LMC6032 CMOS Dual Operational Amplifier General Description The LMC6032 is a CMOS dual operational amplifier which can operate from either a single supply or dual supplies. Its performance features include an input common-mode range that reaches ground, low input bias current, and high voltage gain into realistic loads, such as 2 kΩ and 600Ω. This chip is built with National’s advanced Double-Poly Silicon-Gate CMOS process. See the LMC6034 datasheet for a CMOS quad operational amplifier with these same features. For higher performance characteristics refer to the LMC662. Features n Specified for 2 kΩ and 600Ω loads n High voltage gain: 126 dB n n n n n n n n Low offset voltage drift: 2.3 µV/˚C Ultra low input bias current: 40 fA Input common-mode range includes V− Operating range from +5V to +15V supply ISS = 400 µA/amplifier; independent of V+ Low distortion: 0.01% at 10 kHz Slew rate: 1.1 V/µs Improved performance over TLC272 Applications n n n n n High-impedance buffer or preamplifier Current-to-voltage converter Long-term integrator Sample-and-hold circuit Medical instrumentation Connection Diagram 8-Pin DIP/SO DS011135-1 Top View Ordering Information Temperature Range Package NSC Drawing Transport Media 8-Pin N08E Rail Industrial −40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ +85˚C LMC6032IN Molded DIP LMC6032IM 8-Pin Small Outline © 1999 National Semiconductor Corporation DS011135 M08A Rail Tape and Reel www.national.com LMC6032 CMOS Dual Operational Amplifier November 1994 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Differential Input Voltage Supply Voltage (V+ − V−) Output Short Circuit to V+ Output Short Circuit to V− Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec.) Storage Temperature Range Junction Temperature ESD Tolerance (Note 4) Power Dissipation (V+) + 0.3V, (V−) − 0.3V ± 18 mA ± 5 mA 35 mA Voltage at Output/Input Pin Current at Output Pin Current at Input Pin Current at Power Supply Pin ± Supply Voltage 16V (Note 10) (Note 2) Operating Ratings (Note 1) −40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ +85˚C 4.75V to 15.5V (Note 11) Temperature Range Supply Voltage Range Power Dissipation Thermal Resistance (θJA), (Note 12) 8-Pin DIP 8-Pin SO 260˚C −65˚C to +150˚C 150˚C 1000V (Note 3) 101˚C/W 165˚C/W DC Electrical Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for TJ = 25˚C. Boldface limits apply at the temperature extremes. V+ = 5V, V− = GND = 0V, VCM = 1.5V, VOUT = 2.5V and RL > 1M unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical (Note 5) LMC6032I Units Limit (Note 6) VOS ∆VOS/∆T Input Offset Voltage 1 Input Offset Voltage 9 mV 11 max 2.3 µV/˚C Average Drift IB IOS Input Bias Current Input Offset Current RIN Input Resistance CMRR Common Mode −PSRR 5V ≤ V+ ≤ 15V VO = 2.5V 83 Rejection Ratio Negative Power Supply 0V ≤ V− ≤ −10V 94 Rejection Ratio VCM Input Common-Mode V+ = 5V & 15V Voltage Range For CMRR ≥ 50 dB −0.4 V+ − 1.9 AV Large Signal RL = 2 kΩ (Note 7) Voltage Gain Sourcing 100 max pA 2000 TeraΩ 63 dB 60 min 63 dB 60 min 74 dB 70 min −0.1 V 0 max V+ − 2.3 V V+ − 2.6 min 200 V/mV 100 min V/mV Sinking 500 90 40 min RL = 600Ω (Note 7) 1000 100 V/mV 75 min 250 50 V/mV 20 min Sourcing Sinking www.national.com max >1 83 Positive Power Supply pA 200 0.01 0V ≤ VCM ≤ 12V V+ = 15V Rejection Ratio +PSRR 0.04 2 DC Electrical Characteristics (Continued) Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for TJ = 25˚C. Boldface limits apply at the temperature extremes. V+ = 5V, V− = GND = 0V, VCM = 1.5V, VOUT = 2.5V and RL > 1M unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical (Note 5) LMC6032I Units Limit (Note 6) VO Output Voltage Swing V+ = 5V RL = 2 kΩ to 2.5V 4.87 0.10 V+ = 5V RL = 600Ω to 2.5V 4.61 0.30 V+ = 15V RL = 2 kΩ to 7.5V 14.63 0.26 V+ = 15V RL = 600Ω to 7.5V 13.90 0.79 IO Output Current V+ = 5V 22 Sourcing, VO = 0V Sinking, VO = 5V V+ = 15V 21 40 Sourcing, VO = 0V Sinking, VO = 13V 39 (Note 10) IS Supply Current Both Amplifiers VO = 1.5V 3 0.75 4.20 V 4.00 min 0.25 V 0.35 max 4.00 V 3.80 min 0.63 V 0.75 max 13.50 V 13.00 min 0.45 V 0.55 max 12.50 V 12.00 min 1.45 V 1.75 max 13 mA 9 min 13 mA 9 min 23 mA 15 min 23 mA 15 min 1.6 mA 1.9 max www.national.com AC Electrical Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for TJ = 25˚C. Boldface limits apply at the temperature extremes. V+ = 5V, V− = GND = 0V, VCM = 1.5V, VOUT = 2.5V and RL > 1M unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical (Note 5) LMC6032I Units Limit (Note 6) SR Slew Rate (Note 8) 1.1 0.8 0.4 V/µs min GBW Gain-Bandwidth Product 1.4 MHz φM Phase Margin 50 Deg GM Gain Margin 17 dB 130 dB 0.0002 Amp-to-Amp Isolation en Input-Referred Voltage Noise (Note 9) F = 1 kHz in Input-Referred Current Noise F = 1 kHz THD Total Harmonic Distortion F = 10 kHz, AV = −10 RL = 2 kΩ, VO = 8 VPP 22 0.01 % ± 5V Supply Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to component may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is intended to be functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. The