19-1923; Rev 1; 10/05 KIT ATION EVALU E L B AVAILA High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks The MAX1762/MAX1791 PWM step-down controllers provide high efficiency, excellent transient response, and high DC output accuracy needed for stepping down high-voltage batteries to generate low-voltage CPU core, I/O, and chipset RAM supplies in notebook computers and PDAs. Maxim’s proprietary Quick-PWM™ pulse-width modulator is a free-running constant on-time type with input feed-forward. Its high operating frequency (300kHz) allows small external components to be utilized in PC board area-critical applications such as subnotebook computers and smart phones. PWM operation occurs at heavy loads, and automatic switchover to pulse-skipping operation occurs at lighter loads. The external high-side p-channel and low-side n-channel MOSFETs require no bootstrap components. The MAX1762/ MAX1791 are simple, easy to compensate, and do not have the noise sensitivity of conventional fixed-frequency current-mode PWMs. These devices achieve high efficiency at a reduced cost by eliminating the current-sense resistor found in traditional current-mode PWMs. Efficiency is further enhanced by their ability to drive synchronous-rectifier MOSFETs. The MAX1762/MAX1791 come in a 10-pin µMAX package and offer two fixed voltages (Dual Mode™) for each device, 1.8V/2.5V/adj (MAX1762) and 3.3V/5.0V/adj (MAX1791). ________________________Applications Features ♦ High Operating Frequency (300kHz) ♦ No Current-Sense Resistor ♦ Accurate Current Limit ♦ ±1% Total DC Error over Line and During Continuous Conduction ♦ Dual Mode Fixed Output 1.8V/2.5V/adj (MAX1762) 3.3V/5.0V/adj (MAX1791) ♦ 0.5V to 5.5V Output Adjust Range ♦ 5V to 20V Input Range ♦ Automatic Light-Load Pulse Skipping Operation ♦ Free-Running On-Demand PWM ♦ Foldback Mode™ UVLO ♦ PFET/NFET Synchronous Buck ♦ 4.65V at 25mA Linear Regulator Output ♦ 5µA Shutdown Supply Current ♦ 230µA Quiescent Supply Current ♦ 10-Pin µMAX Package Ordering Information TEMP RANGE PIN-PACKAGE Notebooks Handy-Terminals MAX1762EUB PART -40°C to +85°C 10 µMAX Subnotebooks PDAs MAX1791EUB -40°C to +85°C 10 µMAX Digital Cameras Smart Phones Pin Configuration 1.8V/2.5V Logic and I/O Supplies Typical Operating Circuit VBATT (5V TO 20V) TOP VIEW VL 1 VL VP MAX1762 MAX1791 REF DH FB CS OUT DL SHDN GND VOUT 1.8V/3.3V 10 VP REF 2 FB 3 OUT 4 7 DL SHDN 5 6 GND MAX1762 MAX1791 9 DH 8 CS µMAX Quick-PWM, Dual Mode, and Foldback Mode are a trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1 For price, delivery, and to place orders, please contact Maxim Distribution at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maxim-ic.com. MAX1762/MAX1791 General Description MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VP, SHDN to GND ..................................................-0.3V to +22V VP to VL ..................................................................-0.3V to +22V OUT, VL to GND .......................................................-0.3V to +6V DL, FB, REF to GND ....................................-0.3V to (VL + 0.3V) DH to GND....................................................-0.3V to (VP + 0.3V) CS to GND ....................................................-2.0V to (VP + 0.3V) REF Short Circuit to GND ...........................................Continuous Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 10-Pin µMAX (derate 5.6mW/°C above +70°C) ...........444mW Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) .................................+300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VVP = 15V, VL enabled, CVL = 1µF, CREF = 0.1µF, TA = 0 to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1) PARAMETER SYMBOL VP Input Voltage Range VVP VL Input Voltage Range VVL CONDITIONS MIN MAX UNITS 5 20 V VL (overdriven) 4.75 5.25 V 1.773 1.8 1.827 V OUT Output Voltage (MAX1762, 1.8V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = GND, continuous conduction mode OUT Output Voltage (MAX1762, 2.5V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = VL, continuous conduction mode 2.463 2.5 2.538 V OUT Output Voltage (MAX1791, 3.3V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = GND, continuous conduction mode 3.250 3.3 3.350 V OUT Output Voltage (MAX1791, 5V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 7V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = VL, continuous conduction mode 4.925 5 5.075 V VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = OUT, continuous conduction mode 1.231 1.250 1.269 V 5.5 V 800 1700 kΩ 0.1 µA OUT Output Voltage (Adj Mode) Output Voltage Adjust Range 2 TYP 0.5 OUT Input Resistance Adjustable-output mode 300 FB Input Bias Current VFB = 1.3V -0.1 Soft-Start Ramp Time Zero to full ILIM On-Time (Note 2) tON Minimum Off-Time tOFF 1700 µs VOUT = 1.25V, VVP = 6V 666 740 814 VOUT = 5V, VVP = 6V 2550 2830 3110 (Note 2) 300 400 500 ns 153 260 µA VVL = float 227 410 VVL = 5V 93 200 VL Quiescent Supply Current FB = GND, VVL = 5V, OUT forced above the regulation point VP Quiescent Supply Current FB = GND, OUT forced above the regulation point, VVP = 20V ns µA VL Shutdown Supply Current VVL = 5V, SHDN = GND 2 15 µA VP Shutdown Supply Current SHDN = GND, measured at VP, VVL = 0 or 5V 4 12 µA VL Output Voltage ILOAD = 0 to 25mA, VVP = 5V to 20V 4.65 4.75 V 4.5 _______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks (VVP = 15V, VL enabled, CVL = 1µF, CREF = 0.1µF, TA = 0 to +85°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) (Note 1) CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS Reference Voltage PARAMETER VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, no load 1.98 2 2.02 V Reference Load Regulation IREF = 0 to 50µA 0.01 V REF Sink Current REF in regulation REF Fault Lockout Voltage Falling edge Output Undervoltage Threshold (Foldback) With respect to regulation point, no load 60 70 80 % Output Undervoltage Lockout Time (Foldback) From SHDN signal going high VOUT < 0.6 x regulation point 10 20 42 ms -90 -100 -110 mV Current-Limit Threshold SYMBOL VILIM Thermal Shutdown Threshold Hysteresis = 10oC VL Undervoltage Lockout Threshold Rising edge, hysteresis = 20mV, PWM disabled below this level DH Gate Driver On-Resistance VVP = 6V to 20V, measure at 50mA DL Gate Driver On-Resistance (Pullup) 10 µA 1.6 V o 160 4.1 