ETC KAF

KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
KAF- 6303E
3072 (H) x 2048 (V) Pixel
Enhanced Response
Full-Frame CCD Image Sensor
Performance Specification
Eastman Kodak Company
Image Sensor Solutions
Rochester, New York 14650-2010
Revision 2
October 15, 2001
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Features.............................................................................................................................................. 3
1.2 Description......................................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Image Acquisition.............................................................................................................................. 4
1.4 Charge Transport ............................................................................................................................... 4
1.5 Output Structure..................................................................................................................................4
1.6 Dark Reference Pixels .......................................................................................................................4
1.7 Dummy Pixels. ...................................................................................................................................4
2.1 Package Drawing ............................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Pin Description .................................................................................................................................. 6
3.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings .............................................................................................................. 7
3.2 DC Operating Conditions .................................................................................................................. 8
3.3 AC Operating Conditions .................................................................................................................. 9
3.4 AC Timing Conditions ...................................................................................................................... 9
4.1 Performance Specifications ............................................................................................................. 11
4.2 Typical Performance Characteristics Spectral Response ................................................................ 12
4.3 Defect Classification........................................................................................................................ 13
5.1 Quality Assurance and Reliability ................................................................................................... 14
5.2 Ordering Information ....................................................................................................................... 14
Revision Changes ................................................................................................................................. 15
FIGURES
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Functional Block Diagram
Package Diagram
Package Pin Designations
Recommended Output Structure Load Diagram
Timing Diagrams
3
5
6
8
10
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: imag[email protected]
2
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
1.1
current without compromising charge capacity. The
transparent gate results in spectral response increased
ten times at 400nm, compared to a front side
illuminated standard polysilicon gate technology. The
sensitivity is increased 50% over the rest of the visible
wavelengths.
Features
= 6M Pixel Area CCD
= 3072H x 2048V (9 µm) Pixels
Transparent Gate True Two Phase Technology
=
=
=
=
1.2
(Enhanced Spectral Response)
27.65mm H x 18.48mm V Photosensitive Area
2-Phase Register Clocking
100% Fill Factor
Low Dark Current ( <10pA/cm2 @ 25oC)
Total chip size is 29.0 mm x 19.1 mm and is housed in a
26-pin, 0.88” wide DIL ceramic package with 0.1” pin
spacing.
The sensor consists of 3088 parallel (vertical) CCD
shift registers each 2056 elements long. These registers
act as both the photosensitive elements and as the
transport circuits that allow the image to be sequentially
read out of the sensor. The elements of these registers
are arranged into a 3072 x 2048 photosensitive array
surrounded by a light shielded dark reference of 16
columns and 8 rows. The parallel (vertical) CCD
registers transfer the image one line at a time into a
single 3100 element (horizontal) CCD shift register.
The horizontal register transfers the charge to a single
output amplifier. The output amplifier is a two-stage
source follower that converts the photo-generated
charge to a voltage for each pixel
.
Description
The KAF-6303E is a high performance monochrome
area CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor with
3072H x 2048V photo active pixels designed for a wide
range of image sensing applications in the 0.3 nm to 1.0
nm wavelength band. Typical applications include
military, scientific, and industrial imaging. A 74dB
dynamic range is possible operating at room temperature.
The sensor is built with a true two-phase CCD
technology. This technology simplifies the support
circuits that drive the sensor and reduces the dark
4 Dark lines
φ= V 1
φ= V 2
KA F - 6303E
U sable Active Image Area
3072(H) x 2048(V)
Guard
9 x 9 µm pixels
3:2 aspect ratio
V rd
φR
V dd
V out
V ss
4 Dark lines
3072 Active Pixels/Line
10 Dark
6 Dark
φ H1
φ H2
2 Inactive
10 Inactive
Sub
V og
Figure 1 - Functional Block Diagram
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
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Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
1.3
1.5
Image Acquisition
Charge presented to the floating diffusion (FD) is
converted into a voltage and current amplified in order
to drive off-chip loads. The resulting voltage change
seen at the output is linearly related to the amount of
charge placed on FD. Once the signal has been sampled
by the system electronics, the reset gate (φR) is clocked
to remove the signal and FD is reset to the potential
applied by Vrd. More signal at the floating diffusion
reduces the voltage seen at the output pin. In order to
activate the output structure, an off-chip load must be
added to the Vout pin of the device - see Figure 4.
An electronic representation of an image is formed when
incident photons falling on the sensor plane create
electron-hole pairs within the sensor. These photon
induced electrons are collected locally by the formation of
potential wells at each photogate or pixel site. The number
of electrons collected is linearly dependent on light level
and exposure time and non-linearly dependent on
wavelength. When the pixel's capacity is reached, excess
electrons will leak into the adjacent pixels within the same
column. This is termed blooming. During the integration
period, the φV1 and φV2 register clocks are held at a
constant (low) level.
