NX2141 SINGLE CHANNEL MOBILE PWM CONTROLLER WITH FEEDFORWARD AND ENABLE ADVANCE DATA SHEET Pb Free Product DESCRIPTION FEATURES The NX2141 controller IC is a compact synchronous Buck controller IC designed for step down DC to DC converter applications with voltage feedforward functionality. Voltage feedforward provides fast response, good line regulation and nearly constant power stage gain under wide voltage input range. The NX2141 controller is optimized to convert single supply up to 24V bus voltage to as low as 0.8V output voltage. Internal UVLO keeps the regulator off until the supply voltage exceeds 7V where internal digital soft starts get initiated to ramp up output. The NX2141 employs fixed current limiting and FB UVLO followed by hiccup feature. Other features includes: 5V gate drive capability , Adaptive dead band control, available in 16 lead MLPQ and 10 lead MSOP package. n Bus voltage operation from 7V to 24V n Less than 1uA shutdown current with Enable low n Excellent dynamic response with input voltage feedforward and voltage mode control n Internal Digital Soft Start Function n Fixed internal hiccup current limit n FB UVLO followed by hiccup feature n Power Good indicator available n Start into precharged output n Pb-free and RoHS compliant APPLICATIONS n n n Notebook PC Graphic Card on board converters On board DC to DC such as 12V to 3.3V, 2.5V or 1.8V Set Top Box and LCD Display n TYPICAL APPLICATION 1uH Vin1 +8 to 20V 100uF 1uF 25TQC33M 25V,33uF MBR0530T1 13 1uF 10 Vin2 +5V 14 1uF ON OFF 5 9 12 PGOOD EN COMP 2.3k NX2141 10k 16 8 PVCC VIN VCC 0.1uF BST Hdrv 1 M1 1uH SW Vout +1.05V 10A 15 Co 2*2R5TPE220MC (220uF,12mohm) Ldrv 3 M2 1.5k 10k 1nF 15nF 2.2nF 11 FB Pgnd 2 Gnd 17 32k Figure1 - Typical application of NX2141(MLPQ) ORDERING INFORMATION Device NX2141CMTR NX2141CUTR Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 Temperature -40o C to 85o C -40o C to 85o C Package MLPQ-16L MSOP-10L Frequency 200kHz 200kHz Pb-Free Yes Yes 1 NX2141 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VCC to GND & BST to SW voltage ...................... -0.3V to 6.5V VIN to GND ........................................................ -0.3V to 30V BST to GND Voltage .......................................... -0.3V to 35V SW to GND ....................................................... -2V to 35V All other pins ..................................................... -0.3V to 6.5V Storage Temperature Range ................................ -65oC to 150oC Operating Junction Temperature Range ................ -40oC to 125oC ESD Susceptibility ............................................ 2kV CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in "ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS", may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. PACKAGE INFORMATION BST SW VCC PVCC 16-LEAD PLASTIC MLPQ 16 15 14 13 HDRV 1 10-LEAD PLASTIC MSOP θJA ≈ 200o C/W 12 COMP PGND 2 11 FB 17 AGND BST 1 θJA ≈ 46o C/W HDRV 2 9 EN LDRV 4 6 7 8 VIN NC 4 NC GND 3 NC 10 NC PGOOD LDRV 3 5 10 SW 9 COMP 8 FB 7 VCC 6 EN VIN 5 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Unless otherwise specified, these specifications apply over Vcc =5V, VIN=12V and TA = -40oC to 85oC. Typical values refer to TA = 25oC. PARAMETER Reference Voltage Ref Voltage Ref Voltage line regulation Supply Voltage(Vcc) VCC Voltage Range Operating quiescent current Shut down current Vcc UVLO VCC-Threshold VCC-Hysteresis Supply Voltage(Vin) Vin Voltage Range Input Voltage Current Shut Down Current Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 SYM Test Condition Min VREF VCC IQ ISD TYP MAX 0.8 0.2 4.75 EN=HIGH EN=LOW 1.5 VCC_UVLO VCC Rising VCC_Hyst VCC Falling Vin Vin=24V EN=LOW V % 5.25 5 1 4.4 0.2 7 24 Units V mA uA V V 25 40 1 V uA uA 2 NX2141 PARAMETER Vin UVLO Vin-Threshold Vin-Hysteresis Oscillator (Rt) Frequency Frequency Over Vin Ramp-Amplitude Voltage Ramp Offset