode 3 Timing
„ De-emphasis filter
The AK4317 includes the digital de-emphasis filter(tc=50/15us) by IIR filter. This filter corresponds to
three sampling frequencies(32kHz,44.1kHz,48kHz). De-emphasis is enabled by the following two ways.
1. DEM pin
Only one de-emphasis(fs=44.1kHz) set initially can be controlled by DEM pin at resetting. The deemphasis is enabled by setting DEM pin "H". When the frequency of de-emphasis is set by FS0,FS1 of
serial mode control bits, the corresponding de-emphasis can be enabled. In this case, DEM bit in the
serial mode control should be "0".
2. DEM bit in the serial mode control
DEM pin should be open or "L". In this case, The de-emphasis corresponding to fs=32kHz,
44.1kHz,48kHz can be controlled by DEM, FS0 and FS1 in the serial mode control bits.
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 10 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
„ Zero detection
When the input data at both channels are continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles, DZF goes to "H".
DZF immediately goes "L" if input data are not zero after going DZF "H".
„ Soft mute operation
Soft mute operation is performed at digital domain. When SMUTE pin goes "H" or the output mode is set
to "MUTE", the output signal is attenuated by -∞ during 1024 LRCK cycles. When SMUTE pin is returned
to "L" or exiting "MUTE", the mute is cancelled and the output attenuation gradually changes to 0dB
during 1024 LRCK cycles. If the soft mute is cancelled within 1024 LRCK cycles after starting the
operation, the attenuation is discontinued and returned to 0dB. The soft mute is effective for changing the
signal source without stopping the signal transmission
Notes:
1
{
2
{
3
{
4
{
The output signal is attenuated by -∞ during 1024 LRCK cycles(1024/fs).
Analog output corresponding to digital input have the group delay(GD).
If the soft mute is cancelled within 1024 LRCK cycles, the attenuation is discontinued and
returned to 0dB.
As the input data at both channels are continuously zeros for 8192 LRCK cycles, DZF goes to
"H".
DZF immediately go to "L" if input data are not zero after DZF "H".
Figure 5 . Soft mute and zero detection
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 11 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
„ Serial Mode Control
The AK4317 can control output attenuation level, output mode, de-emphasis type and attenuation mode
via the serial interface. The serial data consists of two 8 bits for setting the attenuation level of each
channel and 8 bits for the mode control.
Figure 6 . Configuration of attenuator and mixer
L0-L7:
R0-R7:
S0-S3:
DEM:
ATC:
FS0,FS1:
Lch ATT data, L0=LSB, L7=MSB
Rch ATT data, R0=LSB, R7=MSB
Output mode Control
De-Emphasis Control
ATT mode Control
fs Control for de-emphasis Filter
:FFH at RESET
:FFH at RESET
:1001 at RESET
:0 at RESET
:0 at RESET
:00 at RESET
Note 1: CCLK should be held "H" or "L" except writing to ATT & mode registers in order to avoid the
performance degradation.
Note 2: If the above serial mode control is not used, CS should be held "H".
Figure 7 . Serial mode control timing
1. Attenuator Operation
The AK4317 has individually controllable attenuator with linear scale and 256 levels for each channel.
Equation of attenuation level: ATT=20×Log10(Binary level/255)
FFH: 0dB
:
01H: -48.1dB
00H: Mute(Infinity zero:-∞)
The transition between ATT values is same as soft mute operation. When current value is ATT1 and new
value is set as ATT2, ATT1 gradually becomes ATT2 with same operation as soft mute. If new value is set
as ATT3 before reaching ATT2, ATT value gradually becomes ATT3 from the way of transition.
Cycle time of soft mute: Ts=1024/fs
When resetting, ATT value is set 00H(Infinity zero). ATT value gradually changes from 00H to FFH(0dB)
during Ts after exiting reset.
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 12 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
2. Output mode
The AK4317 supports the following output modes.