See Figure 5. - Timing Diagrams.
1.4
Output Structure
1.6
Dark Reference Pixels
Surrounding the peripheral of the device is a border of
light shielded pixels. This includes 6 leading and 10
trailing pixels on every line excluding dummy pixels.
There are also 4 full dark lines at the start of every
frame and 4 full dark lines at the end of each frame.
Under normal circumstances, these pixels do not
respond to light. However, dark reference pixels in
close proximity to an active pixel, or the outer bounds
of the chip (including the first two lines out), can
scavenge signal depending on light intensity and
wavelength and therefore will not represent the true
dark signal.
Charge Transport
Referring again to Figure 5 - Timing Diagrams, the
integrated charge from each photogate is transported to
the output using a two step process. Each line (row) of
charge is first transported from the vertical CCD's to the
horizontal CCD register using the φV1 and φV2 register
clocks. The horizontal CCD is presented a new line on the
falling edge of φV2 while φH1 is held high. The
horizontal CCD's then transport each line, pixel by pixel,
to the output structure by alternately clocking the φH1 and
φH2 pins in a complementary fashion. On each falling
edge of φH2 a new charge packet is transferred onto a
floating diffusion and sensed by the output amplifier
1.7
Dummy Pixels
Within the horizontal shift register are 10 leading and 2
trailing additional shift phases which are not associated
with a column of pixels from the vertical register. These
pixels contain only horizontal shift register dark current
signal and do not respond to light. A few leading
dummy pixels may scavenge false signal depending on
operating conditions.
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
4
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
2.1
Package Drawing
Figure 2 - Package Drawing
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
5
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
2.2
Pin Description
Pin
Symbol
1, 13, 14,
15, 26
2
Vsub
Description
Pin
Symbol
Substrate (Ground)
10
φH1
Horizontal CCD Clock - Phase 1
Vout
Video Output
11
Horizontal CCD Clock - Phase 2
3
Vdd
Amplifier Supply
φH2
φV1
4
Vrd
Reset Drain
φV2
Vertical CCD Clock - Phase 2
5
6
7, 8, 9, 12
φR
Vss
N/C
Reset Clock
Amplifier Supply Return
No connection (open pin)
16, 17,
22, 23
18, 19,
20, 21
24
25
Pin 1
Vguard
Vog
Description
Vertical CCD Clock - Phase 1
Guard Ring
Output Gate
26 Vsub
Vsub
1
Vout
2
Vdd
3
24 Vguard
4
23 φ V1
φR
5
22 φ V1
Vss
6
21 φ V2
N/C
7
20 φ V2
N/C
8
19 φ V2
N/C
9
18 φ V2
φ H1
10
17 φ V1
φ H2
11
16 φ V1
N/C
12
15 Vsub
Vsub
13
14 Vsub
Vrd
25 Vog
Pixel 1,1
Figure 3 - Package Pin Designations
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
6
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
3.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Description
Symbol
Diode Pin Voltages
Gate Pin Voltages - Type 1
Gate Pin Voltages - Type 2
Inter-Gate Voltages
Output Bias Current
Output Load Capacitance
Storage Temperature
Humidity
Vdiode
Vgate1
Vgate2
Vg-g
Iout
Cload
T
RH
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Min.
0
-16
0
0
5
Max.
20
16
16
16
-10
15
70
90
Units
Notes
V
V
V
V
mA
pF
o
C
%
1, 2
1, 3
1, 4
5
6
6
7
Referenced to pin Vsub.
Includes pins: Vrd, Vdd, Vss, Vout, Vguard.
Includes pins: φV1, φV2, φH1, φH2.
Includes pins: φR, Vog.
Voltage difference between overlapping gates. Includes: φV1 to φV2, φH1 to φH2, φV2 to φH1, φH2 to Vog.
Avoid shorting output pins to ground or any low impedance source during operation.
T=25°C. Excessive humidity will degrade MTTF.
CAUTION:
This device contains limited protection against Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). Devices should be handled
in accordance with strict ESD control procedures for Class 0 devices.
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
7
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
3.2
DC Operating Conditions
Description
Reset Drain
Output Amplifier Return
Output Amplifier Supply
Substrate
Output Gate
Guard Ring
Video Output Current
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
Vrd
Vss
Vdd
Vsub
Vog
Vguard
Iout
10.5
1.5
14.5
0
3.75
8.0
11
2.0
15
0
4.0
10.0
-5
11.5
2.5
15.5
0
5.0
12.0
-10
Units
V
V
V
V
V
V
mA
Max DC Current
(mA)
0.01
0.45
Iout
0.01
0.01
0.01
-
Notes
1
Notes:
1. An output load sink must be applied to Vout to activate output amplifier - see Figure below.
+15V
0.1uF
~5ma
Vout
2N3904 or equivalent
Buffered Output
140Ω
1k Ω
Figure 4 - Recommended Output Structure Load Diagram
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
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Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
3.3
AC Operating Condition
Description
Symbol
Level
Vertical CCD Clock - Phase 1
φV1
Vertical CCD Clock - Phase 2
φV2
Horizontal CCD Clock - Phase 1
φH1
Horizontal CCD Clock - Phase 2
φH2
Reset Clock
φR
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
Min.