Ramp/Vin Gain Max Duty Cycle Min on time Error Amplifiers Transconductance Input Bias Current Comp SD threshold Vref and Soft Start Soft Start time High Side Driver (CL=3300pF) Output Impedance , Sourcing Current Output Impedance , Sinking Current Rise Time Fall Time Deadband Time SYM Vin_UVLO Vin_Hyst Test Condition Min VCC Rising VCC Falling FS TYP Vin=20V V V 200 KHz % V V V/V % nS 5 2 0.8 0.1 88 150 2500 0.3 umho nA V 10 mS Ib Tss 100 FS=200kHz Units 6 0.5 -5 VRAMP MAX Rsource(Hdrv) I=200mA 1 ohm Rsink(Hdrv) I=200mA 0.8 ohm THdrv(Rise) 10% to 90% THdrv(Fall) 90% to 10% Tdead(L to Ldrv going Low to Hdrv going H) High, 10% to 10% 50 50 30 ns ns ns Rsource(Ldrv) I=200mA 1 ohm Rsink(Ldrv) I=200mA 0.5 ohm 50 50 30 ns ns ns 320 mV Low NSide Driver (CL=3300pF) Output Impedance, Sourcing Current Output Impedance, Sinking Current Rise Time Fall Time Deadband Time Fixed OCP OCP voltage Threshold Enable Enable HI Threshold Enable LOW Threshold Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 TLdrv(Rise) 10% to 90% TLdrv(Fall) 90% to 10% Tdead(H to SW going Low to Ldrv going L) High, 10% to 10% 1.4 0.4 V V 3 NX2141 PARAMETER Power Good(MLPQ only) Threshold Voltage as % of Vref Hysteresis FBUVLO Feedback UVLO threshold Over temperature Threshold Hysteresis SYM Test Condition Min FB ramping up percent of nominal 65 TYP MAX Units 90 % 5 % 70 % 75 150 20 °C °C PIN DESCRIPTIONS PIN SYMBOL VCC This pin supplies the internal 5V bias circuit. A 1uF ceramic capacitor is placed as close as possible to this pin and ground pin. BST This pin supplies voltage to high side FET driver. A high freq minimum 0.1uF ceramic capacitor is placed as close as possible to and connected to this pin and SW pin. GND Power ground. FB This pin is the error amplifiers inverting input. This pin is connected via resistor divider to the output of the switching regulator to set the output DC voltage. COMP This pin is the output of the error amplifier and together with FB pin is used to compensate the voltage control feedback loop. SW This pin is connected to source of high side FETs and provide return path for the high side driver. HDRV High side gate driver output. LDRV Low side gate driver output. EN VIN PGOOD (MLPQ only) PVCC Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 PIN DESCRIPTION Pull up this pin to Vcc for normal operation. Pulling this pin down below 0.4V shuts down the controller and resets the soft start. Bus voltage input provides power supply to oscillator and VIN UVLO signal. An open drain output that requires a pull up resistor to Vcc or a voltage lower than Vcc. When FB pin reaches 90% of the reference voltage, PGOOD changes from LO to HI state. Supply voltage for the low side fet drivers. A high frequency 1uF ceramic cap must be connected from this pin to the PGND pin as close as possible. 4 NX2141 BLOCK DIAGRAM PGOOD FB 0.85Vref /0.90Vref Bias Generator VCC 1.25V 0.8V BST POR UVLO VIN START 6V/ 5.5V HDRV COMP 0.3V SW OC VIN Control Logic START 0.8V OSC Digital start Up PWM PVCC ramp S R Q LDRV DISABLE OC PGND FB 0.6V CLAMP COMP START POR 1.3V CLAMP 320mV Hiccup Logic OCP comparator EN DISABLE SS_half_done 70%*Vp FB AGND Figure 2 - Simplified block diagram of the NX2141(MLPQ) Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 5 NX2141 1uH Vin1 +8 to 20V 10 100uF MBR0530T1 0.1uF 13 10 Vin2 +5V 14 1uF 10k 5 9 12 16 8 PVCC VIN BST VCC Hdrv EN COMP 2.3k 0.1uF 1 M1 1uH PGOOD NX2141 1uF 25TQC33M 25V,33uF 1uF SW Vout +1.05V 10A 15 Co 2*2R5TPE220MC (220uF,12mohm) Ldrv 3 M2 1.5k 10k 1nF 15nF 2.2nF 11 FB Pgnd 2 Gnd 17 32k Figure 3 - Simplified Demo board schematic(MLPQ) Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 6 NX2141 Figure 4 - Demo board schematic based on ORCAD Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 7 NX2141 Bill of Materials Item number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 Quantity 4 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reference