C 4.4 V 5 8 Ω DL, high state, measure at 50mA 5 8 Ω DL Gate Driver On-Resistance (Pulldown) DL, low state, measure at 50mA 1 5 Ω DH Gate Driver Source/Sink Current VDH = 3V, VVP = 6V 0.6 A DL Gate Driver Sink Current VDL = 2.5V 0.9 A DL Gate Driver Source Current VDL = 2.5V 0.5 A SHDN Logic Input High Threshold Voltage VIH SHDN Logic Input Low Threshold Voltage VIL 1.6 MAX1762 VOUT = 1.8V fixed Dual Mode Threshold Voltage MAX1791 VOUT = 3.3V fixed MAX1762 VOUT = 2.5V fixed MAX1791 VOUT = 5V fixed SHDN Logic Input Current SHDN = 0 or 5V V 0.6 V 50 100 150 mV 2.5 3.25 4 V +2 µA -2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX1762/MAX1791 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VVP = 15V, VL enabled, CVL = 1µF, CREF = 0.1µF, TA = -40 to +85°C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 1) PARAMETER VVP VL Input Voltage Range VVL OUT Output Voltage (MAX1762, 1.8V Fixed) CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS 5 20 V VL (overdriven) 4.75 5.25 V VOUT VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = GND, continuous conduction mode 1.773 1.827 V OUT Output Voltage (MAX1762, 2.5V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = VL, continuous conduction mode 2.463 2.538 V OUT Output Voltage (MAX1791, 3.3V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = GND, continuous conduction mode 3.250 3.350 V OUT Output Voltage (MAX1791, 5V Fixed) VOUT VVP = 7V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = VL, continuous conduction mode 4.925 5.075 V OUT Output Voltage (adj Mode) VVP = 5V to 20V, VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, FB = OUT, continuous conduction mode 1.231 1.269 V FB Input Bias Current VFB = 1.3V -0.2 0.2 µA On-Time (Note 2) tON Minimum Off-Time tOFF VOUT = 1.25V, VVP = 6V 666 814 VOUT = 5V, VVP = 6V 2550 3110 (Note 2) 250 550 ns 260 µA ns VL Quiescent Supply Current FB = GND, VVL = 5V, OUT forced above the regulation point VP Quiescent Supply Current FB = GND, OUT forced above the regulation point VVP = 20V VL Shutdown Supply Current VVL = 5V, SHDN = GND 15 µA VP Shutdown Supply Current SHDN = GND, measured at VP, VVL = 0 or 5V 12 µA VVL = float 410 VVL = 5V 200 µA VL Output Voltage ILOAD = 0 to 25mA, VVP = 5V to 20V 4.5 4.75 V Reference Voltage VVL = 4.75V to 5.25V, no load 1.98 2.02 V Reference Load Regulation IREF = 0 to 50µA 0.01 V REF Sink Current REF in regulation 10 Output Undervoltage Threshold (Foldback) With respect to regulation point, no load 60 80 % Output Undervoltage Lockout Time (Foldback) From SHDN signal going high, VOUT < 0.6 x regulation point 10 42 ms -90 -110 mV Current-Limit Threshold 4 SYMBOL VP Input Voltage Range VILIM _______________________________________________________________________________________ µA High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks (VVP = 15V, VL enabled, CVL = 1µF, CREF = 0.1µF, TA = -40 to +85°C, unless otherwise noted.) (Note 1) PARAMETER SYMBOL VL Undervoltage Lockout Threshold CONDITIONS Rising edge, hysteresis = 20mV, PWM disabled below this level SHDN Logic Input High Threshold Voltage VIH SHDN Logic Input Low Threshold Voltage VIL MIN 4.1 TYP MAX UNITS 4.4 V 1.6 MAX1762 VOUT = 1.8V fixed MAX1791 VOUT = 3.3V fixed Dual Mode Threshold Voltage MAX1762 VOUT = 2.5V fixed MAX1791 VOUT = 5V fixed V 0.6 V 50 150 mV 2.5 4 V Note 1: Specifications to -40°C are guaranteed by design, not production tested. Note 2: One-shot times are measured at the DH pin (VP = 15V, CDH = 400pF, 90% point to 90% point; see drawing below for measurement details). tON DH 90% 90% _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX1762/MAX1791 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Typical Operating Characteristics (TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) MAX1762 EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD (1.8V) EFFICIENCY (%) VVP = 18V 60 VVP = 12V 50 40 VVP = 7V VVP = 12V 60 VVP = 18V 50 90 40 70 50 30 30 20 20 10 10 10 0 0 10 100 1000 1 10 100 1000 10,000 0.1 10 100 MAX1791 EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD (5V) MAX1791 EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD (3.3V) MAX1791 EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD (3.0V) 40 70 VVP = 18V 60 VVP = 12V 50 100 40 VVP = 7V 70 40 20 20 10 10 10 30 0 0 100 1000 10,000 0.1 1 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 10 100 1000 0.1 10,000 1 10 FREQUENCY vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE VL VOLTAGE ERROR vs. OUTPUT CURRENT 350 VOUT = 5.0V 325 VOUT = 2.5V 300 0.1 VVP = 12V VOUT = 2.5V 0 VL VOLTAGE ERROR (%) MAX1762/91 toc07 VOUT = 3.3V 100 LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA) 375 FREQUENCY (kHz) VVP = 12V 50 20 10 VVP = 18V 60 30 1 VVP = 7V 80 30 0 VVP = 5V 90 EFFICIENCY (%) VVP = 12V 50 80 EFFICIENCY (%) 60 VVP = 5V 90 MAX1762/91 toc08 MAX1762/91 toc04 VVP = 18V 70 100 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 275 VOUT = 1.8V -0.5 LOAD = 1A 250 5 8 -0.6 11 14 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 10,000 MAX1762/91 toc06 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 80 6 1000 LOAD CURRENT (mA) VVP = 7V 0.1 1 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 100 90 VVP = 18V 0 0.1 10,000 VVP = 12V 40 20 1 VVP = 7V 60 30 0.1 VVP = 5V 80 MAX1762/91 toc05 EFFICIENCY (%) 70 80 70 100 MAX1762/91 toc03 VVP = 7V 80 VVP = 5V 90 EFFICIENCY (%) VVP = 5V 90 100 MAX1762/91 toc01 100 MAX1762 EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD (1V) MAX1762/91 toc02 MAX1762 EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD (2.5V) EFFICIENCY (%) MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks 17 0 5 10 15 20 25 VL CURRENT (mA) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1000 10,000 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks SUPPLY CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE (SHUTDOWN) SUPPLY CURRENT vs. INPUT VOLTAGE 200 MAX1762/91 toc10 5.8 5.6 SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 250 SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 6.0 MAX1762/91 toc09 300 VOUT = 3.3V NO LOAD 150 100 5.4 5.2 5.0 NO LOAD 4.8 4.6 4.4 50 4.2 4.0 0 5 8 11 14 5 17 8 MAX1762/91 toc13 MAX1762/91 toc12 MAX1762/91 toc11 7V VOUT AC-COUPLED 20mV/div 100µs/div VVP = 12V, ILOAD = 0 TO 2A, VOUT = 1.8V VVP = 12V, IL = 0 TO 2A, VOUT = 2.5V SHUTDOWN AND STARTUP WAVEFORMS (IL = 300mA) OUTPUT OVERLOAD WAVEFORMS MAX1762/91 toc14 ILOAD 2A/div IL 2A/div 100µs/div 100µs/div VVP = 7.5V TO 8V, ILOAD = 0, VOUT = 2.5V VOUT AC-COUPLED 100mV/div VOUT AC-COUPLED 100mV/div VP 1V/div SHUTDOWN AND STARTUP WAVEFORMS (IL = 2.5A) MAX1762/91 toc15 VOUT AC-COUPLED ILOAD 2A/div 100µs/div 17 LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE 14 VP (V) VP (V) VVP = 12V, ILOAD = 0 TO 3A, VOUT = 2.5V 11 MAX1762/MAX1791 Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.) 