Nom.
-10.5
0.5
-10.5
0.5
-6.0
4.0
-6.0
4.0
-4.0
3.5
Max.
-10.0
1.0
-10.0
1.0
-4.0
6.0
-4.0
6.0
-3.0
4.0
Units
-9.5
1.5
-9.5
1.5
-3.5
6.5
-3.5
6.5
-2.0
5.0
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
Effective
Capacitance
820 nF
(all φV1 pins)
820 nF
(all φV2 pins)
400 pF
Notes
400 pF
10pF
Notes:
1. All pins draw less than 10uA DC current.
2. Capacitance values relative to VSUB.
3.4
AC Timing Conditions
Description
Symbol
φH1, φH2 Clock Frequency
φV1, φV2 Clock Frequency
Pixel Period (1 Count)
φH1, φH2 Setup Time
φV1, φV2 Clock Pulse Width
Reset Clock Pulse Width
Readout Time
Integration Time
Line Time
Min.
Nom.
Max.
Units
Notes
15
50
MHz
kHz
ns
us
us
ns
ms
1, 2, 3
1, 2, 3
67
0.5
10
10
531
4
25
250
1
20
20
1719
258.2
836
fH
fV
te
tφHS
tφV
tφR
treadout
tint
tline
us
2
4
5
6
7
Notes:
1. 50% duty cycle values.
2. CTE may degrade above the nominal frequency.
3. Rise and fall times (10/90% levels) should be limited to 5-10% of clock period. Cross-over of register clocks should be between
40-60% of amplitude.
4. φR should be clocked continuously.
5.
6.
7.
treadout = ( 2056 * tline )
Integration time is user specified. Longer integration times will degrade noise performance.
tline = ( 3* tφV ) + tφHS + ( 3100 * te ) + te
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
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E-mail: [email protected]
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Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
Frame Timing
tint
tReadout
1 Frame = 2056 Lines
φ V1
φ V2
Line
1
2
2055
2056
φ H1
φ H2
Line Timing Detail
Pixel Timing Detail
t φR
1 line
t φV
φV1
tφV
φR
φH1
φV2
te
tφHS
φH1
te
1 count
φH2
Vpix
φH2
Vout
3100 counts
Vsat
Vdark
φR
Vodc
Vsub
Line Content
1-10 11-16
16 - 3088
Photoactive Pixels
3089-3098 3099-3100
Dummy Pixels
Vsat
Vdark
Vpix
Vodc
Vsub
Saturated pixel video output signal
Video output signal in no light situation, not zero due to Jdark
Pixel video output signal level, more electrons =more negative*
Video level offset with respect to vsub
Analog Ground
* See Image Aquisition section (page 4)
Dark Reference Pixels
Figure 5 - Timing Diagrams
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
10
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
4.1
Performance Specifications
All values measured at 25°C, and nominal operating conditions. These parameters exclude defective pixels.
Description
Saturation Signal
Vertical CCD capacity
Horizontal CCD capacity
Output Node capacity
Red Quantum Efficiency (λ=650nm)
Green Quantum Efficiency (λ=550nm)
Blue Quantum Efficiency (λ=450nm)
Symbol
Min.
Nom.
Max.
Units
Nsat
85000
170000
190000
100000
200000
220000
120000
240000
240000
electrons / pixel
52
42
32
65
52
40
75
62
48
%
%
%
1
2
%
2
Rr
Rg
Rb
Notes
1
Photoresponse Non-Linearity
PRNL
Photoresponse Non-Uniformity
PRNU
1
3
%
3
Dark Signal
Jdark
15
3.5
50
10
electrons / pixel / sec
pA/cm2
4
6.3
15
74
7.5
50
Dark Signal Doubling Temperature
Dark Signal Non-Uniformity
Dynamic Range
5
DSNU
DR
70
0.99997
o
C
electrons / pixel / sec
dB
5
6
Charge Transfer Efficiency
CTE
Output Amplifier DC Offset
Output Amplifier Bandwidth
Vodc
f-3dB
9.5
10.5
45
11.5
V
Mhz
7
8
Vout/Ne~
Zout
ne~
9
175
10
200
15
11
250
20
uV/e~
Ohms
electrons
9
Output Amplifier Sensitivity
Output Amplifier output Impedance
Noise Floor
0.99999
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
For pixel binning applications, electron capacity up to 330000 can be achieved with modified CCD inputs.