C1,C5,C6,C18 C2,C4,C7,C9 C3 C19,C8 C10 C13 C14 C15 C17,C16 D1 L2 M1 M2 R1,R2,R3,R11 R4,R6,R14 R5 R8 R10 R12 R13 R15 U1 U2 Part 0.1u 1u 25TQC33M 47u 15nF 1000pF 2.2n 470p 2R5TPE220MC MBR0530T1 MLC1550-102ML FDS6294 FDS6676AS 0 10 100k 2.3k 32k 10k 1.5k 1k NX2141CMTR L78L05AB/sot89 Manufacturer SANYO SANYO Coilcraft Fairchildsemi Fairchildsemi NEXSEM INC. 8 NX2141 Demoboard waveforms Figure 5 - Output ripple(CH1 Vout ripple(50mV/ div),CH2 output current(5A/div), CH3 SW(5V/div)) Figure 7 - Enlarged transient response(CH1 Vout AC(50mV/div), CH2 output current(5A/div)) Figure 6 - Transient response(CH1 Vout AC(50mV/div), CH2 output current(5A/div)) Figure 8 - Enlarged transient response(CH1 Vout AC(50mV/div), CH2 output current(5A/div)) Figure 9 - Over Current Protection(CH2 output current(10A/ Figure 10 - Power Good(CH4 Vout(500mV/div), CH3 PGOOD(5V/div)) div), CH4 VOUT(500mV/div)) Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 9 NX2141 Demoboard waveforms(cont'd) Figure 11 - Step VIN response(CH1 Vout AC(50mV/ div), CH3 VIN(5V/div), CH4 SW(5V/div)) Figure 12 - Enlarged Figure 11 (CH1 Vout AC(50mV/ div), CH3 VIN(5V/div), CH4 SW(5V/div)) Figure 13 - Step into precharged output (CH1 EN (2V/ div), CH3 OUTPUT CURRENT(10A/div), CH4 VOUT(500mV/div)) Figure 14 - Soft start(CH1 EN(2V/div),CH2 output current(10A/div), CH3 VOUT(500mV/div)) efficinecy vs Iout(VIn=19V) efficinecy vs Iout(VIn=12V) 86.00% 89.00% 88.00% 84.00% Efficiency(%) Efficiency(%) 87.00% 86.00% 85.00% 84.00% 83.00% 82.00% 80.00% 78.00% 82.00% 81.00% 76.00% 80.00% 74.00% 79.00% 0 2 4 6 8 10 Iout(A) Figure 15 - Efficiency(VIN=12V, VOUT=1V) Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Iout(A) Figure 16 - Efficiency(VIN=19V, VOUT=1V) 10 NX2141 Current Ripple @ maximum input voltage is APPLICATION INFORMATION Symbol Used In Application Information: VIN - Input voltage VOUT - Output voltage IOUT - Output current - Switching frequency DIRIPPLE - Inductor current ripple IRIPPLE = = DVRIPPLE - Output voltage ripple FS calculated as VIN -VOUT VOUT 1 × × LOUT VIN FS ...(2) 20V-1.05V 1.05V 1 × × = 4.97A 1uH 20V 200kHz Output Capacitor Selection Output capacitor is basically decided by the amount of the output voltage ripple allowed during steady state(DC) load condition as well as specification for the Design Example load transient. The optimum design may require a couple Power stage design requirements: VINMAX=20V of iterations to satisfy both condition. Based on DC Load Condition The amount of voltage ripple during the DC load VOUT=1.05V condition is determined by equation(3). VINMIN=8V IOUT_max =10A ∆VRIPPLE = ESR × ∆IRIPPLE + DVRIPPLE <=30mV DVTRAN<=50mV @ 5A step ∆IRIPPLE 8 × FS × COUT ...(3) Where ESR is the output capacitors' equivalent FS=200kHz series resistance,COUT is the value of output capacitors. Typically when large value capacitors are selected Output Inductor Selection such as Aluminum Electrolytic,POSCAP and OSCON The selection of inductor value is based on induc- types are used, the amount of the output voltage ripple tor ripple current, power rating, working frequency and is dominated by the first term in equation(3) and the efficiency. Larger inductor value normally means smaller second term can be neglected. ripple current. However if the inductance is chosen too For this example, POSCAP are chosen as output large, it brings slow response and lower efficiency. Usu- capacitors, the ESR and inductor current typically de- ally the ripple current ranges from 20% to 40% of the termines the output voltage ripple. output current. This is a design freedom which can be decided by design engineer according to various appli- ESR desire = cation requirements. The inductor value can be calcu- IRIPPLE =k × IOUTPUT ...(4) If low ESR is required, for most applications, mul- lated by using the following equations: V -V V 1 LOUT = INMAX OUT × OUT × IRIPPLE VINMAX FS ∆VRIPPLE 30mV = = 6m Ω ∆IRIPPLE 4.97A tiple capacitors in parallel are better than a big capacitor. For example, for 30mV output ripple, POSCAP ...