2ms/div VVP = 8V, ILOAD = 300mA, VOUT = 2.5V MAX1762/91 toc16 SHDN 5V/div SHDN 5V/div VOUT 2V/div VOUT 2V/div ILX 1A/div ILX 2A/div 2ms/div VVP = 8V, ILOAD = 2.5A, VOUT = 2.5V _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks MAX1762/MAX1791 Pin Description PIN NAME FUNCTION 1 VL +4.65V Linear Regulator Output. Serves as the supply input for the DL gate driver and supplies up to 25mA to external loads. VL can be overdriven using an external 5V supply. Bypass VL to GND with at least a 1µF ceramic capacitor. 2 REF 3 FB 4 OUT 5 SHDN Shutdown Input. Connect to a voltage less than VIL (<0.6V) to shut down the device. Connect to a voltage greater than VIH (>1.6V) for normal operation. 6 GND Analog and Power Ground 7 DL Low-Side Gate Driver Output. DL swings between VL and GND. 8 CS Current-Sense Connection. For lossless current sensing, connect CS to the junction of the MOSFETs and inductor. For more accurate current sensing, connect CS to a current-sense resistor from the source of the low-side switch to GND. 9 DH High-Side Gate Driver Output. DH swings between VP and GND. 10 VP Battery Voltage Supply Input. Used for PWM one-shot timing and as the input for the VL regulator and DH gate drivers. 2V Reference Voltage Output. Bypass to GND with 0.1µF ceramic capacitor. REF can deliver up to 50µA for external loads. Feedback Input. Connect to an external resistive divider from OUT to GND in adjustable version. Regulates to 1.25V. FB also serves as Dual Mode select pin. Connect FB to GND for a fixed 1.8V (MAX1762) or 3.3V (MAX1791) output, or to VL for a fixed 2.5V (MAX1762) or 5.0V (MAX1791) output. Output Voltage Connection. OUT is used for sensing the output voltage to determine the on-time and also serves as the feedback input in fixed-output modes. Standard Application Circuit Detailed Description The standard application circuit (Figure 1) generates a low-voltage output for general-purpose use in notebook computers (I/O supply, fixed CPU, core supply, and DRAM supply). This DC-DC converter steps down battery voltage from 5V to 20V with high efficiency and accuracy to a fixed voltage of 1.8V/2.5V/adj (MAX1762) or 3.3V/5.0V/adj (MAX1791). Both the MAX1762 and MAX1791 can be configured for adjustable output voltages (VOUT > 1.25V), using a resistive voltage-divider from VOUT to FB to adjust the output voltage (Figure 2). Similarly, Figure 3 shows an application circuit for VOUT < 1.25V, where a resistive voltage-divider from REF to FB is used to set the output voltage. Figure 4 shows how to set the regulator’s current limit with an external sense resistor from CS to GND. Table 1 lists the components for each application circuit, and Table 2 contains contact information for the component manufacturers. The MAX1762/MAX1791 step-down controllers are targeted at low-voltage chipsets and RAM power supplies for notebook and subnotebook computers, with additional applications in digital cameras, PDAs, and handy-terminals. Maxim’s proprietary Quick-PWM pulse-width modulator (Figure 5) is specifically designed for handling fast load steps while maintaining a relatively constant operating frequency (300kHz) over a wide range of input voltages (5V to 20V). The MAX1762 has fixed 1.8V or 2.5V outputs, while the MAX1791 has fixed 3.3V or 5.0V output voltages. Using an external resistive divider, VOUT can be set between 0.5V and 5.5V on either device. Quick-PWM architecture circumvents the poor load-transient response of fixed-frequency current-mode PWMs. This type of design avoids the problems commonly encountered with conventional constant-on-time and constant-offtime PWM schemes. 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks MAX1762/MAX1791 VVP C2 1µF C1 10µF 10Ω VL VP 1µF MAX1762 MAX1791 C3 0.1µF REF DH FB CS OUT DL Q1 L1 7µH Q2 VOUT C4 220µF GND SHDN Figure 1. Typical Application Circuit for Fixed Voltage VVP C2 1µF C1 10µF 10Ω VL VP 1µF MAX1762 MAX1791 C3 0.1µF REF DH FB CS OUT DL Q1 L1 7µH Q2 VOUT C4 220µF R1 GND SHDN R2 Figure 2. Typical Application Circuit for Adjustable Output VOUT > 1.25V VVP C1 10µF C2 1µF 10Ω VL VP 1µF MAX1762 MAX1791 C3 0.1µF REF DH FB CS OUT DL Q1 R1 L1 7µH R2 SHDN Q2 VOUT C4 220µF GND Figure 3. Typical Application Circuit for VOUT < 1.25V _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks VVP C1 10µF C2 1µF 10Ω VL VP 1µF MAX1762 MAX1791 C3 0.1µF REF DH FB CS OUT DL Q1 L1 10µH Q2 VOUT C4 150µF RS GND SHDN Figure 4. Operation with External Current-Sense Resistor Table 1. Component Selection for Standard Applications 10 COMPONENT 1.8V/2.5V/3.3V/5.0V AT 2A 1V AT 2A Input Voltage Range 5V to 20V 5V to 20V Inductor (µH) 7 5.2 L1 Inductor CDRH104-7R0NC Sumida CDRH104-5R2NC Sumida Q1 MOSFETS NDS8958A Fairchild SI4539ADY Fairchild C1 Input Capacitor TMK432BJ106KM Taiyo Yuden TMK432BJ106 Taiyo Yuden C2 VL Cap EMK3160J105KL Taiyo Yuden LMK316BJ475 Taiyo Yuden C3 REF Cap UMK316BI104KH Taiyo Yuden UMK316BI104KH Taiyo Yuden C4 Output Cap 10TPB220M Sanyo 6TPB150M Sanyo ______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks MAX1762/MAX1791 Table 2. Component Manufacturers MANUFACTURER USA PHONE WEBSITE INFO Coiltronics 561-241-7876 www.coiltronics.com Fairchild Semiconductor 408-822-2181 www.fairchildsemi.com Sanyo 619-661-6835 www.secc.co.jp USA 847-956-0666 Japan 81-3-3607-5111 Sumida www.sumida.com Taiyo Yuden 408-573-4150 www.t-yuden.com 10Ω VP VP ON-TIME COMPUTE Q OUT TOFF TON DH TRIG Q 1-SHOT DH VIN 1µF CIN Q1 DRIVER S TON TRIG Q 1-SHOT Q R S Q R VP CS LINEAR REG VL SHDN VOS -100mV REF -30% OUT ON/OFF CONTROL FEEDBACK MUX (FIGURE 9) TIMER VP REF ILIM REF CVL 2V VREF CREF VL FB OUT DL UVP LATCH DL COUT Q2 DRIVER GND MAX1762 MAX1791 OUT FB Figure 5. Functional Diagram VP Input and VL Logic Supply An internal linear regulator supplied by VP produces the +4.65V supply (VL) that powers the PWM controller, logic, reference, and other blocks within the MAX1762/MAX1791. This +4.65V low-dropout linear regulator can supply up to 25mA for external loads. Bypass VL to GND with at least a 1µF ceramic capacitor. VVP can range between 5V and 20V. VL is turned off when the device is in shutdown and drops by approximately 500mV during a fault condition, such as when the output is short circuited to ground, and recovers when SHDN is cycled or power is reset. If VL is not driven externally, then V VP should be at least 5V to ensure operation. If VVP is running from a 5V (±10%) supply, V VP should be externally connected to VL. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks Overdriving the VL regulator with an external 5V supply also increases the MAX1762/MAX1791s’ efficiency. The MAX1762/MAX1791 include an input undervoltage lockout (UVLO) circuit that prevents the device from switching until VL > 4.4V (max). UVLO ensures there is a sufficient drive for the external MOSFETs, prevents the high-side MOSFET from being turned on for near 100% duty cycle, and keeps the output in regulation. Voltage Reference (REF) The 2V reference (REF) is accurate to ±1% over temperature, making REF useful as a precision system reference. Bypass REF to GND with a 0.1µF (min) ceramic capacitor. REF can supply up to 50µA for external loads. However, if tight-accuracy specs for either VOUT or REF are essential, avoid loading REF. Loading slightly reduces the main output voltage by an amount that tracks the reference-voltage load regulation error. Free-Running Constant On-Time PWM Controller with Input Feed-Forward The PWM control architecture is a quasi-fixed-frequency constant on-time current-mode type with voltage feed-forward. This architecture relies on the output ripple voltage to provide the PWM ramp signal; thus, the output filter capacitor’s ESR acts as a feedback resistor. The control algorithm is very simple. The high-side switch on-time is determined solely by a one-shot whose period is inversely proportional to input voltage and directly proportional to output voltage. There is another one-shot that sets a minimum amount of offtime (500ns max). The on-time one-shot triggers when all of the following conditions are met: the error comparator is low, the low-side switch current is below the current-limit threshold, and the minimum off-time oneshot has timed out. On-Time One-Shot The on-time of the one-shot is inversely proportional to the battery voltage as measured by the VP input, and directly proportional to the output voltage sensed at OUT: t ON = K × (VOUT + 0.075V) VBATT where K is internally fixed at 3.349µs, and 0.075V is a factor that accounts for the expected drop across the synchronous switch. This arrangement maintains a switching frequency that is nearly constant as V BATT, ILOAD, and VOUT are changed. Table 3 shows the operating frequency range for the MAX1762/MAX1791. Note that the output voltage adjust range for continuous-conduction operation is restricted by the non12 adjustable 0.5µs (max) minimum off-time. Worst-case dropout performance is determined by the minimum on-time spec. The worst-case duty factor limit is: ( ) t ON MIN ( ) ( ) t ON MIN + t OFF MAX = 2.55µs 2.55µs+0.5µs = 84% with VBATT = 6V and VOUT = 5V. Therefore, with IR voltage drops in the loop included, the minimum input voltage to achieve VOUT = 5V is about 6.1V, using the step-down transfer function equation for duty cycle (DC = VOUT/VIN). Typical units exhibit better performance. Note that transient response is somewhat degraded near dropout, and the circuit may need additional bulk output capacitance to support fast load changes. Automatic Pulse-Skipping Switchover This PWM control algorithm automatically switches over to pulse-skipping operation at light loads. The MAX1762/MAX1791 truncates the low-side switch’s ontime when the inductor current drops to zero. The load current level at which pulse-skipping/PWM crossover occurs is equal to 1/2 the peak-to-peak ripple current, which is a function of the inductor value (Figure 6): ILOAD(SKIP) = K × VOUT 2L VVP - VOUT VVP The inductor current is never allowed to go negative. If the output voltage is above its regulation point and the inductor current reaches zero, the low-side driver is switched off. Once the output voltage falls below its regulation point, the high-side driver is switched on. This causes a dead time in between when the highside and low-side drivers are on, skipping pulses and resulting in the switching frequency slowing at light loads, thereby improving efficiency. MOSFET Gate Drivers The DH and DL drivers are optimized for driving moderate-size power MOSFETs. This is consistent with the low duty factor seen in the notebook CPU environment where a large VBATT - VOUT differential exists. The highside driver (DH) is rated for 0.6A source/sink capability and swings from VP to GND. The low-side driver (DL) is Table 3. Operating Frequency DEVICE MAX1762/MAX1791 K (µs) MIN (kHz) TYP (kHz) MAX (kHz) 3.349 268.7 298.5 328 ______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks IPEAK ILOAD = IPEAK/2 0 ON-TIME TIME INDUCTOR CURRENT INDUCTOR CURRENT ILOAD ILIMIT 0 TIME Figure 6. Pulse-Skipping/Discontinuous Crossover Point Figure 7. “Valley” Current-Limit Threshold Point rated for +0.5A, -0.9A source/sink capability and swings from VL to GND. The internal pulldown transistor that drives DL low is robust, with a 1Ω typical on-resistance. This helps prevent DL from being pulled up during the fast rise time of the inductor node, due to capacitive coupling from the drain to the gate of the low-side synchronous-rectifier MOSFET. However, for high-current applications, some combinations of high-and low-side FETS may cause excessive gate-drain coupling, which can lead to poor efficiency, EMI, and shoot-through currents. An adaptive dead-time circuit monitors the DL output and prevents the high-side FET from turning on until DL is fully turned off. The dead time at the other edge (DH turning off) is determined by a fixed 35ns (typ) internal delay. sense voltage that appears at CS (Figure 8). Keep the impedance at this mode low to avoid errors at CS. Low-Side Current-Limit Sensing (ILIM) The current-limit circuit employs a unique “valley” current-sensing algorithm that uses the on-state resistance of the