guaranteed specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Note 2: Applies to both single-supply and split-supply operation. Continuous short circuit operation at elevated ambient temperature and/or multiple Op Amp shorts can result in exceeding the maximum allowed junction temperature of 150˚C. Output currents in excess of ± 30 mA over long term may adversely affect reliability. Note 3: The maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(max), θJA, and TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature is PD = (TJ(max) – TA)/θJA. Note 4: Human body model, 100 pF discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor. Note 5: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm. Note 6: All limits are guaranteed at room temperature (standard type face) or at operating temperature extremes (bold type face). Note 7: V+ = 15V, VCM = 7.5V, and RL connected to 7.5V. For Sourcing tests, 7.5V ≤ VO ≤ 11.5V. For Sinking tests, 2.5V ≤ VO ≤ 7.5V. Note 8: V+ = 15V. Connected as Voltage Follower with 10V step input. Number specified is the slower of the positive and negative slew rates. Note 9: Input referred. V+ = 15V and RL = 10 kΩ connected to V+/2. Each amp excited in turn with 1 kHz to produce VO = 13 VPP. Note 10: Do not connect output to V+, when V+ is greater than 13V or reliability may be adversely affected. Note 11: For operating at elevated temperatures the device must be derated based on the thermal resistance θJA with PD = (TJ − TA)/θJA. Note 12: All numbers apply for packages soldered directly into a PC board. www.national.com 4 Typical Performance Characteristics Supply Current vs Supply Voltage VS = ± 7.5V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified Output Characteristics Current Sinking Input Bias Current DS011135-24 DS011135-25 DS011135-23 Output Characteristics Current Sourcing Input Voltage Noise vs Frequency CMRR vs Frequency DS011135-28 DS011135-26 Open-Loop Frequency Response DS011135-27 Frequency Response vs Capacitive Load DS011135-29 Non-Inverting Large Signal Pulse Response DS011135-30 5 DS011135-31 www.national.com Typical Performance Characteristics Stability vs Capacitive Load VS = ± 7.5V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified (Continued) Stability vs Capacitive Load DS011135-32 DS011135-33 Note 13: Avoid resistive loads of less than 500Ω, as they may cause instability. Application Hints COMPENSATING INPUT CAPACITANCE The high input resistance of the LMC6032 op amps allows the use of large feedback and source resistor values without losing gain accuracy due to loading. However, the circuit will be especially sensitive to its layout when these large-value resistors are used. Every amplifier has some capacitance between each input and AC ground, and also some differential capacitance between the inputs. When the feedback network around an amplifier is resistive, this input capacitance (along with any additional capacitance due to circuit board traces, the socket, etc.) and the feedback resistors create a pole in the feedback path. In the following General Operational Amplifier Circuit, Figure 2, the frequency of this pole is AMPLIFIER TOPOLOGY The topology chosen for the LMC6032, shown in Figure 1, is unconventional (compared to general-purpose op amps) in that the traditional unity-gain buffer output stage is not used; instead, the output is taken directly from the output of the integrator, to allow a larger output swing. Since the buffer traditionally delivers the power to the load, while maintaining high op amp gain and stability, and must withstand shorts to either rail, these tasks now fall to the integrator. As a result of these demands, the integrator is a compound affair with an embedded gain stage that is doubly fed forward (via Cf and Cff) by a dedicated unity-gain compensation driver. In addition, the output portion of the integrator is a push-pull configuration for delivering heavy loads. While sinking current the whole amplifier path consists of three gain stages with one stage fed forward, whereas while sourcing the path contains four gain stages with two fed forward. where CS is the total capacitance at the inverting input, including amplifier input capacitance and any stray capacitance from the IC socket (if one is used), circuit board traces, etc., and RPis the parallel combination of RF and RIN. This formula, as well as all formulae derived below, apply to inverting and non-inverting op-amp configurations. When the feedback resistors are smaller than a few kΩ, the frequency of the feedback pole will be quite high, since CSis generally less than 10 pF. If the frequency of the feedback pole is much higher than the “ideal” closed-loop bandwidth (the nominal closed-loop bandwidth in the absence of CS), the pole will have a negligible effect on stability, as it will add only a small amount of phase shift. However, if the feedback pole is less than approximately 6 to 10 times the “ideal” −3 dB frequency, a feedback capacitor, CF, should be connected between the output