(1) where k is between 0.2 to 0.4. Select k=0.4, then 2R5TPE220MC with 12mΩ are chosen. N = E S R E × ∆ IR I P P L E ∆ VR IPPLE ...(5) Number of Capacitor is calculated as 20V-1.05V 1.05V 1 LOUT = × × 0.4 ×10A 20V 200kHz LOUT =1.2uH In this application we choose L OUT=1uH, then coilcraft inductor MLC1550-102MLC is a good choice. N= 12mΩ× 4.97A 30mV N =2 The number of capacitor has to be round up to a integer. Choose N =2. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 11 NX2141 If ceramic capacitors are chosen as output ca- The above equation shows that if the selected out- pacitors, both terms in equation (3) need to be evalu- put inductor is smaller than the critical inductance, the ated to determine the overall ripple. Usually when this voltage droop or overshoot is only dependent on the ESR type of capacitors are selected, the amount of capaci- of output capacitor. For low frequency capacitor such tance per single unit is not sufficient to meet the tran- as electrolytic capacitor, the product of ESR and ca- sient specification, which results in parallel configura- pacitance is high and L ≤ L crit is true. In that case, the tion of multiple capacitors. transient spec is mostly like to dependent on the ESR For example, two 100uF, X5R ceramic capacitor with 2mΩ ESR is used. The amount of output ripple is of capacitor. Most case, the output capacitor is multiple capacitor in parallel. The number of capacitor can be calcu- 4.97A 8 × 200kHz × 200uF = 5mV + 15mV = 20mV ∆VRIPPLE = 1mΩ× 4.97A + lated by the following Two ceramic capacitors are needed. Although this can meet DC ripple spec, however it needs to be studied for transient requirement. Based On Transient Requirement Typically, the output voltage droop during transient is specified as ∆V droop < ∆V tran @step load DISTEP During the transient, the voltage droop during the N= ESR E × ∆Istep ∆Vtran + VOUT × τ2 2 × L × C E × ∆Vtran ...(9) where 0 if L ≤ L crit τ = L × ∆Istep − ESR E × CE V OUT if L ≥ L crit ...(10) For example, assume voltage droop during tran- transient is composed of two sections. One section is sient is 50mV for 5A load step. dependent on the ESR of capacitor, the other section is If the POSCAP 2R5TPE220MC(220uF, 12mohm ESR) is used, the crticial inductance is given as a function of the inductor, output capacitance as well as input, output voltage. For example, for the over- Lcrit = shoot when load from high load to light load with a DISTEP transient load, if assuming the bandwidth of 12mΩ× 220µF ×1.05V = 0.55µH 5A system is high enough, the overshoot can be estimated as the following equation. ∆Vovershoot VOUT = ESR × ∆Istep + × τ2 2 × L × COUT ...(6) where τ is the a function of capacitor,etc. 0 if L ≤ L crit τ = L × ∆Istep − ESR × COUT V OUT if L ≥ L crit ...(7) where L crit = ESR × COUT × VOUT ESR E × C E × VOUT = ...(8) ∆Istep ∆Istep where ESRE and CE represents ESR and capacitance of each capacitor if multiple capacitors are used in parallel. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 ESR E × CE × VOUT = ∆Istep The selected inductor is 1uH which is bigger than critical inductance. In that case, the output voltage transient not only dependent on the ESR, but also capacitance. number of capacitor is τ= = N= L × ∆ I step VOUT − ESR E × C E 1µH × 5A − 12m Ω × 220µF = 2.12us 1.05V ESR E × ∆ I step ∆ Vtran + VOUT × τ2 2 × L × C E × ∆ Vtran 12m Ω × 5A 1.05V = + × (2.12us) 2 53mV 2 × 1µH × 220µ F × 53mV = 1.35 12 NX2141 The number of capacitors has to satisfy both ripple and transient requirement. Overall, we choose N=2. It should be considered that the proposed equa- sate the system with type III compensator. The following figures and equations show how to realize the type III compensator by transconductance amplifier. tion is based on ideal case, in reality, the droop or overshoot is typically more than the calculation. The equation gives a good start. For more margin, more capacitors have to be chosen after the test. Typically, for high frequency capacitor such as high quality POSCAP especially ceramic capacitor, 20% to 100% (for ceramic) more capacitors have to be chosen since the ESR of capacitors is so low that the PCB parasitic can affect the results tremendously. More capacitors have to be FZ1 = 1 2 × π × R 4 × C2 ...