low-side MOSFET as a current-sensing element. If the current-sense signal is below the current-limit threshold (-100mV from CS to GND), the PWM is not allowed to initiate a new cycle (Figure 7). The actual peak current is greater than the current-limit threshold by an amount equal to the inductor ripple current. Therefore, the exact current-limit characteristic and maximum load capability are a function of the MOSFET on-resistance, inductor value, and battery voltage. If greater current-limit accuracy is desired, CS must be connected to the junction of the low-side switch source and a current-sense resistor to GND. The current limit will be 0.1V/RSENSE, and the accuracy will be ±10%. A resistive voltage-divider from the inductor’s switching mode to ground can be used to adjust the current-limit POR and Soft-Start Power-on reset (POR) occurs when VBATT rises above approximately 2V, resetting the fault latch and soft-start counter and preparing the PWM for operation. UVLO circuitry inhibits switching until VVP rises above 4.1V, whereupon an internal digital soft-start timer begins to ramp up the maximum allowed current limit. The ramp occurs in five steps: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%; 100% current is available after approximately 1.7ms. Output Undervoltage Protection The output UVLO function is similar to foldback current limiting but employs a timer rather than a variable current limit. The output undervoltage protection is enabled 20ms after POR or when coming out of shutdown. If the output is under 70% of the nominal value, VP DH 1.0kΩ MAX1762 MAX1791 VOUT CS 1.0kΩ DL Figure 8. Using a Resistive Voltage-Divider to Adjust CurrentLimit Sense Voltage to 200mV ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX1762/MAX1791 IPEAK ∆i VBATT - VOUT = ∆t L MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks then the PWM is latched off and does not restart until VP power is cycled, or SHDN is toggled low then high. Design Procedure Begin by establishing the input voltage range and maximum load current before choosing an inductor and its associated ripple-current ratio (LIR). The following four factors dictate the rest of the design: 1) Input voltage range. The maximum value (V VP (MAX) ) must accommodate the maximum AC adapter voltage. The minimum value (VVP(MIN) ) must account for the lowest input voltage after drops due to connectors, fuses, and battery selector switches. If there is a choice at all, lower input voltages result in better efficiency. 2) Maximum load current. There are two values to consider. The peak load current (ILOAD(MAX)) determines the instantaneous component stress and filtering requirements and thus drives output capacitor selection, inductor saturation rating, and the design of the current-limit circuit. The continuous load current (ILOAD) determines the thermal stress and thus drives the selection of input capacitors, MOSFETs, and other critical heat-contributing components. Modern notebook CPUs generally exhibit, ILOAD = ILOAD(MAX) x 0.8. 3) Switching frequency. The MAX1762/MAX1791 have a nominal switching frequency of 300kHz. 4) Inductor ripple-current ratio (LIR). LIR is the ratio of the peak-to-peak ripple current to the average inductor current. Size and efficiency trade-offs must be considered when setting the inductor ripple-current ratio. Low inductor values cause large ripple currents, resulting in the smallest size but poor efficiency and high output noise. The minimum practical inductor value is one that causes the circuit to operate at critical conduction (where the inductor current just touches zero with every cycle). Inductor values lower than this grant no further size-reduction benefit. The MAX1762/MAX1791s’ pulse-skipping algorithm initiates skip mode at the critical conduction point. So, the inductor operating point also determines the load-current value at which switchover occurs. The optimum point is usually found between 20% and 50% ripple current. The inductor ripple current also impacts transientresponse performance, especially at low VVP - VOUT difference. Low inductor values allow the inductor current to slew faster, replenishing charge removed from the output filter capacitors by a sudden load step. The 14 peak amplitude of the output transient (VSAG) is also a function of the maximum duty factor, which can be calculated from the on-time and minimum off-time: VSAG = V (∆ILOAD(MAX) )2 × L K OUT + t OFF(MIN) VVP V -V 2 × COUT × VOUT K VP OUT - t OFF(MIN) VVP where minimum off-time = 0.5µs (max). Inductor Selection The switching frequency (on-time) and operating point (% ripple or LIR) determine the inductor value as follows: L= VOUT (VVP - VOUT ) VVP × ƒ × LIR × ILOAD(MAX) Example: ILOAD(MAX) = 2A, VVP = 7V, VOUT = 1.6V, f = 300kHz, 35% ripple current or LIR = 0.35: L= 1.6V(7V -1.6V) = 5.9µH 7 × 300kHz × 0.35 × 2A Find a low-loss inductor having the lowest possible DC resistance that fits in the allotted dimensions. Ferrite cores are often the best choice. The core must be large enough not to saturate at the peak inductor current (IPEAK): IPEAK = ILOAD(MAX) + [(LIR/2) ✕ ILOAD(MAX)] Determining Current Limit The minimum current-limit threshold must be great enough to support the maximum load current when the current limit is at the minimum tolerance value. The valley of the inductor current occurs at ILOAD(MAX) minus half of the ripple current; therefore: IVALLEY > ILOAD(MAX) - [(LIR/2) ✕ ILOAD(MAX)] where IVALLEY = minimum current-limit threshold voltage divided by the RDS(ON) of Q2. For the MAX1762/ MAX1791, the minimum current-limit threshold is 90mV. Use the worst-case maximum value for RDS(ON) from the MOSFET Q2 data sheet, and add some margin for the rise in RDS(ON) with temperature. A good general rule is to allow 0.5% additional resistance for each °C of temperature rise. ______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks IVALLEY = 90mV / 52mΩ = 1.73A Checking the corresponding ILOAD(MAX) reveals: once enough capacitance is added to meet the overshoot requirement, undershoot at the rising load edge is no longer a problem (see the VSAG equation in the Design Procedure section). The amount of overshoot due to stored inductor energy can be calculated as: 1.73A I ILOAD(MAX) = VALLEY = = 2.1A 1 - 0.5 LIR 1 - 0.5 × 0.35 A current-sense resistor