and the inverting input of the op amp. This condition can also be stated in terms of the amplifier’s low-frequency noise gain: To maintain stability, a feedback capacitor will probably be needed if DS011135-3 FIGURE 1. LMC6032 Circuit Topology (Each Amplifier) The large signal voltage gain while sourcing is comparable to traditional bipolar op amps, even with a 600Ω load. The gain while sinking is higher than most CMOS op amps, due to the additional gain stage; however, under heavy load (600Ω) the gain will be reduced as indicated in the Electrical Characteristics. www.national.com 6 Application Hints larger feedback capacitor to allow for unexpected stray capacitance, or to tolerate additional phase shifts in the loop, or excessive capacitive load, or to decrease the noise or bandwidth, or simply because the particular circuit implementation needs more feedback capacitance to be sufficiently stable. For example, a printed circuit board’s stray capacitance may be larger or smaller than the breadboard’s, so the actual optimum value for CF may be different from the one estimated using the breadboard. In most cases, the value of CF should be checked on the actual circuit, starting with the computed value. (Continued) where is the amplifier’s low-frequency noise gain and GBW is the amplifier’s gain bandwidth product. An amplifier’s low-frequency noise gain is represented by the formula CAPACITIVE LOAD TOLERANCE Like many other op amps, the LMC6032 may oscillate when its applied load appears capacitive. The threshold of oscillation varies both with load and circuit gain. The configuration most sensitive to oscillation is a unity-gain follower. See the Typical Performance Characteristics. The load capacitance interacts with the op amp’s output resistance to create an additional pole. If this pole frequency is sufficiently low, it will degrade the op amp’s phase margin so that the amplifier is no longer stable at low gains. As shown in Figure 3, the addition of a small resistor (50Ω to 100Ω) in series with the op amp’s output, and a capacitor (5 pF to 10 pF) from inverting input to output pins, returns the phase margin to a safe value without interfering with lower-frequency circuit operation. Thus, larger values of capacitance can be tolerated without oscillation. Note that in all cases, the output will ring heavily when the load capacitance is near the threshold for oscillation. regardless of whether the amplifier is being used in an inverting or non-inverting mode. Note that a feedback capacitor is more likely to be needed when the noise gain is low and/or the feedback resistor is large. If the above condition is met (indicating a feedback capacitor will probably be needed), and the noise gain is large enough that: the following value of feedback capacitor is recommended: If the feedback capacitor should be: DS011135-5 FIGURE 3. Rx, Cx Improve Capacitive Load Tolerance Note that these capacitor values are usually significantly smaller than those given by the older, more conservative formula: Capacitive load driving capability is enhanced by using a pull up resistor to V+ (Figure 4). Typically a pull up resistor conducting 500 µA or more will significantly improve capacitive load responses. The value of the pull up resistor must be determined based on the current sinking capability of the amplifier with respect to the desired output swing. Open loop gain of the amplifier can also be affected by the pull up resistor (see Electrical Characteristics). DS011135-22 FIGURE 4. Compensating for Large Capacitive Loads with a Pull Up Resistor DS011135-4 CS consists of the amplifier’s input capacitance plus any stray capacitance from the circuit board and socket. CF compensates for the pole caused by CS and the feedback resistor. PRINTED-CIRCUIT-BOARD LAYOUT FOR HIGH-IMPEDANCE WORK It is generally recognized that any circuit which must operate with less than 1000 pA of leakage current requires special layout of the PC board. When one wishes to take advantage of the ultra-low bias current of the LMC6032, typically less FIGURE 2. General Operational Amplifier Circuit Using the smaller capacitors will give much higher bandwidth with little degradation of transient response. It may be necessary in any of the above cases to use a somewhat 7 www.national.com Application Hints (Continued) than 0.04 pA, it is essential to have an excellent layout. Fortunately, the techniques for obtaining low leakages are quite simple. First, the user must not ignore the surface leakage of the PC board, even though it may sometimes appear acceptably low, because under conditions of high humidity or dust or contamination, the surface leakage will be appreciable. To minimize the effect of any surface leakage, lay out a ring of foil completely surrounding the LMC6032’s inputs and the terminals of capacitors, diodes, conductors, resistors, relay terminals, etc. connected to the op-amp’s inputs. See Figure 5. To have a significant effect, guard rings should be placed on both the top and bottom of the PC