(11) FZ2 = 1 2 × π × (R 2 + R3 ) × C3 ...(12) FP1 = 1 2 × π × R3 × C3 ...(13) FP2 = 1 2 × π × R4 × selected to compensate these parasitic parameters. Compensator Design Due to the double pole generated by LC filter of the power stage, the power system has 180o phase shift , and therefore, is unstable by itself. In order to achieve accurate output voltage and fast transient response, compensator is employed to provide highest possible bandwidth and enough phase margin. Ideally, the Bode plot of the closed loop system has crossover frequency between 1/10 and 1/5 of the switching frequency, phase ...(14) C1 × C2 C1 + C2 where FZ1,FZ2,FP1 and FP2 are poles and zeros in the compensator. The transfer function of type III compensator for transconductance amplifier is given by: Ve 1 − gm × Z f = VOUT 1 + gm × Zin + Z in / R1 For the voltage amplifier, the transfer function of compensator is 20dB/decade. Power stage output capacitors usually Ve −Z f = VOUT Zin decide the compensator type. If electrolytic capacitors To achieve the same effect as voltage amplifier, are chosen as output capacitors, type II compensator the compensator of transconductance amplifier must can be used to compensate the system, because the satisfy this condition: R4>>2/gm. And it would be desir- zero caused by output capacitor ESR is lower than cross- able if R1||R2||R3>>1/gm can be met at the same time. margin greater than 50o and the gain crossing 0dB with - over frequency. Otherwise type III compensator should be chosen. Voltage feedforward compensation is used in Zin Zf C1 Vout NX2141 to compensate the output voltage variation caused by input voltage changing. The feedforward funtion R3 R2 is realized by using VIN pin voltage to program the oscillator ramp voltage VOSC=0.1VIN, which provides nearly C3 C2 R4 Fb constant power stage gain under wide voltage input range. gm Ve R1 A. Type III compensator design Vref For low ESR output capacitors, typically such as Sanyo oscap and poscap, the frequency of ESR zero caused by output capacitors is higher than the crossover frequency. In this case, it is necessary to compen- Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 Figure 17 - Type III compensator using transconductance amplifier 13 NX2141 Case 1: FLC<FO<FESR(for most ceramic or low ESR POSCAP, OSCON) 2. Set R4 equal to 2.5kΩ. 3. Calculate C2 with zero Fz1 at 75% of the LC Gain(db) double pole by equation (11). 1 2 × π × FZ1 × R 4 C2 = power stage FLC 1 2 × π × 0.75 × 7.59kHz × 2.5k Ω = 11nF = 40dB/decade Choose C2=15nF. 4. Calculate C 1 by equation (14) with pole F p2 at loop gain FESR 20dB/decade one third of the switching frequency. 1 2 × π × R 4 × FP2 C1 ≈ 1 2 × π × 2.5k Ω × 66.7kHz ≈ 959pF ≈ compensator Choose C1=1nF. FZ1 FZ2 FO FP1 FP2 Figure 18 - Bode plot of Type III compensator (FLC<FO<FESR) Typical design example of type III compensator in which the crossover frequency is selected as FLC<FO<FESR and FO<1/10 is shown as the following steps. 1. Calculate the location of LC double pole F LC and ESR zero FESR. FLC = = 1 2 × π × L OUT × C OUT 1 2 × π × 1uH × 440uF = 7.59kHz FESR = 1 2 × π × ESR × C OUT 1 2 × π × 6m Ω × 440uF = 60.3kHz = 5. Calculate C 3 with the crossover frequency F O at 15kHz. C3 = VOSC 2 × π × FO × L × C OUT × VIN R4 1 2 × π × 15kHz × 1uH × 440uF × 10 2.5k Ω =1.7nF = Choose C3=2.2nF. 6. Calculate R3 by equation (13) with Fp1 =FESR. R3 = 1 2 × π × FP1 × C3 1 2 × π × 60.3kHz × 2.2nF = 1.2kΩ = Choose R3 =1.5kΩ. 7. Calculate R2 by setting compensator zero FZ2 at the LC double pole. R2 = 1 1 1 ) ×( − 2 × π × C3 FZ2 FP1 1 1 1 ×( − ) 2 × π × 2.2nF 7.59kHz 60.3kHz = 8.35k Ω = Choose R2 =10kΩ. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 14 NX2141 8. Calculate R1 . R1= FESR = R 2 × VREF 10k Ω × 0.8V = = 32k Ω VOUT -VREF 1.05V-0.8V 1 2 × π × ESR × COUT 1 2 × π × 9m Ω × 2000uF = 8.8kHz = Choose R1=32kΩ. 2. Set R4 equal to 2.5kΩ. Case 2: FLC<FESR<FO(for electrolytic capacitors) 3. Calculate C2 with zero Fz1 at 75% of the LC Gain(db) double pole by equation (11). power stage FLC C2 = 40dB/decade 1 2 × π × FZ1 × R 4 1 2 × π × 0.75 × 2.4kHz × 2.5k Ω = 35nF = FESR Choose C2=33nF. loop gain 4. Calculate C 1 by equation (14) with pole F p2 at one third of the switching frequency. 20dB/decade C1 ≈ compensator 1 2 × π × R 4 × FP2 1 2 × π × 2.5k Ω × 66.7kHz ≈ 959pF ≈ FZ1 FZ2 FP1 FO FP2 Figure 19- Bode plot of Type III compensator (FLC<FESR<FO) If electrolytic capacitors are used as output capacitors, typical design example of type III compensator in which the crossover frequency is selected as FLC<FESR<FO and FO<1/10Fs is shown as the following steps. Here two SANYO MV-WF1000 with 18 mΩ is chosen as output capacitor, output inductor is 2.2uH, output voltage is 1.05V, switching frequency is 200kHz. 1. Calculate the location of LC double pole F LC and ESR zero FESR. FLC = = 5. Calculate R 3 with the crossover frequency F O at 15kHz. R3 = VIN ESR × R 4 × VOSC 2 × π × FO × L 9mohm × 2.5kΩ 2 × π × 15kHz × 1uH =1.08kΩ =10 × Choose R3=1.2kΩ. 6. Calculate C3 by equation (13) with Fp1 =FESR. C3 = 1 2 × π × FP1 × R3 1 2 × π × 8.8kHz × 1.2k Ω = 14nF = 1 2 × π × LOUT × COUT 1 2 × π × 2.2uH × 2000uF = 2.4kHz Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 Choose C1=1nF. Choose C3 =15nF. 7. Calculate R2 by setting compensator zero FZ2 at the LC double pole. 15 NX2141 R2 = 1 1 1 ×( − ) 2 × π × C3 FZ2 FP1 1 1 1 ×( − ) 2 × π × 15nF 2.4kHz 8.8kHz = 3.2k Ω = The following equations show the compensator pole zero location and constant gain. Gain=gm × Fz = Choose R2 =4kΩ. 8. Calculate R1 . R × VREF 4k Ω × 0.8V R1 = 2 = = 12.8k Ω VOUT -VREF 1.05V-0.8V Choose R1=12.7kΩ. R1 × R3 R1 +R 2 1 2 × π × R3 × C1 1 2 × π × R 3 × C2 Fp ≈ ...(15) ... (16) ... (17) Vout B. Type II compensator design R2 Fb If the electrolytic capacitors are chosen as power stage output capacitors, usually the Type II compensator can be used to compensate the system. gm R1 R3 Vref For this type of compensator, FO has to satisfy Ve C2 FLC<FESR<<FO<1/10Fs. C1 power stage Gain(db) Figure 21 - Type II compensator with transconductance amplifier 40dB/decade The following is parameters for type II compensa- loop gain tor design. Input voltage is 12V, output voltage is 2.5V, 20dB/decade output inductor is 2.2uH, output capacitors are two 680uF with 41mΩ electrolytic capacitors. 1.Calculate the location of LC double pole F LC and ESR zero FESR. compensator Gain FLC = 1 2 × π × L OUT × COUT 1 = FZ FLC FESR FO FP Figure 20 - Bode plot of Type II compensator Type II compensator can also be realized by simple RC circuit without feedback as shown in figure 15. R3 2 × π × 2.2uH × 1360uF = 2.9kHz FESR = 1 2 × π × ESR × COUT 1 2 × π × 20.5m Ω × 1360uF = 5.7kHz = and C1 introduce a zero to cancel the double pole effect. C2 introduces a pole to suppress the switching noise. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 16 NX2141 1.Set R2 equal to10kΩ. Using equation 18, the final selection of R1 is 4.7kΩ. 2. Set crossover frequency at 1/20 of the Vout R2 swithing frequency, here FO=10kHz. Fb 3.Calculate R3 value by the following equation. V 2 × π × FO × L 1 VOUT R3 = OSC × × × Vin RESR gm VREF 1 2 × π × 10kHz × 2.2uH 1 × × 10 20.5mΩ 2.5mA/V 2.5V × 0.8V =0.8kΩ R1 Vref Figure 22 - Voltage divider = R 2 × VR E F V O U T -V R E F ...