can be connected from CS to GND to set the current limit for the device. The MAX1762/MAX1791 use the sense resistor instead of the RDS(ON) of Q2 to limit the current. The maximum value of the sense resistor can be calculated with the equation: ILIMIT = 90mV / RSENSE Output Capacitor Selection The output filter capacitor must have low enough effective series resistance (ESR) to meet output ripple and load-transient requirements, yet have high enough ESR to satisfy stability requirements. In CPU VCORE converters and other applications where the output is subject to large load transients, the output capacitor’s size depends on how much ESR is needed to prevent the output from dipping too low under a load transient. Ignoring the sag due to finite capacitance: RESR ≤ VDIP ƒILOAD(MAX) where VDIP is the maximum tolerable transient voltage drop. In non-CPU applications, the output capacitor’s size depends on how much ESR is needed to maintain an acceptable level of output voltage ripple: RESR ≤ VP-P LIR × ILOAD(MAX) where VP-P is the peak-to-peak output voltage ripple. The actual microfarad capacitance value required relates to the physical size needed to achieve low ESR, as well as to the chemistry of the capacitor technology. Thus, the capacitor is usually selected by ESR and voltage rating rather than by capacitance value (this is true of tantalum, SP, POS, and other electrolytic-type capacitors). When using low-capacity filter capacitors such as ceramics, capacitor size is usually determined by the capacity needed to prevent V SAG and V SOAR from causing problems during load transients. Generally, ∆V ≤ LIPEAK 2 2CVOUT where IPEAK is the peak inductor current. Stability Considerations Stability is determined by the value of the ESR zero (fESR) relative to the switching frequency (f). The point of instability is given by the following equation: ƒ ESR ≤ ƒ π where: ƒ ESR ≤ 1 2 × π × RESR × COUT For a typical 300kHz application, the ESR zero frequency must be well below 95kHz, preferably below 50kHz. Tantalum, Sanyo POSCAP, and Panasonic SP capacitors in widespread use at the time of publication have typical ESR zero frequencies of 20kHz. In the design example used for inductor selection, the ESR needed to support a specified ripple voltage is found by the equation: RESR = VRIPPLE(p-p) ƒLIR × ILOAD where LIR is the inductor ripple current ratio, and ILOAD is the average DC load. Using a LIR = 0.35 and an average load current of 2A, the ESR needed to support 50mVP-P ripple is 71mΩ. Do not use high-value ceramic capacitors directly across the fast feedback inputs (FB to GND) without taking precautions to ensure stability. Large ceramic capacitors can have a high-ESR zero frequency and cause erratic, unstable operation. However, it is easy to add enough series resistance by placing the capacitors a couple of inches downstream from the junction of the inductor and FB pin. Unstable operation manifests itself in two related but distinctly different ways: double-pulsing and fast-feedback loop instability. Double pulsing occurs due to noise on the output or because the ESR is so low that there is not enough voltage ramp in the output voltage signal. This ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX1762/MAX1791 Examining the 2A circuit example with a maximum RDS(ON) = 52mΩ at +85°C temperature reveals the following: MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks “fools” the error comparator into triggering a new cycle immediately after the 500ns minimum off-time period has expired. Double pulsing is more annoying than harmful, resulting in nothing worse than increased output ripple. However, it can indicate the possible presence of loop instability, which is caused by insufficient ESR. Loop instability can result in oscillations at the output after line or load perturbations that can cause the output voltage to fall below the tolerance limit. The easiest method for checking stability is to apply a very fast zero-to-max load transient (refer to the MAX1762/MAX1791 EV kit manual) and carefully observe the output voltage ripple envelope for overshoot and ringing. It can help to simultaneously monitor the inductor current with an AC current probe. Do not allow more than one cycle of ringing after the initial step-response under- or overshoot. Input Capacitor Selection The input capacitor must meet the ripple-current requirement (I RMS ) imposed by the switching currents. Nontantalum chemistries (ceramic or OS-CON™) are preferred due to their resilience to power-up surge currents: VOUT (VVP - VOUT ) IRMS = ILOAD × VVP Power MOSFET Selection DC bias and output power considerations dominate the selection of the power MOSFETs used with the MAX1762/MAX1791. Take care not to exceed the device’s maximum voltage ratings. In general, both switches are exposed to the supply voltage, so select MOSFETs with VDS (max) greater than VP (max). Gate drives to the n-channel and p-channel MOSFETs are not symmetrical. The n-channel device is driven from ground to the logic supply VL, while the p-channel device is driven from VP to ground. The maximum rating for VGS for the n-channel device is usually not an issue; however, VGS (max) for the p-channel must be at least VP (max). Since VGS (max) is usually lower than V DS (max), gate drive constraints often dictate the required p-channel breakdown rating. For moderate input-to-output differentials, the high-side MOSFET (Q1) can be sized smaller than the low-side MOSFET (Q2) without compromising efficiency. The high-side switch operates at a very low duty cycle under these conditions, so most conduction losses occur in Q2. For maximum efficiency, choose a highside MOSFET (Q1) that has conduction losses (I2R x OS-CON is a trademark of Sanyo. 