board. This PC foil must then be connected to a voltage which is at the same voltage as the amplifier inputs, since no leakage current can flow between two points at the same potential. For example, a PC board trace-to-pad resistance of 1012Ω, which is normally considered a very large resistance, could leak 5 pA if the trace were a 5V bus adjacent to the pad of an input. This would cause a 100 times degradation from the LMC6032’s actual performance. However, if a guard ring is held within 5 mV of the inputs, then even a resistance of 1011Ω would cause only 0.05 pA of leakage current, or perhaps a minor (2:1) degradation of the amplifier’s performance. See Figure 6a, Figure 6b, Figure 6c for typical connections of guard rings for standard op-amp configurations. If both inputs are active and at high impedance, the guard can be tied to ground and still provide some protection; see Figure 6d. DS011135-7 (a) Inverting Amplifier DS011135-8 (b) Non-Inverting Amplifier DS011135-9 (c) Follower DS011135-6 DS011135-10 FIGURE 5. Example of Guard Ring in P.C. Board Layout (d) Howland Current Pump FIGURE 6. Guard Ring Connections The designer should be aware that when it is inappropriate to lay out a PC board for the sake of just a few circuits, there is another technique which is even better than a guard ring on a PC board: Don’t insert the amplifier’s input pin into the board at all, but bend it up in the air and use only air as an insulator. Air is an excellent insulator. In this case you may have to forego some of the advantages of PC board construction, but the advantages are sometimes well worth the effort of using point-to-point up-in-the-air wiring. See Figure 7. www.national.com 8 Application Hints (Continued) DS011135-11 (Input pins are lifted out of PC board and soldered directly to components. All other pins connected to PC board.) DS011135-12 FIGURE 7. Air Wiring FIGURE 8. Simple Input Bias Current Test Circuit BIAS CURRENT TESTING The test method of Figure 8 is appropriate for bench-testing bias current with reasonable accuracy. To understand its operation, first close switch S2 momentarily. When S2 is opened, then A suitable capacitor for C2 would be a 5 pF or 10 pF silver mica, NPO ceramic, or air-dielectric. When determining the magnitude of Ib−, the leakage of the capacitor and socket must be taken into account. Switch S2 should be left shorted most of the time, or else the dielectric absorption of the capacitor C2 could cause errors. Similarly, if S1 is shorted momentarily (while leaving S2 shorted) where Cx is the stray capacitance at the + input. Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) and R4 = R7. = 100 for circuit shown. Additional single-supply applications ideas can be found in the LM358 datasheet. The LMC6032 is pin-for-pin compatible with the LM358 and offers greater bandwidth and input resistance over the LM358. These features will improve the performance of many existing single-supply applications. Note, however, that the supply voltage range of the LMC6032 is smaller than that of the LM358. For good CMRR over temperature, low drift resistors should be used. Matching of R3 to R6 and R4 to R7 affects CMRR. Gain may be adjusted through R2. CMRR may be adjusted through R7. Sine-Wave Oscillator Instrumentation Amplifier DS011135-14 DS011135-15 Oscillator frequency is determined by R1, R2, C1, and C2: fOSC = 1/2πRC where R = R1 = R2 and C = C1 = C2. if R1 = R5; R3 = R6, 9 www.national.com Typical Single-Supply Applications 10 Hz Bandpass Filter (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) This circuit, as shown, oscillates at 2.0 kHz with a peak-to-peak output swing of 4.0V. Low-Leakage Sample-and-Hold DS011135-18 DS011135-13 fO = 10 Hz Q = 2.1 Gain = −8.8 1 Hz Square-Wave Oscillator 1 Hz Low-Pass Filter (Maximally Flat, Dual Supply Only) DS011135-16 Power Amplifier DS011135-19 10 Hz High-Pass Filter DS011135-17 DS011135-20 fc = 10 Hz d = 0.895 Gain = 1 2 dB passband ripple www.national.com 10 Typical Single-Supply Applications (V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued) High Gain Amplifier with Offset Voltage Reduction DS011135-21 Gain = −46.8 Output offset voltage reduced to the level of the input offset voltage of the bottom amplifier (typically 1 mV). 11 www.national.com Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted Small Outline Dual-In-Line Package (M) Order Number LMC6032IM NS Package Number M08A Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N) Order Number LMC6032IN NS Package Number N08E www.national.com 12 LMC6032 CMOS Dual Operational Amplifier Notes LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 1 80-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-530 85 85 English Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-532 78 32 Français Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-532 93 58 Italiano Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-534 16 80 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. 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