• Normal stereo output
• L/R Reverse output
• Monaural output: L/L, R/R, (L+R)/2
• Output muting with soft mute operation
When resetting, ATT values of both channels are FFH and the attenuation levels are set 0dB. The output
mode is also set normal stereo output.
S0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
S1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
S2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
S3
AOUT0
0
MUTE
1
MUTE
0
MUTE
1
MUTE
0
R
1
R
0
R
1
R
0
L
1
L
0
L
1
L
0
(L+R)/2
1
(L+R)/2
0
(L+R)/2
1
(L+R)/2
Table 3 . Output mode
AOUT1
MUTE
R
L
(L+R)/2
MUTE
R
L
(L+R)/2
MUTE
R
L
(L+R)/2
MUTE
R
L
(L+R)/2
Mode
MUTE
Reverse
Stereo
* at RESET
MONO
3. De-emphasis control
DEM bit and DEM pin are ORed internally. The de-emphasis(tc=50/15us) corresponding to fs(sampling
frequency)selected by FS0 and FS1 is enabled by setting DEM bit "1" or DEM pin "H". When DEM bit is
"0" and DEM pin is "L", the de-emphasis is disabled and the setting of FS0 and FS1 is invalid. The deemphasis is also disabled at FS0="1" and FS1="0". When resetting, DEM bit is set "0". For example,
when the de-emphasis is controlled by only DEM pin at fs=44.1kHz, DEM,FS0,FS1 bits should be "0".
This condition is also set at resetting.
FS0
FS1
mode
0
0
44.1kHz
1
0
OFF
0
1
48kHz
1
1
32kHz
Table 4 .De-emphasis filter setting
(Valid at DEM bit="1" or DEM pin="H")
4. Attenuation control
ATT values of both channels are set Lch ATT data by setting ATC bit "1". In this case, Rch ATT data is
ignored. When resetting, ATC bit is set "0" (individually control).
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 13 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
„ Power-Down
The AK4317 are placed in the power-down mode by bringing PD pin "L" and the analog outputs are
floating(Hi-Z). Figure 8 shows an example of the system timing at the power-down and power-up.
Figure 8 . Power-down/up sequence example
Notes:
1
{
2
{
3
{
4
{
5
{
Analog output corresponding to digital input have the group delay(GD).
Analog outputs are floating(Hi-Z) at the power-down mode.
Click noise about -50dB occurs at the edges("↑↓") of PD signal.
This noise is output even if "0" data is input.
When the external clocks(MCLK,BICK,LRCK) are stopped, the AK4317 should be in the powerdown mode.
3 ) influences system application.
Please mute the analog output externally if the click noise({
The timing example is shown in this figure.
„ System Reset
The AK4317 should be reset once by bringing PD "L" upon power-up. The AK4317 is powered up and
the internal timing starts clocking by LRCK "↑" after exiting reset and power down state by MCLK. The
AK4317 is in power-down mode until LRCK is input.
„ Click Noise from analog output
Click noise occurs from analog output in the following cases.
1 When switching de-empahsis mode by DEM bit or DEM pin.
{
2 When switching serial data mode by DIF0,DIF1 pins,
{
3 When going and exiting power down mode by PD pin,
{
1 &{
2 , If the input data is "0" or the soft mute is enabled (after 1024 LRCK cycles
However in case of {
from SMUTE="H"), no click noise occur.
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 14 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
SYSTEM DESIGN
Figure 9 shows the system connection diagram. An evaluation board[AKD4317] is available which
demonstrates the optimum layout, power supply arrangements and measurement results.
Figure 9 . Typical Connection Diagram
Notes:
- LRCK=fs, MCLK=256fs at CKS="L", MCLK=384fs at CKS="H".
- If the above serial mode control is not used, CS should be held "H".
- Power lines of AVDD and DVDD should be distributed separately from the point with low
impedance of regulator etc.
- When AOUT drives some capacitive load, some resistor should be added in series between
AOUT and capacitive load.