16 duty cycle) equal to the switching losses (CV VP 2f). Make sure that the conduction losses at the minimum input voltage do not exceed the package thermal limits or violate the overall thermal budget. Conduction losses plus switching losses at the maximum input voltage should not exceed the package ratings or violate the overall thermal budget (see MOSFET Power Dissipation). In addition to efficiency considerations, the selection of the RDS(ON) of the low-side MOSFET must account for the regulator’s required current limit. Choose a MOSFET that has a low enough resistance over the operating temperature range such that the device does not enter current limit during normal operation (see the Determining Current Limit section). Conversely, ultralow RDS(ON) devices may set the current limit too high and may result in only incremental improvements in efficiency. Some large n-channel FETs also have substantial interelectrode capacitance. Verify that the MAX1762/ MAX1791 DL driver can hold the gate off when the high side switch turns on. Cross-conduction problems can occur when the high-side switch turns on due to coupling through the n-channel’s parasitic drainto-gate capacitance. The MAX1762/MAX1791 have adaptive dead-time circuitry that prevents the high-side and low-side MOSFETs from conducting at the same time (see MOSFET Gate Drivers). Even with this protection, it is still possible for delays internal to the MOSFET to prevent one MOSFET from turning off while the other is turned on. The maximum mismatch time that can be tolerated is 60ns. Select devices that have low turn-off times, and make sure that NFET(tD(off,max)) - PFET(tD(on,min)) < 60ns, and PFET(tD(off,max)) - NFET(tD(on,min)) < 60ns. Failure to do so may result in efficiency-killing shootthrough currents. MOSFET Power Dissipation Worst-case conduction losses occur at the duty factor extremes. For the high-side MOSFET, the worst-case power dissipation (PD) due to resistance occurs at minimum battery voltage: V PD(Q1 resistance) = OUT × ILOAD2 × RDS(ON) V VP(MIN) Generally, a small high-side MOSFET is desired to reduce switching losses at high input voltage. However, the RDS(ON) required to stay within package power-dissipation limits often limits how small the MOSFET can be. Again, the optimum occurs when the switching (AC) losses equal the conduction (RDS(ON)) losses. High- ______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks Switching losses in the high-side MOSFET can become an insidious heat problem when maximum battery voltage is applied, due to the squared term in the CV2f switching loss equation. If the high-side MOSFET chosen for adequate R DS(ON) at low battery voltages becomes extraordinarily hot when subjected to VVP(MAX), reconsider your choice of high-side MOSFET. Calculating the power dissipation in Q1 due to switching losses is difficult since it must allow for difficult quantifying factors that influence the turn-on and turnoff times. These factors include the internal gate resistance, gate charge, threshold voltage, source inductance, and PC board layout characteristics. The following switching loss calculation provides only a very rough estimate and is no substitute for breadboard evaluation, preferably including a verification using a thermocouple mounted on Q1: C RSS × VVP(MAX)2 × ƒ × ILOAD PD (Q1 switching) = IGATE unchanged, this voltage is approximately 0.7V (a diode drop) at both transition edges while both switches are off. In between the edges, the low-side switch conducts; the drop is IL ✕ RDS(ON). If a Schottky clamp is connected across the low-side switch, the initial and final voltage drops is reduced, improving efficiency slightly. Choose a Schottky diode (D1) having a forward voltage low enough to prevent the Q2 MOSFET body diode from turning on during the dead time. As a general rule, a diode having a DC current rating equal to 1/3 of the load current is sufficient. This diode is optional and can be removed if efficiency isn’t critical. Applications Issues Dropout Performance where CRSS is the reverse transfer capacitance of Q1, and IGATE is the peak gate-drive source/sink current. The output voltage adjust range for continuous-conduction operation is restricted by the nonadjustable 500ns (max) minimum off-time one-shot. When working with low input voltages, the duty-factor limit must be calculated using worst-case values for on- and off-times. Manufacturing tolerances and internal propagation delays introduce an error to the t ON K-factor. Also, keep in mind that transient response performance of buck regulators operating close to dropout is poor, and bulk output capacitance must often be added. For the low-side MOSFET, the worst-case power dissipation always occurs at maximum battery voltage: Dropout design example: VIN = 7V (min), VOUT = 5V, f = 300kHz. The required duty cycle is : VOUT PD(Q2) = 1 × ILOAD2 × RDS V VP(MAX) V + VSW 5V + 0.1V DCREQ = OUT = = 0.74 VVP - VSW 7V - 0.1V The absolute worst case for MOSFET power dissipation occurs under heavy overloads that are greater than ILOAD(MAX) but are not quite high enough to exceed the current limit and cause the fault latch to trip. To protect against this possibility, the circuit must be overdesigned to tolerate: ILOAD = ILIMIT(HIGH) + (LIR / 2 ) ✕ ILOAD(MAX) where I LIMIT(HIGH) is the maximum valley current allowed by the current-limit circuit, including threshold tolerance and on-resistance variation. This means that the MOSFET must be very well heatsinked. If short-circuit protection without overload protection is enough, a normal ILOAD value can be used for calculating component stresses. During the period when the high-side switch is off, current circulates from ground to the junction of both FETs and the inductor. As a consequence, the polarity of the switching node is negative with respect to ground. If The worst-case on-time is: V + 0.075 5V + 0.075 t ON(MIN) = OUT ×K= × VVP 7V 3.35µs × 90% = 2.18µs The maximum IC duty factor based on timing constraints of the MAX1762/MAX1792 is: Duty = t ON(MIN) 2.18µs = = 0.82, t ON(MIN) + t OFF(MAX) 2.18µs + 0.5µs which meets the required duty cycle. Remember to include inductor resistance and MOSFET on-state voltage drops (VSW) when doing worst-case dropout dutyfactor calculations. Fixed Output Voltages The MAX1762/MAX1791 Dual Mode operation allows the selection of common voltages without requiring external components (Figure 9). Connect FB to GND for ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX1762/MAX1791 side switching losses do not usually become an issue until the input is greater than approximately 15V. MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks OUT FIXED 1.8V TO ERROR AMP FIXED 3.3V (Figure 10). Refer to the MAX1791 EV kit manual for a specific layout example. If possible, mount all of the power components on the top side of the board, with their ground terminals