Each sensor may have to be optimized individually for these applications. Some performance parameters may be compromised to
achieve the largest signals.
Worst case deviation from straight line fit, between 1% and 90% of Vsat.
One Sigma deviation of a 128x128 sample when CCD illuminated uniformly.
Average of all pixels with no illumination at 25oC.
Average dark signal of any of 12 x 8 blocks within the sensor. (each block is 128 x 128 pixels)
o
20log (Nsat / ne~) at nominal operating frequency and 25 C.
Video level offset with respect to ground
Last output amplifier stage only. Assumes 10pF off-chip load..
o
Output noise at 25 C, nominal operating frequency, and tint = 0.
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
11
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
4.2
Typical Performance Characteristics
Spectral Response
0.7
0.6
Quantum Efficiency
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
Wavelength (nm)
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
12
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
4.3
Cosmetic Classification
Defect tests performed at T=25oC
Class
C1
C2
C3
Point Defects
Total
≤35
≤45
≤90
Cluster Defects
Zone A
≤14
≤22
≤45
Total
≤5
≤18
≤36
Maximum
Cluster Size
Zone A
≤2
≤9
≤18
Column Defects
Total
0
≤5
≤9
2
5
5
1,2048
Zone A
0
0
≤4
3072,2048
1024,1536
2048,1536
Zone A
Center 1024 x 1024 Pixels
2048,512
1024,512
1,1
3072,1
Point Defect
Dark: A pixel which deviates by more than 6% from
neighboring pixels when illuminated to 70% of saturation, OR
Bright: A Pixel with dark current > 10,000 e/pixel/sec at 25°C.
Cluster Defect
A grouping of not more than “Maximum Cluster Size” defects
Column Defect
A grouping of >5 contiguous point defects along a single
column, OR
A column containing a pixel with dark current >
30,000e/pixel/sec, OR A column that does not meet the CTE
specification for all exposures less than the specified Max sat.
signal level and greater than 2 Ke, OR
A pixel which loses more than 250 e under 2Ke illumination.
Neighboring pixels
The surrounding 128 x 128 pixels or ±64 columns/rows.
Defect Separation
Column and cluster defects are separated by no less than two (2)
pixels in any direction (excluding single pixel defects).
Defect Region Exclusion Defect region excludes the outer two (2) rows and columns at
each side/end of the sensor.
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
13
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
5.1
Quality Assurance and Reliability
5.1.1
Quality Strategy: All devices will conform to the specifications stated in this document. This is accomplished
through a combination of statistical process control and inspection at key points of the production process.
5.1.2
Replacement: All devices are warranted against failure in accordance with the terms of Terms of Sale.
5.1.3
Cleanliness: Devices are shipped free of contamination, scratches, etc. that would cause a visible defect.
5.1.4
ESD Precautions: Devices are shipped in a static-safe container and should only be handled at static-safe work
stations.
5.1.5
Reliability: Information concerning the quality assurance and reliability testing procedures and results are available
from the Image Sensor Solutions and can be supplied upon request.
5.1.6
Test Data Retention: Devices have an identifying number of traceable to a test data file. Test data is kept for a
period of 2 years after date of shipment.
5.2
Ordering Information
See Appendix 1 for available part numbers
Address all inquiries and purchase orders to:
Image Sensor Solutions
Eastman Kodak Company
Rochester, New York 14650-2010
Phone: (716) 722-4385
Fax:
(716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
Eastman Kodak reserves the right to change any information contained herein without notice. All information
furnished by Eastman Kodak is believed to be accurate.
WARNING:
LIFE SUPPORT APPLICATIONS POLICY
Kodak image sensors are not authorized for and should not be used within Life Support Systems without the
specific written consent of the Eastman Kodak Company. Product warranty is limited to replacement of
defective components and does not cover injury or property or other consequential damages.
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
14
Revision No. 2
KAF-6303E
Performance Specification
Revision Changes
Revision
Number
0
1
2
Description of Changes
Original formal version.
Added UV Enhancement class (Section 4.3).
Removed Appendix 1 Available Part Numbers.
Added Revision Changes.
Revised Class 1 cosmetic specification. (Page 13)
Removed UV Enhanced device. (Page 13)
Revised ESD classification to Class 0 HBM. This is not a change to the device, simply defining
more accurately using updated classifications. (Page 7)
Eastman Kodak Company - Image Sensor Solutions - Rochester, NY 14650-2010
Phone (716) 722-4385
Fax (716) 477-4947
Web: www.kodak.com/go/imagers
E-mail: [email protected]
15
Revision No. 2