(18) where R2 is part of the compensator, and the value Choose R3 =1kΩ. 4. Calculate C1 by setting compensator zero FZ at 75% of the LC double pole. 1 2 × π × R 3 × Fz C1 = R 1= 1 2 × π × 1k Ω × 0.75 × 2.9kHz =70nF = of R1 value can be set by voltage divider. Input Capacitor Selection Input capacitors are usually a mix of high frequency ceramic capacitors and bulk capacitors. Ceramic capacitors bypass the high frequency noise, and bulk capacitors supply switching current to the MOSFETs. Usually 1uF ceramic capacitor is chosen to decouple the Choose C1=68nF. high frequency noise.The bulk input capacitors are de- 5. Calculate C2 by setting compensator pole Fp cided by voltage rating and RMS current rating. The RMS at half the swithing frequency. C 2 = 1 π × R 3 × Fs 1 π × 1k Ω × 3 0 0 k H z =530pF = Choose C2=560pF. Output Voltage Calculation Output voltage is set by reference voltage and external voltage divider. The reference voltage is fixed at 0.8V. The divider consists of two ratioed resistors so current in the input capacitors can be calculated as: IRMS = IOUT × D × 1- D D= VOUT VINMIN ...(19) VINMIN = 8V, VOUT=1.05V, IOUT=10A, the result of input RMS current is 3.4A. For higher efficiency, low ESR capacitors are recommended. One Sanyo OSCON CAP 25SVP56M 25V 56uF 28mΩ with 3.8A RMS rating are chosen as input bulk capacitors. that the output voltage applied at the Fb pin is 0.8V when the output voltage is at the desired value. The following equation applies to figure 22, which shows the relationship between Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 VOUT , VREF and voltage divider.. 17 NX2141 Power MOSFETs Selection The NX2141 requires two N-Channel power This power dissipation should not exceed maximum power dissipation of the driver device. MOSFETs. The selection of MOSFETs is based on maximum drain source voltage, gate source voltage, Over Current Limit Protection maximum current rating, MOSFET on resistance and Over current Limit for step down converter is power dissipation. The main consideration is the power achieved by sensing current through the low side loss contribution of MOSFETs to the overall converter efficiency. For example, two IRF7822 are used in application. They have the following parameters: VDS=30V, ID MOSFET. For NX2141, the current limit is decided by =18A,RDSON =6.5mΩ,QGATE =44nC. the over current occurs. The over current limit can be There are two factors causing the MOSFET power Conduction loss is simply defined as: PHCON =IOUT × D × RDS(ON) × K ...(20) where the RDS(ON) will increases as MOSFET junction temperature increases, K is RDS(ON) temperature dependency. As a result, RDS(ON) should be selected for the worst case, in which K approximately equals to 1.4 at 125oC according to datasheet. Conduction loss should not exceed package rating or overall system thermal budget. ISET = 320mV 320mV = = 35A RDSON 1.4 × 6.5mΩ Layout Considerations The layout is very important when designing high frequency switching converters. Layout will affect noise pickup and can cause a good design to perform with less than expected results. There are two sets of components considered in the layout which are power components and small sig- Switching loss is mainly caused by crossover conduction at the switching transition. The total nal components. Power components usually consist of input capacitors, high-side MOSFET, low-side MOSFET, switching loss can be approximated. inductor and output capacitors. A noisy environment is 1 PSW = × VIN × IOUT × TSW × FS ...(21) 2 where IOUT is output current, TSW is the sum of TR and TF which can be found in mosfet datasheet, and FS is switching frequency. Swithing loss PSW is frequency dependent. Also MOSFET gate driver loss should be considered when choosing the proper power MOSFET. MOSFET gate driver loss is the loss generated by discharging the gate capacitor and is dissipated in driver circuits.It is proportional to frequency and is defined as: Pgate = (QHGATE × VHGS + QLGATE × VLGS ) × FS calculated by the following equation. The MOSFET RDSON is calculated in the worst case situation, then the current limit for MOSFET IRF7822 is 2 PTOTAL =PHCON + PLCON FET is on, and the voltage on SW pin is below 320mV, ISET = 320mV/R DSON loss:conduction loss, switching loss. PLCON =IOUT 2 × (1 − D) × RDS(ON) × K the RDSON of the low side mosfet. When synchronous ...