flush against one another. Follow these guidelines for good PC board layout: • Isolate the power components on the top side from the sensitive analog components on the bottom side with a ground shield. Use a separate GND plane under OUT. Avoid the introduction of AC currents into the GND ground planes. Run the power plane ground currents on the top side only, if possible. • Keep the high-current paths short, especially at the ground terminals. This practice is essential for stable, jitter-free operation. • Keep the power traces and load connections short. This practice is essential for high efficiency. Using thick copper PC boards (2oz vs. 1oz) can enhance full-load efficiency by 1% or more. Correctly routing PC board traces is a difficult task that must be approached in terms of fractions of centimeters, where a single milliohm of excess trace resistance causes a measurable efficiency penalty. • Inductor and GND connections to the synchronous rectifiers for current limiting must be made using Kelvin sensed connections to guarantee the current-limit accuracy. With 8-pin SO MOSFETs, this is best done by routing power to the MOSFETs from outside using the top copper layer, while connecting GND and CS inside (underneath) the µMAX package. • When trade-offs in trace lengths must be made, it’s preferable to allow the inductor charging path to be made longer than the discharge path. For example, it’s better to allow some extra distance between the input capacitors and the high-side MOSFET than to allow distance between the inductor and the lowside MOSFET or between the inductor and the output filter capacitor. • Ensure that the OUT connection to COUT is short and direct. However, in some cases it may be desirable to deliberately introduce some trace length between the OUT connector node and the output filter capacitor (see Stability Considerations). • Route high-speed switching nodes (CS, DH, and DL) away from sensitive analog areas (FB). Use GND as an EMI shield to keep radiated switching noise away from the IC’s feedback divider and analog bypass capacitors. FB 0.150V MAX1762 2.5V Figure 9. Feedback MUX a fixed +1.8V (MAX1762) or 3.3V (MAX1791) output. Connect FB to VL for a fixed 2.5V (MAX1762) or 5.0V (MAX1791) output. Otherwise, connect FB to a resistive voltage-divider for an adjustable output. Setting the Output Voltage Select VOUT > 1.25V for the MAX1762/MAX1791 by connecting FB to a resistive voltage-divider between V OUT and GND (Figure 2). Choose R2 to be about 10kΩ, and solve for R1 using the equation: R1 VOUT = V ƒFB × 1+ R2 where VFB = 1.25V. For a VOUT = 3.0V, R2 = 10kΩ and R1 = 14kΩ. For a desired VOUT < 1.25V, connect FB to a resistive voltage-divider between REF and OUT (Figure 3). Choose R1 to be about 50kΩ, and solve for R2 using the equation: V -V R2 = OUT FB × R1 V V FB REF where VFB = 1.25V and VREF = 2.0V. For a V OUT = 1.0V, R1 = 50kΩ and R2 = 16.5kΩ. Under these conditions, a minimum load of VREF - V FB / R1 >15µA is required. PC Board Layout Guidelines Careful PC board layout is critical to achieve low switching losses and clean, stable operation. This is especially true when multiple converters are on the same PC board where one circuit can affect the other. The switching power stages require particular attention 18 ______________________________________________________________________________________ High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks MAX1762/MAX1791 USE AGND PLANE TO: USE PGND PLANE TO: - BYPASS VCC AND REF - BYPASS VVP - TERMINATE EXTERNAL FB - CONNECT PGND TO THE TOPSIDE STAR GROUND DIVIDER (IF USED) - PIN-STRAP CONTROL INPUTS AGND VOUT L1 PGND C2 D1 P1 VL N1 VIA TO GROUND GND VBATT C1 CONNECT PGND TO AGND BENEATH THE MAX1762/MAX1791 AT ONE POINT ONLY AS SHOWN. NOTE: EXAMPLE SHOWN IS FOR DUAL n-CHANNEL MOSFET. Figure 10. PC Board Layout Example Layout Procedure 1) Place the power components first, with ground terminals adjacent (Q1 source, CIN, COUT). If possible, make all these connections on the top layer with wide, copper-filled areas. 2) Mount the controller IC adjacent to the synchronous-rectifier MOSFETs, preferably on the back side in order to keep CS, GND, and the DL gate drive lines short and wide. The DL gate trace must be short and wide (measuring 50mils to 100mils wide if the MOSFET is 1in from the controller IC). sides. The top-side star ground is a star connection of the input capacitors, side 1 low-side MOSFET. Keep the resistance low between the star ground and the source of the low-side MOSFETs for accurate current limit. Connect the top-side star ground (used for MOSFET, input, and output capacitors) to the small island with a single short, wide connection (preferably just a via). 6) Connect the output power planes directly to the output filter capacitor positive and negative terminals with multiple vias. 3) Place the VL bypass capacitor near the controller IC. 4) Make the DC-DC controller ground connections as follows: Near the IC, create a small analog ground plane. Connect this plane to GND, and use this plane for the ground connection for the REF and VVP bypass capacitors and FB dividers. Chip Information TRANSISTOR COUNT: 3520 PROCESS: S8E1FP 5) On the board’s top side (power planes), make a star ground to minimize crosstalk between the two ______________________________________________________________________________________ 19 Package Information e 10LUMAX.EPS MAX1762/MAX1791 High-Efficiency, 10-Pin µMAX, Step-Down Controllers for Notebooks 4X S 10 10 INCHES H Ø0.50±0.1 0.6±0.1 1 1 0.6±0.1 BOTTOM VIEW TOP VIEW D2 MILLIMETERS MAX DIM MIN 0.043 A 0.006 A1 0.002 A2 0.030 0.037 0.120 D1 0.116 0.118 0.114 D2 0.116 0.120 E1 0.118 E2 0.114 0.199 H 0.187 L 0.0157 0.0275 L1 0.037 REF b 0.007 0.0106 e 0.0197 BSC c 0.0035 0.0078 0.0196 REF S α 0° 6° MAX MIN 1.10 0.15 0.05 0.75 0.95 3.05 2.95 3.00 2.89 3.05 2.95 2.89 3.00 4.75 5.05 0.40 0.70 0.940 REF 0.177 0.270 0.500 BSC 0.090 0.200 0.498 REF 0° 6° E2 GAGE PLANE A2 c A b A1 α E1 D1 L L1 FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW PROPRIETARY INFORMATION TITLE: PACKAGE OUTLINE, 10L uMAX/uSOP APPROVAL DOCUMENT CONTROL NO. 21-0061 REV. 1 1 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 20 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2005 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.