- The capacitor value on VCOM depends on low frequency noise level of power supply.
- All input pins except pull-down pins(DIF0,DIF1,DEM,TST1) should not be left floating.
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 15 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
1. Grounding and Power Supply Decoupling
To minimize coupling by digital noise, decoupling capacitors should be connected to AVDD and DVDD,
respectively. AVDD is supplied from analog supply in system and DVDD is supplied from AVDD via 10Ω
resistor as shown inFigure 9 . Alternatively if AVDD and DVDD are supplied separately, AVDD and DVDD
should be powered at the same time or AVDD should be powered earlier than DVDD. Analog ground and
digital ground should be connected together near to where the supplies are brought onto the printed
circuit board. Decoupling capacitors for high frequency should be placed as near as possible.
2. Voltage reference
The differential Voltage between VREF and AVSS set the analog output range. VREF pin is normally
connected to AVDD with a 0.1uF ceramic capacitor. VCOM is a signal ground of this chip. An electrolytic
capacitor of around 10uF in parallel with a 0.1uF ceramic capacitor attached to these pins eliminates the
effects of high frequency noise. No load current may be drawn from VCOM pin. All signals, especially
clocks, should be kept away from the VREF and VCOM pins in order to avoid unwanted coupling into the
AK4317.
3. Analog Outputs
The analog outputs are also single-ended and centered around the VCOM voltage. The output signal
range is typically 2.8Vpp. AC coupling capacitors of larger than 1uF are recommended. The internal
switched-capacitor filter and continuous-time filter attenuate the noise generated by the delta-sigma
modulator beyond the audio passband. Therefore, any external filters are not required for typical
application. The output voltage is a positive full scale for 1FFFFH(@18bit) and a negative full scale for
20000H(@18bit). The ideal output is VCOM voltage for 00000H(@18bit).
DC offsets on analog outputs are eliminated by AC coupling since analog outputs have DC offsets of
VCOM + a few mV.
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 16 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
PACKAGE
z 24pin VSOP (Unit: mm)
NOTE: Dimension “*” does not include mold flash.
„ Package & Lead frame material
Package molding compound:
Lead frame material:
Lead frame surface treatment:
Epoxy
Cu
Solder plate
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 17 -
ASAHI KASEI
[AK4317]
MARKING
Contents of AAXXXX
AA:
Lot#
XXXX: Date Code
0172-E-01
1997/5
- 18 -
IMPORTANT NOTICE
zThese products and their specifications are subject to change without notice. Before
considering any use or application, consult the Asahi Kasei Microsystems Co., Ltd. (AKM)
sales office or authorized distributor concerning their current status.
zAKM assumes no liability for infringement of any patent, intellectual property, or other
right in the application or use of any information contained herein.
zAny export of these products, or devices or systems containing them, may require an
export license or other official approval under the law and regulations of the country of
export pertaining to customs and tariffs, currency exchange, or strategic materials.
zAKM products are neither intended nor authorized for use as critical components in any
safety, life support, or other hazard related device or system, and AKM assumes no
responsibility relating to any such use, except with the express written consent of the
Representative Director of AKM. As used here:
(a) A hazard related device or system is one designed or intended for life support or
maintenance of safety or for applications in medicine, aerospace, nuclear energy, or
other fields, in which its failure to function or perform may reasonably be expected to
result in loss of life or in significant injury or damage to person or property.
(b) A critical component is one whose failure to function or perform may reasonably be
expected to result, whether directly or indirectly, in the loss of the safety or
effectiveness of the device or system containing it, and which must therefore meet
very high standards of performance and reliability.
zIt is the responsibility of the buyer or distributor of an AKM product who distributes,
disposes of, or otherwise places the product with a third party to notify that party in
advance of the above content and conditions, and the buyer or distributor agrees to
assume any and all responsibility and liability for and hold AKM harmless from any and
all claims arising from the use of said product in the absence of such notification.