(22) generated by the power components due to the switching power. Small signal components are connected to sensitive pins or nodes. A multilayer layout which includes power plane, ground plane and signal plane is recommended . Layout guidelines: 1. First put all the power components in the top layer connected by wide, copper filled areas. The input capacitor, inductor, output capacitor and the MOSFETs should be close to each other as possible. This helps to reduce the EMI radiated by the power loop due to the high switching currents through them. where QHGATE is the high side MOSFETs gate 2. Low ESR capacitor which can handle input RMS charge,QLGATE is the low side MOSFETs gate charge,VHGS ripple current and a high frequency decoupling ceramic is the high side gate source voltage, and VLGS is the low cap which usually is 1uF need to be practically touch- side gate source voltage. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 18 NX2141 ing the drain pin of the upper MOSFET, a plane connection is a must. 3. The output capacitors should be placed as close as to the load as possible and plane connection is required. 4. Drain of the low-side MOSFET and source of the high-side MOSFET need to be connected thru a plane ans as close as possible. A snubber nedds to be placed as close to this junction as possible. 5. Source of the lower MOSFET needs to be connected to the GND plane with multiple vias. One is not enough. This is very important. The same applies to the output capacitors and input capacitors. 6. Hdrv and Ldrv pins should be as close to MOSFET gate as possible. The gate traces should be wide and short. A place for gate drv resistors is needed to fine tune noise if needed. 7. Vcc capacitor, BST capacitor or any other bypassing capacitor needs to be placed first around the IC and as close as possible. The capacitor on comp to GND or comp back to FB needs to be place as close to the pin as well as resistor divider. 8. The output sense line which is sensing output back to the resistor divider should not go through high frequency signals. 9. All GNDs need to go directly thru via to GND plane. 10. The feedback part of the system should be kept away from the inductor and other noise sources, and be placed close to the IC. 11. In multilayer PCB, separate power ground and analog ground. These two grounds must be connected together on the PC board layout at a single point. The goal is to localize the high current path to a separate loop that does not interfere with the more sensitive analog control function. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 19 NX2141 MLPQ 16 PIN 3 x 3 PACKAGE OUTLINE DIMENSIONS NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS ARE DISPLAYED IN MILLIMETERS. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 20 NX2141 MLPQ 16 PIN 3 x 3 TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION NOTE: 1. R7 = 7 INCH LOCK REEL, R13 = 13 INCH LOCK REEL. 2. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE DISPLAYED IN MILLIMETERS. Rev. 1.6 05/15/07 21

- Similar pages
- MICROSEMI NX2307CSTR
- MICROSEMI NX2309CUTR
- MICROSEMI NX2113ACMTR
- MICROSEMI NX2415
- MICROSEMI NX2422CMTR
- MICROSEMI NX2139ACMTR
- MICROSEMI NX2138CMTR
- MICROSEMI NX2155HCUPTR
- TI TPS40061
- TI TPS40061
- SIPEX SP7650_05
- NX2141DS.pdf
- MICROSEMI NX2715CMTR
- MICROSEMI NX2124
- MICROSEMI NX2114
- MICROSEMI NX2305
- MICROSEMI NX2601CMTR
- TI CDCL1810RGZR
- FAIRCHILD FDS6688AS
- MICROSEMI NX2710CSTR
- TI ADS8519IDB
- TI BQ24450DWTR